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Air Transportation The “Little Iceage” Increased mining Vacuum pumps Steam engines Explosive gas mixtures Four stroke engine Electronic ignition Petroleum.

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Presentation on theme: "Air Transportation The “Little Iceage” Increased mining Vacuum pumps Steam engines Explosive gas mixtures Four stroke engine Electronic ignition Petroleum."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Transportation The “Little Iceage” Increased mining Vacuum pumps Steam engines Explosive gas mixtures Four stroke engine Electronic ignition Petroleum discovery Mercedes automobile Wright Brothers

2 13-19 th Century- “Little Ice Age” Lack of sun spots or increased volcanic activity. Ice age ends in 1850. Chimney replaced the central hearth in large hall. Increased class separation, productivity, intellectual activities, privacy, hygiene, plaster and glass manufacturing.

3 1564 - Shortage of Copper in England Increased mining activity. Used charcoal from timber for heat source.

4 1615 – Acute timber crisis Coal burning ‘Reverberatory Furnace’ for glass manufacturing. Increased mining for Copper and Coal.

5 1707 – Iron factory Used ‘Reverberatory Furnace’ with modified draught and cleaner coal ‘coke.’ The new blast furnace dropped the price of iron and displaced expensive brass. 1722 used to replace brass cylinders in Newcomen’s pumping engine.

6 Coal Anaerobic - in the absence of air Formed by anaerobic decomposition of plant material under heat and pressure for millions of years.

7 Coke Soft Bituminous coal is heated anaerobically (1000 o C or 1800 o F) to make coke and give off water, coal gas and coal tar Coke is highly porous, burns cleaner than coal, contains more energy/mass and burns hotter than coal.

8 1705 - Newcomen Engine Borrowed steam engine technology from Guericke, Papin and Savery’s ‘Miners Friend.’ Single piston that was cooled with water every cycle (an accidental innovation). Employed new rocking beam. Made of iron instead of expensive brass.

9 Steam Condensation Experiment Heating a partially full water bottle in microwave. Rapid condensation in cold water. Watch

10 Newcomen Engine

11 Metal alloys Alloys are metal mixtures Brass is 55-60% Copper (Cu) with Zinc (Zn) and traces of Mn and Fe. Bronze is 78-95% Copper with Tin (Sn) and sometimes traces of Pb or Zn. This was the first copper alloy, used over 5,300 years ago.

12 1769 – Watt’s Separate Condenser Steam Engine In 1769 James Watt patented his improved steam engine using a separate condenser which eventually led to steam pressure to move the piston in both directions. Was 75% more efficient than Newcomen’s. This engine needed more precise pistons to eliminate water seal.

13 Watt’s Separate Condenser Separate condenser Separate steam cylinder

14 Watt’s Double Acting Steam Engine Watt originally patented W. Murdock ’ s idea but did not act on it. He claimed it ’ s too dangerous. In 1801, Richard Trevithick made the first steam locomotive.

15 “Puffing Devil” 1801 Later Matthew Murray produced the first commercially successful steam locomotives (1812), much to ire of James Watt. History of steam engines “ Catch-me-who-can ” carnival ride in 1808 went 12 mph.

16 Glasgow Green “ Near this spot in 1765 james Watt conceived the idea for the separate condenser for the steam engine. ”

17 1775-Wilkinson’s cylinder- boring machine. The trigger for Wilkinson’s precision cylinder boring lathe was the need for more precise cannons. Turned metal ingot on a stationary cutting tool. This also provided the precision cylinders Watt demanded.

18 1775 – Joseph Priestley’s Eudiometer Since his brother-in- law was Wilkinson he had all the metal cylinders he needed. Electrostatic combustion cylinder. Volta’s eudometric pistol

19 1840 – Whale oil shortage Whales nearly extinct in N. Atlantic forces whaling in N. Pacific. 1859 Ed Drake discovered oil at Oil creek, Pennsylvania. Gasoline was a nuisance byproduct. 1876 Nikolaus Otto’s four-stroke engine which used town gas.

20 Petroleum Arguably produced from the slow anaerobic decomposition of marine organisms, over millions of years. Natural gas comes from anaerobic decomposition of either plant or marine life. It is the most efficient petrochemical fuel.

21 The Four Stroke Engine 1, piston moves down pulling air/fuel into the cylinder. 2, The piston moves up compressing the fuel/air mixture. 3, Compressed fuel/air is exploded pushing the piston down (power stroke). 4, The piston move up eliminating the exhaust from the cylinder.

22 1892 – Maybach’s float-type carburetor Improved technology over older atomizer or wick carburetors circ. 1875 1900 -Daimler used Maybach’s carburetor and Volta’s electric spark ignition by Bosch.Bosch 1901-Wilhelm Kress’s failed airplane attempt. 1903- Wright Brothers

23 Venturi As air passes through the Venturi it accelerates while its pressure drops. Pressure drop used to pull gasoline into the air. Improvement to Maybach’s carburetor in 1900. Gas and air exit in turbulent flow which mixes them.

24 ‘Making nuclear power usable again’ International supervision and control is necessary were using nuclear technology. 239 Pu is a byproduct of Uranium nuclear reactors and is fissionable material.

25 ‘Chernobyl Today.’ Significant increase in pediatric thyroid cancer due to 131 I. Concerns for FukushimaFukushima Hugh economic burden on Belarus and Ukraine Slight increase in leukemia among cleanup crews.

26 California’s Energy Production

27 What you should know The four strokes of the 4- stroke engine. The Venturi principle. The connection between volta’s pistol and the carburetor. Difference between coal and coke. The operation of Necommen’s & Watt’s engines. Slide #21 #23 #22 #6-7 #10 & 12-13

28 What you should know What is an alloy What is bronze and brass. How are they different. What is one radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl & Fukushima accidents. Difference between aerobic and anaerobic processes. How is crucible steel made. What is its connection to glass making? Differential coal & petroleum #11 mixture of metals #11 #25 Iodine-131 #6 Anaerobic - no air Recycled steel melted at high temperatures. Plants & marine #6 & #20

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