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Chapter 3 The Structures of Music

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1 Chapter 3 The Structures of Music
Musical Instruments

2 Key Terms Instrument families Percussion instruments
Stringed instruments Bow pizzicato Woodwind instruments Single-reed Double-reed Brass instruments Percussion instruments Pitched Unpitched Keyboard instruments Action Stops Plucked stringed instruments

3 Key Terms Orchestra Orchestral seating plan Strings Woodwinds Brass

4 Key Terms Stringed instruments Brass instruments Violin Viola Cello
Bass viol Harp Brass instruments Trumpet French horn Trombone Tenor trombone Bass trombone Tuba

5 Key Terms Woodwind instruments Oboe Bassoon Flute Saxophone Recorder
Piccolo Alto flute Bass flute Recorder Clarinet E-flat clarinet Bass clarinet Oboe English horn Bassoon Contrabassoon Saxophone Alto saxophone Tenor saxophone

6 Key Terms Pitched percussion instruments
Timpani Glockenspiel Xylophone Marimba Vibraphone Celesta Tubular bells Unpitched percussion instruments Cymbals Triangle Tam-tam Snare drum Tenor drum Bass drum

7 Key Terms Keyboard instruments Plucked stringed instruments Piano
Harpsichord Clavichord Organ Pipe organ Electronic keyboard instruments Synthesizer Plucked stringed instruments Guitar Mandolin Lute Theorbo Archlute Electric guitar

8 Stringed Instruments A bow strung with horsehair “scrapes” against a string The string’s vibration is carried via the bridge to the instrument’s body The hollow body amplifies the sound The left hand “stops” the string at different locations, changing the length of the vibrating string Longer string = lower pitch Shorter string = higher pitch

9 Stringed Instruments Different bow strokes create different dynamics and articulations: Legato Staccato Player can play a melody on one string at a time, or play chords on two or more strings simultaneously Player can also pluck the strings: Pizzicato

10 Violin Family Violin (“soprano/alto” range)
Versatile, can be forceful or delicate, brilliant or songlike Four strings tuned in fifths Held horizontally under chin Player can stand or sit

11 Violin Family Viola (“tenor” range)
Mellow, “throaty” quality, but can also be powerful and intense Four strings tuned in fifths Held horizontally under chin Player can stand or sit

12 Violin Family Cello (“bass” range) Rich, gorgeous, singing tone
Four strings tuned in fifths Instrument stands vertically on the floor Seated player leans neck back toward left shoulder, holds body between the knees

13 Bass Viol Very low “bass” range Deep, mellow, “chocolate” sound
Four strings tuned in fourths Instrument stands vertically on the floor Player stands behind it (or sits on a tall stool) More often called string bass, double bass, or just bass Usually bowed in classical music, usually plucked in jazz

14 Harp Concert harp has 47 strings, covers six and a half octaves
Strings correspond to white keys on keyboard: one string for each letter name Seven pedals add sharps and flats e.g., the A pedal can raise or lower all A strings by a half step Normally plucked; glissando a popular special effect

15 Woodwind Instruments Tube-shaped instruments; may be straight, bent, or curved Players blow into tube via a mouthpiece Sounds result from vibrations in the column of air inside the tube Players open or close holes bored along the length of the tube, in effect shortening or lengthening the air column Longer air column = lower pitch Shorter air column = higher pitch

16 Flute Family Long cylindrical tube held horizontally
Mouthpiece an open hole on the side Players set air column vibrating by blowing across the mouthpiece Like tooting on a Coke bottle, but more sophisticated Elaborate key mechanism opens and closes holes in tube

17 Flute Family Instruments
Flute (“soprano” range) Extremely agile; can sound gentle or piercing Piccolo (very high “soprano” range) Alto flute (“alto” range) Bass flute (“tenor/bass” range) Recorder family Old family of flutes held vertically Player blows into mouthpiece at the top Fingers cover holes directly; no keys

18 Single-Reeds A flat piece of cane reed is fastened to the mouthpiece
Mouthpiece is attached to the top of the instrument Blowing into the thin hole between reed and mouthpiece forces reed to vibrate; this makes air column in tube vibrate as well Elaborate key mechanism opens and closes holes in tube

19 Single-Reed Instruments
Clarinet family Clarinet (“soprano/alto” range) Rich, flexible, almost vocal sound Can sound warm and mellow or shrill and strident Slightly conical tube with narrow bell at end Held vertically

20 Single-Reed Instruments
Clarinet family E-flat clarinet (high “soprano” range) Often used for its shrill, piercing sound Short, slightly conical tube with narrow bell at end Bass clarinet (“bass” range) Deep, rich, mellow sound Very long, slightly conical tube is bent forward at the bottom with a flaring, narrow bell at the end

21 Single-Reed Instruments
Saxophone family Invented by Adolphe Sax in early 1800s Similar to clarinet family Single reed fastened to a mouthpiece Several important differences Wider tube, made of brass, not wood More mellow yet more forceful sound Tube is bent back at mouthpiece, forward at its wide, flaring bell Often held diagonally across lap

