Presentation on theme: "Leaving Certificate Music"— Presentation transcript:
1Leaving Certificate Music THE BEATLESIt was 40 years ago today……..!
2The AlbumGave the audience a lot more than just the songs – they also got:Two continuous sides of musicThe definite feel of a live performance with all the “extra” audience soundsMixture of styles – classical to Indian raga!Printed song lyricsAn kaleidoscope of colours on the front cover with the best “audience” collected in historyA cut out moustache along with stripes and a badgeA 41 piece orchestra on a Pop recordReally encourage all the students to listen to the full album – the songs are really brilliantThe opening pages in the student booklet will give a sufficient over view of what the group and album are about.
3There are 3 Beatles songs for study: Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts ClubShe’s Leaving HomeWhen I’m 64These songs are the prescribed courseThey vary widely – Sgt Pepper is a rock songShe’s Leaving home is a classical song similar to any love song of SchubertWhen I’m 64 has all the feel of a jazz vamp
4Syllabus requirements All Levels! Understand, identify and describe the range of musical features usedStudy its musical style and place it in its historical contextAnalyse and Describe patterns of repetition and change within the musicExplain that students need to know the songs in question but also the context of Pop music of the late 60s especially how the Beatles as a group were trying to function at that time. Arthur Sealys textbook has plenty of information for this ! ( can we plug a book?????)The study of the songs will enable students to contextualise the importance of The Beatles in relation to the other set works. There are many comparisons with Mozart, Berlioz and DeaneAnalysis is given in the book of notes for this course. Remember it is only my thoughts on these songs and is not exhaustive and open to interpretation! We all need to study these songs and not just regurgitate!!
5And also for Higher Level……. To make Comparative Judgements about musicTo evaluate Interpretation and Performance in the light of experience already attained.Comparative judgements can be between certain sections of an individual song or between 2 different songs.It can also mean comparison between another set work e.g type of harmony used by Mozart and The Beatles !!Evaluating interpretation means 2 different versions of the same song e.g instrumental version and a vocal one.
6So what do I have to know? The album- dates Concept idea What makes it different?General overview of the types of songs on the album.As with all the setworks a thoroughknowledge of eachset song is importantas examiners aremost adept at askinganything of interest!The album – details days and 700 hours to produce –released in 1967Sgt pepper – cockney slang for salt and pepper.Group decided that since people no longer listened to a live performance then lets put a “live” performance on a record.General Overview – so many fabulous songs to refer to e.g track 1 side 2 within You without you ( indian raga) or Track 4 side 1 Getting Better ( prepared Piano )What makes it different is the amazing variety of types of songs as well as the myriad of detail in the actual production of this album.General overview – refer to page xx of student booklet.
7What Kind of questions am I asked? InstrumentationStructure e.g. Verse, chorusKeysTexturesChord patternsLyrics – word paintingProduction TechniquesShes Leaving …. String nonet and harp64 – 2 clar and bass clar with bass and lead guitar and drumsSgt Pepper – Bass, lead guitar, drum kit and 4 French Horns !!Structure – stress each song is different though there is a verse chorus type structure prevalent.Keys – example Sgt Pepper is in G majorTexture e.g polyphonic texture chorus she s leaving homeOpening chord sequences in chorus Sgt PepperWonderful lyrics – “shes leaving home after living alone after all of these years”Use of band sounds at opening of album – a live band sound.Multi tracking, over dubs etc!
8What Kind of questions am I asked? Differences between individual verses in particular She’s Leaving homeCorrect identification of each song and individual parts e.g. Sgt Pepper bridge sectionBe able to identify and insert missing notes and chordsI use this song as an example of the clever use of instruments in such a simple melodic line . Just investigate how the instrumentation is used in each successive verseThis is a continual problem when correcting exams – students not labelling sections of music correctly.The perennial problem of learning themes – it has to be done.
9Examples of Syncopation, Chromaticism, etc – standard “classical” terminology also applies to these songsJust because this is “pop” music we should not underestimate the tremendous musicianship of this groupImportant for study of set works but also for the aural skills question as this terminology pervades the whole exam paper and can pose particular difficult for Ordinary level studentsTricky one but there is still a view that The Beatles and Bohemian Rhapsody is not “proper” music – please dispel this myth!
10Analysis (1) Sergeant Peppers Hearts Club Band. IntroVerse 1Brassinterlude 1MiddleInterlude2Verse 2link4 bars8 bars5 bars12 bars1-45-1213-1718-2930 -34This is a simple template to illustrate the overall structure of the song. Students should learn the terminology above.
11Analysis Sergeant Pepper (2) IntroductionInitial sounds of audience in a concert hall!Four bar instrumental with tune on lead guitarVerse 1Homophonic texture4 x 2 bar phrasesKey centres around GRepeated notes 1st 2 bars made up of just 2 notesSame chords as introSelf explanatory !Repeated notes are g and F#
12Sergeant Pepper (3) Brass interlude 1 4 French horns – London Philharmonic OrchestraPolyphonic TextureKey around GGet students to answer this question – This is the first brass interlude, expalin what happens here.Problem here is that they are told it is the interlude so question requires answer like…..There are 4 french horns.The key is F majorThe texture is polyphonicThe use of the french horn is unsual.
13Sergeant Peppers (4) Middle Section – Longest Section Interlude Refrain – We’re Sergeant …….Vocal line rhythm is doubled in length i.e., semiquavers become quavers!2/3 part harmoniesDescending D7 arpeggio on hornsTypical pop hook used – catchy tune to grab your audience!InterludeChords as for Brass interludeVocalsHorns now a sustained dotted minim moving to quaversImportant sectionUse of augmentationArpeggios played by French hornsPop Hook – expression used in the business to describe a part of a song that initially grabs the audience. Just think of the mandatory modulation in a euro vision song !!!!
