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Leaving Certificate Music THE BEATLES It was 40 years ago today……..!

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Presentation on theme: "Leaving Certificate Music THE BEATLES It was 40 years ago today……..!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Leaving Certificate Music THE BEATLES It was 40 years ago today……..!

2 The Album The Album Gave the audience a lot more than just the songs – they also got: Gave the audience a lot more than just the songs – they also got: Two continuous sides of music Two continuous sides of music The definite feel of a live performance with all the “extra” audience sounds The definite feel of a live performance with all the “extra” audience sounds Mixture of styles – classical to Indian raga! Mixture of styles – classical to Indian raga! Printed song lyrics Printed song lyrics An kaleidoscope of colours on the front cover with the best “audience” collected in history An kaleidoscope of colours on the front cover with the best “audience” collected in history A cut out moustache along with stripes and a badge A cut out moustache along with stripes and a badge A 41 piece orchestra on a Pop record A 41 piece orchestra on a Pop record

3 There are 3 Beatles songs for study : Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club She’s Leaving Home She’s Leaving Home When I’m 64 When I’m 64

4 Syllabus requirements All Levels! Understand, identify and describe the range of musical features used Understand, identify and describe the range of musical features used Study its musical style and place it in its historical context Study its musical style and place it in its historical context Analyse and Describe patterns of repetition and change within the music Analyse and Describe patterns of repetition and change within the music

5 And also for Higher Level……. To make Comparative Judgements about music To make Comparative Judgements about music To evaluate Interpretation and Performance in the light of experience already attained. To evaluate Interpretation and Performance in the light of experience already attained.

6 So what do I have to know? The album- dates The album- dates Concept idea Concept idea What makes it different? What makes it different? General overview of the types of songs on the album. General overview of the types of songs on the album. As with all the set As with all the set works a thorough works a thorough knowledge of each knowledge of each set song is important set song is important as examiners are as examiners are most adept at asking most adept at asking anything of interest! anything of interest!

7 What Kind of questions am I asked? Instrumentation Instrumentation Structure e.g. Verse, chorus Structure e.g. Verse, chorus Keys Keys Textures Textures Chord patterns Chord patterns Lyrics – word painting Lyrics – word painting Production Techniques Production Techniques

8 What Kind of questions am I asked? Differences between individual verses in particular She’s Leaving home Differences between individual verses in particular She’s Leaving home Correct identification of each song and individual parts e.g. Sgt Pepper bridge section Correct identification of each song and individual parts e.g. Sgt Pepper bridge section Be able to identify and insert missing notes and chords Be able to identify and insert missing notes and chords

9 Examples of Syncopation, Chromaticism, etc – standard “classical” terminology also applies to these songs Examples of Syncopation, Chromaticism, etc – standard “classical” terminology also applies to these songs Just because this is “pop” music we should not underestimate the tremendous musicianship of this group Just because this is “pop” music we should not underestimate the tremendous musicianship of this group

10 Analysis (1) Sergeant Peppers Hearts Club Band. Intro Verse 1 Brass interlude 1 Middle Interlude 2 Verse 2 link 4 bars 8 bars 5 bars 12 bars 5 bars 8 bars 4 bars

11 Analysis Sergeant Pepper (2) Introduction Initial sounds of audience in a concert hall! Initial sounds of audience in a concert hall! Four bar instrumental with tune on lead guitar Four bar instrumental with tune on lead guitar Verse 1 Homophonic texture 4 x 2 bar phrases Key centres around G Repeated notes 1st 2 bars made up of just 2 notes Same chords as intro

12 Sergeant Pepper (3) Brass interlude 1 4 French horns 4 French horns – London Philharmonic Orchestra – London Philharmonic Orchestra Polyphonic Texture Polyphonic Texture Key around G Key around G

13 Sergeant Peppers (4) Middle Section – Longest Section Refrain – We’re Sergeant ……. Refrain – We’re Sergeant ……. Vocal line rhythm is doubled in length i.e., semiquavers become quavers! Vocal line rhythm is doubled in length i.e., semiquavers become quavers! 2/3 part harmonies 2/3 part harmonies Descending D7 arpeggio on horns Descending D7 arpeggio on horns Typical pop hook used – catchy tune to grab your audience! Typical pop hook used – catchy tune to grab your audience!Interlude Chords as for Brass interlude Chords as for Brass interlude Vocals Vocals Horns now a sustained dotted minim moving to quavers Horns now a sustained dotted minim moving to quavers

14 Sergeant Peppers (5) Verse 2 Homophonic texture Homophonic texture Key centres around G Key centres around G 4 x 2 bar phrases 4 x 2 bar phrases Repeated notes Repeated notes Same chords as intro Same chords as introLink Similar to brass interlude Similar to brass interlude Chords of C D E linking to With a little help from my friends Chords of C D E linking to With a little help from my friends

15 Analysis ‘64 Recorded Dec 1966 Arrangement – George Martin Structure IntroVerse1Bridge1Verse2Bridge2Verse3Coda Bar A 7-14 B C D A B C D A B

16 ’64 (2) Intro – Fabulous use of 2 clarinets and 1 bass clarinet. Piano Vamp – (not part of Pop music) Piano Vamp – (not part of Pop music) Really Jazz combo here! Really Jazz combo here! Such a great contrast to the previous track Such a great contrast to the previous track

