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Getting down to the Brass Tacks: HISTORY of Asia, Africa, & Southwest Asia.

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Presentation on theme: "Getting down to the Brass Tacks: HISTORY of Asia, Africa, & Southwest Asia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Getting down to the Brass Tacks: HISTORY of Asia, Africa, & Southwest Asia

2 Europe Colonizes the World CAUSES OF EUROPEAN EXPLORATION Looking for new markets (people) to sell their manufactured good. Because of the Industrial Revolution, Europe is making more goods than ever before and they need to find more people to sell things to Looking to more natural resources to “feed” the factories back in Europe. More natural resources = more wealth Spread culture and religion PRIDE (who’s got the biggest Empire) Colonization/ to colonize Act of directly settling and ruling conquered territories Imperialism: Policy of Empire building; stronger countries gain control of weaker one politically and economically

3 European Colonization affect on Africa / “Scramble for Africa” The Scramble for Africa, between 1885 and 1910, resulted from European economic and political development. During this period, European countries divided the continent of Africa among themselves. These countries included Great Britain, France, Portugal, Spain, Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands. No major nation wanted to be without colonies. Colonies in Africa and Asia made the Europeans feel pride in their country European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries. It is important to understand how decisions made by European colonial powers in Africa, during the 1800s and 1900s, have influenced African countries of the 21st century. In 1946 British colonial authorities merged southern and northern Sudan into a single administrative region. The inhabitants of southern Sudan primarily practice Christianity and Traditional African religions. Northern Sudan is inhabited by Arab Muslims. Merging the citizens in the previously separate regions led to the first Sudanese civil war and subsequent political and ethnical strife. Based on the passage, what contributed to civil war in Sudan? A. Apartheid. B. Pan-African Movement. C. Artificial political borders. D. African Nationalist movement.

4 Ottoman Empire & WWI The Ottoman Empire began in 1299 in modern-day Turkey. The Empire grew and later included parts of Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe. This Empire had a golden age under many Sultans and spread Islam throughout their empire. However, the Empire slowly started to decline for 300 years after the death of their famous sultan Suleiman I in By the 20 th century, the Empire was weak and referred to as the “sick man of Europe.” The final blow to the Ottoman Empire was when the Ottoman Turks sided with the Central Powers (and lost) in WWI ( ). The Empire was divided between the Allies (winners of WWI) in the Treaty of Sevres. The Turkish Republic (modern-day) was created in Under the Treaty… British gained control of Palestine and Iraq France gained control of Lebanon and Syria

5 Collapse of Ottoman Empire The collapse of the Ottoman Empire has affected Southwest Asia’s development. This collapse created a lack of central authority in the region. When no regional power emerged, European countries stepped in to establish order in the region. The European countries established borders that did not exist previously; these boundaries, did not and do not necessarily reflect natural divisions within the region. The partitioning of the Middle East blended different groups. This artificial blending has served as another source of conflict both within parts of the region and between some countries in the region and western nations. How did European involvement in Southwest Asia impact the region after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire? A. Many Europeans emigrated to Southwest Asia. B. Countries in Southwest Asia modeled their governments on European governments. C. Political borders were decided by European powers without consideration of the political and historic connections in the region. D. European powers presence in Southwest Asia established a long period of peace and improved relations with non-Muslim western nations. How is the European involvement after the break up of the of Ottoman similar to the European colonization in Africa? Both created artificial political borders that will cause ethnic/religious conflict after independence.

6 WWII WORLD WAR II ( ) & the Holocaust As part of Hitler’s plan to conquer the world, he began the systematic killing of every Jew – man, woman, and child – under Nazi rule. This planned mass murder is called genocide. The Nazis imprisoned Jews in certain sections of cities, made them wear special identifying arm bands, and separated them from their families. This was only the beginning. The Nazis built concentration camps and sent Jews from the cities to these camps. Many were immediately herded into showers, which were nothing more than gas chambers that could kill as many as 2,000 people at a time. Thousands more died from forced labor, little food, and exposure to the summer heat and winter cold. By the end of WWII, more than 6 million Jews were dead. While Jews were the largest group of Hitler’s victims, they were not the only group persecuted during the Holocaust. Hitler targeted anyone he felt was inferior: the mentally ill, the disabled, political prisoners, homosexuals, and gypsies. When the Allies gained control of the camps at the end of WWII, the survivors of the Holocaust had no place to go. Many had no living family members, and were trapped in the country of their oppressors. The United Nations divided Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state, Israel.