14Sergeant Peppers (5) Verse 2 Homophonic texture Key centres around G 4 x 2 bar phrasesRepeated notesSame chords as introLinkSimilar to brass interludeChords of C D E linking to With a little help from my friendsQuickly go thro, this – it’s the same as verse 1
15Arrangement – George Martin Analysis ‘64Recorded Dec 1966Arrangement – George MartinStructureIntroVerse1Bridge1Verse2Bridge2Verse3CodaBar1-45-6A 7-14BC 23-30D 31-39AB 48-55C 56-63D 64-72A 73-80B 81-8889 -92Useful template (I hope its right!!!!)
16’64 (2) Intro – Fabulous use of 2 clarinets and 1 bass clarinet. ’64 (2)Intro – Fabulous use of 2 clarinets and 1 bass clarinet.Piano Vamp – (not part of Pop music)Really Jazz combo here!Such a great contrast to the previous trackRelatively self explanatory although the previous track was “Within you without You” basically an indian raga tune
17’64 (3) Verse 1 4 bar phrases A-B-A1-C Effective use of Chromatic notesC phrase – Harmonic sequence Ab-C-A7-D-G-C but with the added notes for colour.Homophonic TextureAugmentation “will you still ..” “birthday greeting…”Relatively simple – students should familiarise themselves with the use of chromatic notes get a guitarist in class to strum the plain chords then play the actual piano ones so that all can hear the difference the chromatic notes make!Augmentation quavers become crotchets
18’64 (4) Bridge 1 Begins in Am (relative minor) Melody less syncopated Much higher register usedAlberti-type accompanimentPolyphonic texture ( John and Paul )Verse 2Harmonic sequence F Ab C A D G CPerhaps question students how we know it is Aminor?Rest is straight forwardI have nt given anything on Verse 2 as it is a repeat of 1st verse – the students do have notes in their student book.
19’64 (5) Bridge2 Begins in Am (relative Minor) Melody less syncopated Much higher registerAlberti –bass accompanimentPolyphonic Texture – particularly “we shall scrimp and save”Use of diminution here minimscrotchetsdiminution - We shall scrimp and save
20’64 (6) Verse 3 Similar to verse 2 but More instrumental ad libs i.e.,listen to solo guitarDoes not go to bridge againClarinet in 3rds with vocalistCodaDrum kit similar to openingWell timed oooh to finish1 love instrumental ad lib is a honky tonky stlye piano sound – “you canknit a sweater by the firside” really a harp back to scott joplin again.
21She’s Leaving Home - Structure IntroVerse1ChorusVerse2Verse 31-45-3637-5556-8788-106ABABCDABCUseful template its missing the “ outro” section – final 3 bars.
22Leaving home (2) Instrumentation String Nonet 4 violins 2 Violas 2 cellos1 Double Bass1 Harp - Sheila Bromberg – 1st time a woman appears on a Beatles song!I know it adds up to ten “string” instruments but all info says nonet and a harp.You should refer to the classical feel of this song by the use of these instruments. Also alert students to that this song was arranged by Mike Leander and that it was the only Beatle song he ever arranged.
23Leaving Home (3)Word Painting – some excellent examples here The actual lyrics are wonderful, particularly the reaction of the parents to what their daughter has done. Their concern seems only to be for themselves, which is why the girl leaves in the first place. Also phrases like “she’s leaving home after living alone for so many years” perfectly captures the dysfunctional nature of this family situation.You could refer to other classic Beatles Lyrics – Elenor Rigby “puts on her Face that she keeps in a jar by the door”These guys really did write some fab words.
24Leaving home (4) Intro Harp Arpeggios Homophonic texture Fab contrast to previous trackVerse 1Voice and harpCello counter melody (bar10 – 12)Form: ABAB, each phrase gets a different accompanimentKey: E (vocal score Eb)Word painting: “downstairs” – descending violin melodyPrevious Track was Fixing a holeThe rest is self expanatory.
25Leaving Home (5)Chorus 1Beautiful vocal harmonies – Paul Falsetto with John‘s counterpointMainly 1 chord for 13 bars – Different forms of Chord I (Eb- Score)Verse 2Similar to 1st verse but subtle differences in accompanimente.g. strings first then Harp, cello has walking bass ideamuch richer string textureHomophonic textureWord painting: Mother sobbing – violin counter melodySelf Explanatory
26Leaving home (6)Chorus 2As with 1st chorus but again changes to the accompaniment.Middle texture now richer. (Viola)18 bars divided into 8 and 10 bars respectively + 1 extra bar giving a total of 19 barsthis uncertainty in phrase length may mirror the daughters uncertain future.Verse 3Shorter than other verses (Only 16 bars)Word painting: use of tremolo strings - daughters’ excitement at her prospective meeting.Use of quaver movement in cello part to mirror the man in the “motor” trade!Worth explaining the significance of the length of phrase – “she s leaving home after living alone for so many years” its 7 bars long. Quite unusual in that all of the other phrases are of equal length. Note how this is resolved in the final verse when she has left this awful family situation – maybe she has made the right decision.( or am I being too deep? )
27Leaving Home (7)Chorus 3Like others but all string parts more animated e.g. violins play a repeated rhythm pattern hereFinal chorus uses 20 bars as opposed to 19 perhaps she’s made the right decision?Accompaniment “calms” down towards end of this chorus – mainly dotted minims in upper partsSelf explanatory