17 ’64 (3) Verse 1 4 bar phrases A-B-A1-C 4 bar phrases A-B-A1-C Effective use of Chromatic notes Effective use of Chromatic notes C phrase – Harmonic sequence Ab-C-A7-D-G-C but with the added notes for colour. C phrase – Harmonic sequence Ab-C-A7-D-G-C but with the added notes for colour. Homophonic Texture Homophonic Texture Augmentation “will you still..”  “birthday greeting…” Augmentation “will you still..”  “birthday greeting…”

18 ’64 (4) Bridge 1 Begins in Am (relative minor) Begins in Am (relative minor) Melody less syncopated Melody less syncopated Much higher register used Much higher register used Alberti-type accompaniment Alberti-type accompaniment Polyphonic texture ( John and Paul ) Polyphonic texture ( John and Paul ) Verse 2 Harmonic sequence F Ab C A D G C Harmonic sequence F Ab C A D G C

19 ’64 (5) Bridge2 Begins in Am (relative Minor) Begins in Am (relative Minor) Melody less syncopated Melody less syncopated Much higher register Much higher register Alberti –bass accompaniment Alberti –bass accompaniment Polyphonic Texture – particularly “we shall scrimp and save” Polyphonic Texture – particularly “we shall scrimp and save” Use of diminution here minims  crotchets Use of diminution here minims  crotchets

20 ’64 (6) Verse 3 Similar to verse 2 but Similar to verse 2 but More instrumental ad libs i.e.,listen to solo guitar More instrumental ad libs i.e.,listen to solo guitar Does not go to bridge again Does not go to bridge again Clarinet in 3rds with vocalist Clarinet in 3rds with vocalistCoda Drum kit similar to opening Drum kit similar to opening Well timed oooh to finish Well timed oooh to finish

21 She’s Leaving Home - Structure IntroVerse1ChorusVerse2Chorus Verse 3 Chorus ABABCDABABCDABC

22 Leaving home (2) Instrumentation Instrumentation String Nonet String Nonet 4 violins 4 violins 2 Violas 2 Violas 2 cellos 2 cellos 1 Double Bass 1 Double Bass 1 Harp - Sheila Bromberg – 1st time a woman appears on a Beatles song! 1 Harp - Sheila Bromberg – 1st time a woman appears on a Beatles song!

23 Leaving Home (3) Word Painting – some excellent examples here The actual lyrics are wonderful, particularly the reaction of the parents to what their daughter has done. Their concern seems only to be for themselves, which is why the girl leaves in the first place. Also phrases like “she’s leaving home after living alone for so many years” perfectly captures the dysfunctional nature of this family situation. Word Painting – some excellent examples here The actual lyrics are wonderful, particularly the reaction of the parents to what their daughter has done. Their concern seems only to be for themselves, which is why the girl leaves in the first place. Also phrases like “she’s leaving home after living alone for so many years” perfectly captures the dysfunctional nature of this family situation.

24 Leaving home (4) Intro Harp Arpeggios Harp Arpeggios Homophonic texture Homophonic texture Fab contrast to previous track Fab contrast to previous track Verse 1 Voice and harp Voice and harp Cello counter melody (bar10 – 12) Cello counter melody (bar10 – 12) Form: ABAB, each phrase gets a different accompaniment Form: ABAB, each phrase gets a different accompaniment Key: E (vocal score Eb) Key: E (vocal score Eb) Word painting: “downstairs” – descending violin melody Word painting: “downstairs” – descending violin melody

25 Leaving Home (5) Chorus 1 Beautiful vocal harmonies – Paul Falsetto with John‘s counterpoint Beautiful vocal harmonies – Paul Falsetto with John‘s counterpoint Mainly 1 chord for 13 bars – Different forms of Chord I (Eb- Score) Mainly 1 chord for 13 bars – Different forms of Chord I (Eb- Score) Verse 2 Similar to 1st verse but subtle differences in accompaniment Similar to 1st verse but subtle differences in accompaniment e.g. strings first then Harp, cello has walking bass idea e.g. strings first then Harp, cello has walking bass idea much richer string texture much richer string texture Homophonic texture Homophonic texture Word painting: Mother sobbing – violin counter melody Word painting: Mother sobbing – violin counter melody

26 Leaving home (6) Chorus 2 As with 1st chorus but again changes to the accompaniment. As with 1st chorus but again changes to the accompaniment. Middle texture now richer. (Viola) Middle texture now richer. (Viola) 18 bars divided into 8 and 10 bars respectively + 1 extra bar giving a total of 19 bars 18 bars divided into 8 and 10 bars respectively + 1 extra bar giving a total of 19 bars this uncertainty in phrase length may mirror the daughters uncertain future. this uncertainty in phrase length may mirror the daughters uncertain future. Verse 3 Shorter than other verses (Only 16 bars) Shorter than other verses (Only 16 bars) Word painting: use of tremolo strings - daughters’ excitement at her prospective meeting. Word painting: use of tremolo strings - daughters’ excitement at her prospective meeting. Use of quaver movement in cello part to mirror the man in the “motor” trade! Use of quaver movement in cello part to mirror the man in the “motor” trade!

27 Leaving Home (7) Chorus 3 Chorus 3 Like others but all string parts more animated e.g. violins play a repeated rhythm pattern here Like others but all string parts more animated e.g. violins play a repeated rhythm pattern here Final chorus uses 20 bars as opposed to 19 perhaps she’s made the right decision? Final chorus uses 20 bars as opposed to 19 perhaps she’s made the right decision? Accompaniment “calms” down towards end of this chorus – mainly dotted minims in upper parts Accompaniment “calms” down towards end of this chorus – mainly dotted minims in upper parts


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