7 Affects of WWII – Rebuilding of Japan Rebuilding of Japan after WWII After WWII, the USA occupied Japan under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur. The goal of the occupation and rebuilding of Japan is similar to the Marshall Plan that was rebuilding many nations in Europe at the same time. World leaders had learned their lesson after WWI; the economic devastation in Germany after WWI lead to the rise of Hitler. The reasons for the U.S. decided to rebuild Japan following World War II include economic reasons and the fact the U.S. was also concerned about the emergence of a Communist-controlled China. The USA believed that the social, political, and economic conditions that allowed for the extreme militaristic colonial empire of Japan to exist had to be destroyed. Under the treaty, Japan gave up its former colonies to the USA, USSR, and China, the Emperor was stripped of his power, a constitutional monarchy was created with a constitution that mirrors the constitution of United States. In addition, Japan was able to overcome the economic devastation and rebuild their infrastructure in extremely quickly – this is referred to as the “Japanese Economic Miracle.” What role did the U.S. play in rebuilding Japan after World War II? A. Provided free loans. B. Helped rebuild Japan’s army. C. Required Japan to pay war damages. D. Developed a plan to help Japan’s economy recover. Article 9 of Japan’s constitution states that Japan would never again be the aggressors in war and can no longer use its land, sea, or air forces to settle international disputes. Why do you think that this was included in the constitution? Japan does not wish to be involved in another war after the devastation it suffered during and after WWII

8 Affects of WWII – Creation of Israel There are four reasons why the modern state of Israel was established. __anti-Semitism__ (Anti-Jewish feelings or actions) In the 1800s and the early 1900s, anti-Semitism was on the rise. Jewish people in Europe were being discriminated against by individuals, harassed by racist laws, and irrationally blamed for many problems in Europe. _zionism__ (a desire for a Jewish Homeland). In response to this growing hatred in Europe, the Zionist movement in Europe began to grow. Many Jews want to create a safe homeland for Jews in the ancient land of Palestine. In 1917, after the Balfour Declaration by Great Britain, many Jews began to immigrate to Palestine. Many Arabs in the region did not support Zionism and were weary of the British support of Zionism. __Jewish religious connection to the land. Why Palestine? Because that was the homeland of the Jewish people before the destruction of the second Temple and the exile (Diaspora) of the Jewish people around 70AD. _Holocaust_ - murder of an estimated six million Jews and five million others by Nazi Germany Why would the Holocaust during WWII cause many people including non- Jewish people to support Zionism? Jews need a safe place to live after what happened to them during the Holocaust.

9 Affects of WWII – Creation of Israel Beginning of the Palestinian/Israeli Conflict After WWI, the British had control of Palestine after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. As more and more Jewish people moved into Palestine, tensions with the Arabs increased and clashes became more violent and more frequent. The British, frustrated with the fighting and trouble, turned control of the mandate (like a colony) over to the newly created United Nations after WWII. A plan was devised to divide Palestine into two nations; a Palestinian State and a Jewish State. Palestinians and other Arabs in the region were furious; however the plan had support from the UN, British and the USA. The nation of Israel was declared on May 14, 1948 and the next day Israel was at war with its neighboring countries. Israel won the war and took over much of the land given to the Arabs by the UN, but Israel has had to fight numerous wars since and tensions in the region between Israel and its Arab neighbors are still high. Today many Palestinians live in the Gaza Strip or the West Bank and wish to create their own nation again. See your SWA unit 2 notebook for more details or your tiny book. At the root of many conflicts in the Middle East is a religious issue concerning historical ownership of the land. This issue centers around who A. settled there first B. was promised the land by God C. won the Battle of Armageddon D. established the city of Jerusalem What actions did the United Nations take as a result of the Holocaust? A.Divided Palestine and Germany B.Defeated Hitler and freed the Jews C.Helped the Jews find jobs and shelter D.Created a Jewish state and made genocide a crime

10 Communism Simply put, communism is the idea that everyone in a given society receives equal shares of the benefits derived from labor. Communism is designed to allow the poor to rise up and attain financial and social status equal to that of the middle-class landowners. In order for everyone to achieve equality, wealth is redistributed so that the members of the upper class are brought down to the same financial and social level as the middle class. Communism also requires that all means of production be controlled by the state. In other words, no one can own his or her own business or produce his or her own goods because the state owns everything. In reality, communist nations end up with poor economies, few personal freedoms, and dictators. Mao Zedong & Communism in China Mao Zedong OR Chairman Mao– leader of the Communist Party during and after the Chinese Civil War, dictator of China from 1949 until his death in 1976 Communist revolution in China – ending in 1949 – Communist forces lead by Mao defeat the nationalist (democratic) army of Chang Kia-Shek. Nationalist flee to the Island of Taiwan and Mao establishes the Communist Dictatorship in China. Great Leap Forward – 1958 – a series of policies Mao thought would help China to become equal to the leading powers of the West (USA, Canada, Western Europe) in agricultural and industrial production. However, this was a massive failure because it resulted in a famine that killed millions of Chinese people. See current notebook for more details. What is the theme that ties The Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and Tiananmen Square Massacre together? A. Mao Zedong led each of them. B. Improvements to China’s economy were a result. C. They all led to fewer freedoms for people of China.* D. They all led to more opportunities for people of China Cultural Revolution –1966 – Mao believed that there was still a gap between the peasants of China and the educated elite in the larger cities. Citizens were encouraged to write editorials, articles, and make posters speaking out against anyone who was not seen as a good communist. Foreign ideas and old cultural ideas were frowned upon. Many innocent people were killed during this time and it is remembered a time of chaos and suspicion in China. See current notebook for more details. Tiananmen Square – 1989 – Peaceful protest of college students wanting more personal freedoms and democracy from the government. Ended with the government using military force and killing many students. See current notebook for more details.

