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Chapter 9 Music in Latin America Chapter by: Thomas Turino

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1 Chapter 9 Music in Latin America Chapter by: Thomas Turino
PowerPoint by: Sarah Pesi

2 An Andean Mestizo Fiesta in Paucartambo, Peru
Festival in Paucartambo, Peru (July 15-18) Honors Patron St. Virgen del Carmen Primary participants and patrons are Mestizos + others come to watch Tells different legends of the statute of the Patron St. Costume dance ensembles perform different roles: Chunchos (heroes+ Jungle Indians), Qollas (uncivilized outsiders), Saqros (devils + Europeans), Doctores (government and lawyers who exploit people), black slaves, malaria carriers, exploitive liquor traders, and young hippie tourist Around 12 dance mestizo ensemble perform each with their own band Music based on local genres, European style music, and a blend of both (Orquesta) Festival that takes place all throughout the streets

3 Sociocultural Heritages and Historical Background
Very diverse in culture and music Brazil contains three different groups in a single country- African cultural enclaves, European influences, and Amazonian influences Common historical experiences Iberian colonialism (16th century), contemporary nation-states (19th century), North American cultural and economic dominance (20th century), Iberian influence greatest- Spanish, Catholicism, and music Iberian combines with local for unique blends in each region Different cultures: Armenian highland, Native American, North America, African, European, mestizos 3 biggest- Mestizos, Native American, and African American

4 Mestizo Musical Values and Musical Style
Mestizo indicates a mix between European and local Native American blending of culture Most are sung in Spanish Style and mix of indigenous with European vary depending on region and even regions are very diverse Typical features include: Costumed dance, European stringed instruments, costumed dance, guitars (has the most guitars in the region), military band traditions, indigenous flutes and percussion, as well as modern north American instruments, European scales and harmony , parallel thirds, Strophic form, Iberian verse type, six-line stanzas, combinations of duple and triple rhythms, waltz time and jig time, sesquilteara, Three types of ensembles in Paucartambo- brass bands, side blown flute and drum ensembles, and orchestras typicas \ Major Pervuvian Genres: wayno, marinera, yaravi Wanyo and maneria are danced and yaravi is serious

5 Mestizo Musical Values and Musical Style (continued)
Faster pace genres: marinera, joropo (Venezuelan) , and Mexican son Mexico’s most important mestizo song-dance genre: the son One type of Mexican son is the jarocho which is what the 1950;’s Richie Valen “La Bamba” is based off of Peru and Southern Bolivia- use indigenous and Spanish language but Mexico like most other Latin American regions have more of a European influence and use only Spanish Types of Genres in Mexico: Jarocho, hausteca ensemble, mariachi groups ( became popular after Mexican Revolution and was inundated into popular culture+ Mexican cowboy is common dress now) , conjuntos nortenos (similar to North American country today), and marimba (Africa styles in music) Most Mestizo characteristic were adopted from Catholic missionaries

6 Native American Musical Values and Style
Native Americans in highland have interacted with Europeans and mestizos but maintained there own cultural distinctions Quechua and Amymara are the two major indigenous speakers/groups in Peru- Quechua are in the majority Emphasis on the importance of community life- group above self Agricultural so tied to the land and depend on each other Reciprocity, equalitarian relations, and community solidarity are core values Brass bands Different indigenous instruments for rainy season vs. dry season and some are played all year round String instruments were introduced by the Spanish Perform music for community+ intercommunity festivals, and celebration os life cycles as a community

7 Native American Musical Values and Style (Continued)
Festivals have some Catholic but hold there indigenous deities supreme Chrango holds a special place in Peruvian Native American culture Played as community – all men are allowed to play regardless of musical knowledge, nobody corrects musicians, women are segregated to singing and dancing only, there is no leader, some instruments are played together such as the panpipe , nobody is suppose to stand out but to “play as one”, collect brainstorming for new music and rehearsal with unique rules, some communities only play in groups but other groups play solos when by themselves Suya are lowland Indians in the Amazon they have different rituals from the highland Indians- For example: Suya focus more on vocals than wind instruments like the highland Indians, they have more solos and have every sing distinctive songs for there music blending, also have an ecological emphasis on animals whereas highlands focus on agriculture which is there environment \ Suya have a variety of vocal genres and also use some instruments Festivals are integral to both lowland and highland groups

8 African American Musical Values and Styles
African heritage has diffused into Latin America with the use of cyclical forms, call- and- response , interlocking melodic and percussion parts, and a dense overlapping of textures Marimba and also the currulao are examples of African styles whrer vocal style is similar to African Shona Instruments diffused include: African-styled drums, the musical bow, and varrious lamellaphones The Saramaka of Surinam is a runaway slave community that still keeps alive many African styles Many African religious traditions of African dieties, musical style and words of religious songs vary similar to Africa Afro – Brazilian culture includes Samba and the grassroots start-up of Samba schools and the Carnival in Rio

9 Pictures Photo upper left – Peruvian pipe playing band. Lower left- Carnival in Rio. Upper Right- Map of Latin America. Lower Right- Festival in Paucartambo, Peru . Images link and credits found in Resources

10 Resources MyMusicLab for Nettl, Excursions in World Music, 6e
LbaOVMKr7WA/TdQ7rpPbxWI/AAAAAAAACoM/3Og 7cpktV0c/s1600/P JPG pg mbo_virgen_del_carmen_2.jpg /newlatam.htm

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