22 Single-Reed Instruments
Saxophone family instruments Alto saxophone Tenor saxophone The two most common saxophones Soprano saxophone Straight tube, held like clarinet Baritone saxophone

23 Double-Reeds Mouthpiece consists of two pieces of cane reed lashed together Mouthpiece is inserted into hole at top of instrument Blowing into mouthpiece forces reeds to vibrate against each other; this makes air column in tube vibrate as well Elaborate key mechanism opens and closes holes in tube

24 Double-Reed Instruments
Oboe (“soprano” range) Straight tube with narrow bell at end Held vertically English horn (“alto” range) Slightly longer straight tube with narrow, bulbous bell

25 Double-Reed Instruments
Bassoon (“tenor/bass” range) Very long tube folded back against itself at bottom end Held across the lap at an angle Mouthpiece inserted into a curved bocal Contrabassoon (very low “bass” range)

26 Brass Instruments All use long tubes, often coiled
Small, cup-shaped mouthpiece is inserted into the end of the horn Player holds mouthpiece to the mouth and buzzes lips Lip vibrations force the air column inside the tube to vibrate Players control pitch by changing tube length and “buzzing” speed Faster = higher pitch; Slower = lower pitch

27 Brass Instruments Trumpet (“soprano” range)
Bright, strong, piercing tone Long cylindrical tube, bent in several places with small, flared bell Three valves used to change tube length

28 Brass Instruments French horn (“alto/tenor” range)
Lower, mellower, “thicker” tone Can sound mysterious, romantic, or heroic Longer conical tube in coils with very wide, flared bell Valves used to change tube length Player holds instrument with hand in bell

29 Brass Instruments Trombone (“tenor/bass” range)
Sound can range from singing and “vocal” to hard and powerful Very long cylindrical tube with large, flared bell Slide mechanism used to change tube length Also used to create glissando effect

30 Brass Instruments Tuba Deep, full, mellow tone
Less agile than other brass instruments Extremely long conical tube with many coils and a very wide flared bell Valves used to change tube length Seated player holds instrument in lap

31 Other Brass Instruments
Cornet Like a trumpet, but conical tube makes it sound more mellow Flügelhorn Like a trumpet, but its larger size makes it sound deeper and more mellow Bugle Like a trumpet, but without valves

32 Other Brass Instruments
Euphonium Baritone horn Saxhorn All three are pitched somewhere between French horn and tuba Rich, mellow sound Sousaphone Portable, marching band version of tuba Player carries it slung over the shoulder, bell in the air

33 Percussion Instruments
Instruments that are struck, slapped, scraped, and so on Vibrating object may be a stretched membrane (a drumhead) or a solid or hollow piece of wood, metal, or plastic May play specific pitches (xylophone) or indefinite ones (bass drum) Percussion instruments can play louder and softer than any other family

34 Timpani Large, hemispherical (kettle-shaped) drums come in several sizes, used in groups of two or more Played with felt mallets Can be tuned to specific pitches Usually plays a bass line Player tunes drums with foot pedals (sometimes with screws) Greater tension = higher pitch Less tension = lower pitch

35 Pitched Percussion Usually a set of metal or wooden bars or plates tuned and arranged like a piano keyboard Bars can be struck with yarn, rubber, plastic, or metal mallets Metal bars sustain sound longer than wooden ones Colorful, distinctive sounds

36 Pitched Percussion Glockenspiel Xylophone Marimba
Small steel bars with brass mallets Bright, penetrating sound Xylophone Hardwood (or synthetic) bars with plastic mallets Dry, sharp tone Marimba Wooden (or synthetic) slats with yarn (or rubber) mallets Tubular resonators give it a mellow sound

37 Pitched Percussion Vibraphone Celesta Tubular bells (Chimes)
Metal plates with rubber (or yarn) mallets Tubular resonators give it a mellow sound Sustain pedal and “vibrato” device Celesta Bars like a glockenspiel, but played from a small keyboard; sounds like a music box Tubular bells (Chimes) Hollow hanging metal tubes struck with rolled horsehide mallet; sound like church bells

38 Unpitched Percussion Refers to any percussion instrument used to add a specific color, not to play a melody or bass line Includes drums: instruments with membranes (drumheads) stretched over one or both ends of a hollow, cylindrical frame Also includes various instruments made of solid or hollow metal or wood objects in a variety of different shapes

39 Unpitched Percussion Cymbals Triangle Tam-tam
Concave metal plates come in many sizes One can be suspended and played with mallets Pairs can be clapped together: a cymbal crash Triangle A rolled metal bar bent into a triangle shape Struck with a metal beater Tam-tam A large, round, flat metal plate Struck with a large lambs-wool beater

40 Unpitched Percussion Snare drum
A smaller double-headed drum with a metal or wooden frame Usually played with wooden snare drum sticks (metal brushes used for special effect) High-tension heads give the snare drum a sharp, dry sound Snares (tightly wrapped metal coils held against the bottom head of the drum) give the sound a sharp, metallic edge

