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Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin WEEK 4 Activity-Based Costing: A Tool to Aid Decision Making.

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1 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin WEEK 4 Activity-Based Costing: A Tool to Aid Decision Making

2 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-2 檢測成本管理系統過時的徵兆 1. 生產過程較為複雜的產品,較沒有額外 利潤,而其市場訂價僅以市場上客戶願 意支付價格,作為訂價基礎。  應採特殊定價 ! 2. 不容易解釋利潤。  是來自市場佔有率 ? 品質 ? 生產製程 ? 經濟規模 ?

3 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-3 檢測成本管理系統過時的徵兆 3. 競爭者沒有銷售公司具有高利潤的相關 產品。  虛盈實虧 ?  競爭優勢 ?(eg. 專利權保護 ) 4. 投標結果不容易解釋。  低標未得標 ? 高標卻得標 ?

4 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-4 檢測成本管理系統過時的徵兆 5. 具有競爭優勢廠商將量產產品的價格定 在不合理偏低水準,或沒有經濟優勢的 競爭者,將量產產品的價格定在非常低 的水準,反而可賺取很好的利潤。  成本制度表達平均成本  量大價低, 量少價高

5 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-5 檢測成本管理系統過時的徵兆 6. 供應商對零件的報價較期望值低很 多。  賺到 ? 7. 即使產品成本沒有相對增加,但當價格上漲時 顧客仍忽略了價格的上漲。  需求彈性低 ?  價格上漲無負面影響 ?( 逆向思考 )

6 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-6 常發現成本管理系統設計上的瑕疵 1. 成本中心的費用係以直接人 工小時(或成本)作為分配 至產品的基礎。 2. 採用與數量有關的分配原則 被用來作為分配成本中心的 費用至產品。

7 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-7 常發現成本管理系統設計上的瑕疵 3. 設計成本中心範圍太大,同時包 括了差異甚大的製程活動與成本 結構。 4. 產品的行銷和運輸成本隨著配銷 管道發生蛻變,但成本會計制度 卻忽略了行銷成本的變化。

8 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-8 檢測成本管理系統過時的徵兆 3. 競爭者沒有銷售本公司具有高利 潤的產品。 4. 投標結果不容易解釋。 5. 具有競爭優勢廠商將量產產品的 價格定在不合理偏低水準,或沒 有經濟優勢的競爭者,將量產產 品的價格定在非常低的水準,反 而可賺取很好的利潤。

9 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-9 檢測成本管理系統過時的徵兆 6. 供應商對零件的報價較期望 值低很多。 7. 即使產品成本沒有相對增加, 但當價格上漲時顧客仍忽略 了價格的上漲。

10 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-10 常發現成本管理系統設計上的瑕疵 1. 成本中心的費用係以直接人工 小時(或成本)作為分配至產 品的基礎。 2. 採用與數量有關的分配原則被 用來作為分配成本中心的費用 至產品。

11 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-11 常發現成本管理系統設計上的瑕疵 3. 設計成本中心範圍太大,同 時包括了差異甚大的製程活 動與成本結構。 4. 產品的行銷和運輸成本隨著 配銷管道發生蛻變,但成本 會計制度卻忽略了行銷成本 的變化。

12 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-12 Activity Based Costing (ABC) ABC is designed to provide managers with cost information for strategic and other decisions that potentially affect capacity and therefore affect fixed as well as variable costs. ABC is a good supplement to our traditional cost system I agree!

13 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-13 Learning Objective 1 Understand activity-based costing and how it differs from a traditional costing system.

14 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-14 How Costs are Treated Under Activity–Based Costing ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways. Manufacturing costs Nonmanufacturing costs  ABC assigns both types of costs to products. Traditional product costing ABC product costing

15 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-15 How Costs are Treated Under Activity–Based Costing  ABC does not assign all manufacturing costs to products. Manufacturing costs Nonmanufacturing costs Traditional product costing ABC product costing All Most, but not all Some ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways.

16 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-16 How Costs are Treated Under Activity–Based Costing Plantwide Overhead Rate Plantwide Overhead Rate Departmental Overhead Rates Departmental Overhead Rates Activity–Based Costing Activity–Based Costing Number of cost pools Level of complexity  ABC uses more cost pools. ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways.

17 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-17 How Costs are Treated Under Activity–Based Costing  ABC uses more cost pools. Each ABC cost pool has its own unique measure of activity. ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways. Traditional cost systems usually rely on volume measures such as direct labor hours and/or machine hours to allocate all overhead costs to products.

18 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-18 Activity An event that causes the consumption of overhead resources. Activity Cost Pool A “cost bucket” in which costs related to a particular activity measure are accumulated. $ $ $ $ $ $ How Costs are Treated Under Activity–Based Costing

19 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-19 Activity Measure An allocation base in an activity-based costing system. How Costs are Treated Under Activity–Based Costing The term cost driver is also used to refer to an activity measure.

20 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-20 Simple count of the number of times an activity occurs. Transaction driver A measure of the amount of time needed for an activity. Duration driver Two common types of activity measures: How Costs are Treated Under Activity–Based Costing

21 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-21 How Costs are Treated Under Activity–Based Costing Traditional cost systems usually rely on volume measures such as direct labor hours and/or machine hours to allocate all overhead costs to products. ABC defines five levels of activity that largely do not relate to the volume of units produced.