11 New Nations of the 20 th Century / Independence Movements of Africa NATIONALISM – a desire for your country to be independent / self-rule Nationalism leads to _independence. PAN-AFRICANISM Definition The Pan-African movement began in the late 1800s as a philosophy emphasizing the common bond shared by people of African descent and advocating unity among African people. It is sometimes applied to black Africans, to all black people throughout the world, and/or to all people living on the African continent. African Nationalism From 1900 to 1945, most Pan-Africanists, with the notable exception of Marcus Garvey, were black intellectuals from the United States, the Caribbean, and Europe or affluent black Africans studying abroad in Europe and the Americas. After WWII, these young black leaders began to organize influential groups of black Africans. Some of the groups attending Pan-African conferences in Europe developed nationalist movements in their colonies and fought for independence. Independence Some of the most influential Pan-Africanists rose to become president of newly independent African countries. This is true for Kenyatta in Kenya and Nkrumah in Ghana. The Pan- African movement led to the development of a loose organization of African states known as the African Union. In some parts of Africa, the people ruled by European colonial powers began to develop a strong sense of nationalism. This nationalism helped some countries in Africa become independent: it is important to be able to explain the role of nationalism in the independence of South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria.

12 New Nations of the 20 th Century / Independence Movements of Africa Which of these was the result of the nationalist movement in countries like Nigeria and Kenya? A. poverty B. illiteracy C. independence D. the spread of AIDS The purpose of the Pan African Movements in Africa is to A. Develop a unified region. B. Create one African language. C. Create one African Government. D. Develop a unified political identity. When did most African nations gain independence? , but most in the 1960s How did European Partitioning of Africa during colonization led to problems after independence? Artificial political borders will lead to ethnic violence and unstable governments How were most of the leaders after independence removed from office? Why it that bad? Ousted by force; it is not a democracy because one dictator is being over thrown by another (unstable and corrupt governments)

13 New Nations of the 20 th Century / Independence Movements of Asia What role did Gandhi play in the in the end of British rule? (include his non-violent philosophy in your answer) What are the three things Gandhi is remembered for? 1. Founder of the non-violent non-cooperation movement 2. Leader of India’s independence movement 3. End discrimination by gender and caste Why were Muslim Indians in support of the creation of a new nation? didn’t want rule by the Hindu-dominated Congress What nations were created in order for India to gain its independence? India, Pakistan (East Pakistan will become Bangladesh after a civil war in the 1970s)

14 Cold War & US Involvement in Asia Korean WarVietnam War When: USA got involved after the French defeat n 1954, troops on the ground in 1965, USA left in War ended in Why: stop the spread of communism (Cold War) N. Korea invaded the South stop the spread of communism (Cold War) Was communism contained? yesno Key people/events:President Truman President Eisenhower General D. MacArthur Kim Il-Sung President Johnson President Nixon Ho Chi Minh Outcome: border stayed at the 38 th and South Korea is a strong democracy Vietnam was reunited as one communist country How do you think nationalism played a role in the independence movement in Vietnam ?

15 South Africa & Apartheid What role did Nelson Mandela and F.W. De Klerk play in the evolution of Apartheid in South Africa? A. They created apartheid. B. They enhanced apartheid. C. They helped maintain apartheid. D. They worked to abolish apartheid. Steps Mandela took to end Apartheid… Led the ANC Prison for 27 years Negotiated with the National Party leaders and others Helped to write the new constitution Steps de Klerk took to end Apartheid… Released Mandela from prison Lifted the ban on the ANC Negotiated with the ANC leaders and others Helped to write the new constitution Why? / Motivation to end Apartheid? gain equal rights for all South Africans didn’t want a war/violence Why? / Motivation to end Apartheid? political and economic pressure didn’t want a war/violence

16 US Involvement in SWA Persian Gulf WarUS Invasion of AfghanistanUS Invasion of Iraq When: ongoing Why: Iraq invaded Kuwait Remove Taliban government from Afghanistan after it was linked to the terrorist attacks on 9/11 and bin Laden Leader of Iraq was suspected of having weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and the USA was afraid that he would give them to terrorist groups Who: President George HW Bush Saddam Hussein Coalition Forces President George W Bush Coalition Forces Osama bin Laden (leader of al-Qaeda) President George HW Bush Saddam Hussein Outcome: Iraqi forces were forced from Kuwait Saddam stays in power Taliban removed from power but our troops are still fighting the insurgents and trying to create a stable, democratic government Saddam removed from power New government established in Iraq (democracy) Why would the USA be involved in conflicts in SWA ? oil


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