41 Unpitched Percussion Tenor drum Bass drum
A larger, double-headed drum with wooden frame, played with snare sticks Lower tension and larger size gives the tenor drum a deeper, rounder sound than the snare drum Bass drum A very large, double-headed drum with wooden frame, played with large felt beater Low tension and large size give the bass drum a deep, rumbling sound

42 Orchestra Modern orchestra began to take shape in the 1600s (Baroque era) Basic format standardized by late 1700s (Classical era) Four instrument families in today’s symphony orchestra Strings Woodwinds Brass Percussion

43 Orchestra Strings 30-36 violins (divided into 1st and 2nd violin sections) 12 violas 10-12 cellos 8 double basses The heart of the orchestra, they often play continuously

44 Orchestra Woodwinds Used a bit less than strings, often to add color
2 flutes and piccolo 2 clarinets and bass clarinet 2 oboes and English horn 2 bassoons and contrabassoon Used a bit less than strings, often to add color

45 Orchestra Brass 2-3 trumpets 4 French horns 2-3 trombones and bass trombone 1 tuba Used less then strings or woodwinds, often to add power

46 Orchestra Percussion 1 to 4 players Percussionists play whatever instruments the score calls for, most often timpani Used less than strings, woodwinds, or brass, often for color or power

47 Orchestra

48 Keyboard Instruments Sound producing mechanism controlled from a keyboard Anywhere from 13 to 90+ keys Some have two or more keyboards Performers usually sit on a bench or stool to play traditional keyboard instruments; often stand to play modern keyboards Various means of producing sounds

49 Piano Invented early 1700s Keys activate hammers which strike piano strings—a percussion instrument! Requires great artistry to make it “sing” Originally called pianoforte (soft-loud) Player could change dynamics by pressing keys harder or softer Standard piano has 88 keys Foot pedals used for special effects Sustain, “soft” pedal, sostenuto

50 Early Keyboard Instruments
Harpsichord May have one or more keyboards Keys activate quills that pluck the strings—a plucked stringed instrument! Cannot change dynamics by pressing keys harder or softer Many have two complete sets of strings, one louder, one softer Players use “stops” or switch keyboards to play louder or softer Short sustain gives it a staccato feel

51 Early Keyboard Instruments
Clavichord Keys activate “tangents” that press against strings Since tangent stays in contact with string until key is released, player can bend the pitch by pressing harder or softer Since pressing harder or softer changes pitch as well as dynamics, only subtle dynamic changes are practical Delicate, subtle, expressive sound

52 Pipe Organ Most have two or more keyboards and a pedal board
Keys activate mechanism that releases air into organ pipes—a woodwind instrument! Each “stop” brings another set of pipes (rank) into play…and another tone color! Organists obtain thousands of colors (and change dynamics) by mixing stops in different ways

53 Electronic Keyboards Wide range of instruments available
At bottom end, keys with a few “cheesy” sounds At top end, sophisticated MIDI synthesizers with keys Keys serve as triggers that activate electronically-generated sounds Many have MIDI capability, a protocol that allows keyboard and computer to communicate

54 Electronic Keyboards Some important electronic keyboards
Electronic organs Popular from 1930s on, used in jazz and rock Electric piano Fender Rhodes popular in early jazz fusion Electronic keyboard Provides pre-programmed sounds: piano, harpsichord, organ, etc. Synthesizer

55 Electronic Keyboards Synthesizer
Invented in the 1950s, but not commercially viable until the 1960s Includes pre-programmed sounds Allows user to create and edit new electronic sounds from scratch Standard instrument for electronic music studios, recording studios, and so on Used in classical music since the 1950s Used in jazz and rock since the late 1960s

56 Plucked Strings Player uses right hand to pluck strings with fingers, fingernails, or “pick” The string’s vibration is carried via the bridge to the instrument’s body The hollow body amplifies the sound The left hand “stops” the string at different frets, changing length of vibrating string Longer string = lower pitch Shorter string = higher pitch

57 Plucked Strings Different “picking” patterns and styles create different tone colors, dynamics, and articulations Player can play a melody on one string at a time, or play chords on two or more strings simultaneously

58 Plucked Stringed Instruments
Acoustic Guitar Can sound gentle and delicate or sharp and percussive Six strings tuned in fourths (and a third) Strings made of nylon (classical guitar) or steel (folk guitar) Classical guitar held across lap; player sits Player uses a shoulder strap to hold a folk guitar; player can stand or sit Used for centuries in classical, popular, and folk music

59 Plucked Stringed Instruments
Other acoustic instruments Mandolin Small, pear-shaped with 4 strings & frets Lute Pear-shaped with 6 to 11 strings & frets Archlute Enhanced lute with extra bass strings Theorbo Large bass lute with extra bass strings

60 Plucked Stringed Instruments
Electric guitar Can sound gentle and delicate or ear-splittingly loud, searing, and virtuosic Usually tuned same as acoustic guitar Strings made of steel Vibrating strings picked up by transducers, resulting electronic impulses run through amplifiers Held with a shoulder strap Used primarily in rock and jazz

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