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Unit 2 Manufacturing Materials Ch 3-5 R. Thomas Wright.

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1 Unit 2 Manufacturing Materials Ch 3-5 R. Thomas Wright

2 Manufacturing Changes resources into more useful products. – Hardware – Wood products – Metal products – Plastics – Glass – Ceramic – Medicine

3 Materials Used in Manufacturing Are derived from two sources – Organic Materials: Traced back to living things Coal, Petroleum, and Wood – Inorganic Materials: Non-living Ores and earth elements Copper, Gold, Aluminum, Glass, Cement, and Rock

4 Three States of Organic and Inorganic Materials Gases, Liquids, and Solids Non-Engineering Materials: are gases and liquids that must be confined in a container to hold shape. Engineering Materials: are solid materials that will hold their shape without outside support. – Engineering Materials are divided into four categories: Metallic Materials Polymeric Materials Ceramic Materials Composite Materials (Newest Form)

5 Metallic Materials Inorganic, crystalline substances with a wide range of physical and mechanical properties. Pure metals are usually not used in their raw state. They are converted Alloy: Mixture of two or more metals or inorganic materials. – Brass = copper + zinc

6 Metallic Materials Ferrous Metals Ferrous Metals are derived from iron and are composed of more than 90% iron and less than 10% induced carbon All ferrous metals are technically termed as Iron Carbon Alloys Steel is grouped into two categories – Carbon Steel – High Alloy Steel

7 Metallic Materials Ferrous Metals – Carbon Steel Carbon Steel: Most common form of steel where carbon is the major alloying element – Can have up to 1% Carbon (C) – No more than 1.65% Manganese (Mn) –.60% Silicon (Si) –.60% Copper (Cu)

8 Metallic Materials Ferrous Metals – Carbon Steel-Classification Carbon steel is classified by a numbering system and then divided into a specific class American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) numbering system (4 Digit System): – AISI 1030 = 1 (1 st digit) = Carbon (C) Steel 30 (Last 2 digits) = carbon (C) content in points or 1/100% – 30 x.01 =.30% carbon (C)

9 Metallic Materials Ferrous Metals – Carbon Steel-Classification AISI 1030 =.30% carbon (C) content.30% (C) and ↓ = Low Carbon Steel.30% (C) to.55% (C) = Medium Carbon Steel.55% (C) ↑ = High Carbon Steel

10 Metallic Materials Ferrous Metals – High Alloy Steel High Alloy Steels: Special steels alloyed with molybdenum, nickel, tungsten, or other elements. (Tool steel or high speed steel) – High-Speed or Tool Steel: generic name applied to all steels that hold their sharpness under high heat. Molybdenum, and tungsten resist the heat. – Stainless Steel: Iron-carbon-chromium-nickel alloyed steel. Chromium oxide on the surface level that resists corrosion.

11 Metallic Materials Non-Ferrous Metals Non-Ferrous: Metals that do not have iron as the main ingredient. – Aluminum: Bauxite ore converted into aluminum oxide. 99.3% pure and lightweight – Copper: 99.9% pure Brass = Copper and Zinc alloy Bronze = Copper-Tin or Copper-Aluminum Nickel Silver = Copper is 70% ingredient – Lead: Heavy and soft metal Toxic!!!!

12 Microstructure Microstructure: The way molecules and crystals are arranged in a material. Must be viewed under a microscope because the structure is so small – Determines what a material is

13 Properties Properties are traits or qualities that are specific to a material. – Determines what materials will be used for

14 Physical Properties Physical Properties: Characteristics that describe the size, density, or surface texture of a product. What one will see when they look at this material

15 Mechanical Properties Mechanical Properties: Characteristics that govern how a material will react to force or load. – Compression – Tension – Shear – Torsion

16 Chemical Properties Chemical Properties: How materials will react to different chemicals – Stainless Steel

17 Thermal Properties Thermal Properties: How materials will react to temperature

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