22 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-22 Manufacturing companies typically combine their activities into five classifications. Unit-LevelActivityBatch-LevelActivityProduct-LevelActivityCustomer-LevelActivity Organization- sustaining Activity How Costs are Treated Under Activity–Based Costing

23 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-23 Characteristics of Successful ABC Implementations Strong top management support Cross-functional involvement Link to evaluations and rewards

24 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-24 Classic Brass – An ABC Example Manufacturing overhead is allocated to products using a single plantwide overhead rate based on machine hours.

25 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-25  Define Activities, Activity Cost Pools, and Activity Measures At Classic Brass, the ABC team, selected the following activity cost pools and activity measures:

26 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-26 Customer Orders - assigned all costs of resources that are consumed by taking and processing customer orders. Product Designs - assigned all costs of resources consumed by designing products. Order Size - assigned all costs of resources consumed as a consequence of the number of units produced. Customer Relations – assigned all costs associated with maintaining relations with customers. Other – assigned all overhead costs that are not associated with the other cost pools. Customer Orders - assigned all costs of resources that are consumed by taking and processing customer orders. Product Designs - assigned all costs of resources consumed by designing products. Order Size - assigned all costs of resources consumed as a consequence of the number of units produced. Customer Relations – assigned all costs associated with maintaining relations with customers. Other – assigned all overhead costs that are not associated with the other cost pools.  Define Activities, Activity Cost Pools, and Activity Measures

27 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-27 Learning Objective 2 Assign costs to cost pools using a first-stage allocation.

28 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-28  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools

29 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-29  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools Direct materials, direct labor, and shipping are excluded because Classic Brass’ existing cost system can directly trace these costs to products or customer orders.

30 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-30 At Classic Brass the following distribution of resource consumption across activity cost pools is determined.  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools

31 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-31 Indirect factory wages $500,000 Percent consumed by customer orders 25% $125,000 Indirect factory wages $500,000 Percent consumed by customer orders 25% $125,000  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools

32 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-32 Factory equipment depreciation $300,000 Percent consumed by customer orders 20% $ 60,000 Factory equipment depreciation $300,000 Percent consumed by customer orders 20% $ 60,000  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools

33 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-33  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools

34 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-34 Learning Objective 3 Compute activity rates for cost pools.

35 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-35  Calculate Activity Rates The ABC team determines that Classic Brass will have these total activities for each activity cost pool...  1,000 customer orders,  400 new designs,  20,000 machine-hours,  250 customer relations activities. Now the team can compute the individual activity rates by dividing the total cost for each activity by the total activity levels.

36 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-36  Calculate Activity Rates

37 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-37 Traced Activity-Based Costing at Classic Brass Direct Materials Direct Materials Direct Labor Direct Labor Shipping Costs Shipping Costs Overhead Costs Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers

38 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-38 Activity-Based Costing at Classic Brass Direct Materials Direct Materials Direct Labor Direct Labor Shipping Costs Shipping Costs Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers OrderSizeOrderSizeCustomerOrdersCustomerOrdersProductDesignProductDesignCustomerRelationsCustomerRelationsOtherOther Overhead Costs First-Stage Allocation

39 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-39 Activity-Based Costing at Classic Brass Direct Materials Direct Materials Direct Labor Direct Labor Shipping Costs Shipping Costs Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers Customer Orders Order Size CustomerRelationsCustomerRelationsOtherOther Overhead Costs First-Stage Allocation Second-Stage Allocations $/Order $/Design $/MH $/Customer Unallocated ProductDesignProductDesign

40 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-40 Learning Objective 4 Assign costs to a cost object using a second- stage allocation.

41 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-41 Classic Brass Information Standard Stanchions 1.Requires no new design resources. 2.30,000 units ordered with 600 separate orders. 3.Each stanchion requires 35 minutes of machine time for a total of 17,500 machine-hours. Standard Stanchions 1.Requires no new design resources. 2.30,000 units ordered with 600 separate orders. 3.Each stanchion requires 35 minutes of machine time for a total of 17,500 machine-hours. Custom Compass Housing 1.Requires new design resources. 2.400 separate orders. 3.400 custom designs prepared. 4.1,250 compass housings produced, requiring 2 machine-hours each for a total of 2,500 machine-hours. Custom Compass Housing 1.Requires new design resources. 2.400 separate orders. 3.400 custom designs prepared. 4.1,250 compass housings produced, requiring 2 machine-hours each for a total of 2,500 machine-hours.  Assigning Overhead to Products

42 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-42  Assigning Overhead to Products

43 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-43 Let’s take a look at how Classic Brass system works for just one of the 250 customers – Windward Yachts who placed a total of three orders. Orders 1.Two orders for 150 standard stanchions per order. 2.One order for a custom compass housing. Orders 1.Two orders for 150 standard stanchions per order. 2.One order for a custom compass housing. Machine-hours 1.The 300 standard stanchions required 175 machine-hours. 2.The custom compass housing required 2 machine hours. Machine-hours 1.The 300 standard stanchions required 175 machine-hours. 2.The custom compass housing required 2 machine hours. Assigning Overhead to Customers

44 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-44 Assigning Overhead to Customers

45 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-45 Learning Objective 5 Use activity-based costing to compute product and customer margins.

46 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-46  Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The first step in computing product margins is to gather each product’s sales and direct cost data.

47 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-47  Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The second step in computing product margins is to incorporate the previously computed activity-based cost assignments pertaining to each product.

48 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-48  Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The third step in computing product margins is to deduct each product’s direct and indirect costs from sales.

49 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-49 Product Margin Calculations The product margins can be reconciled with the company’s net operating income as follows:  Prepare Management Reports

50 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-50  Prepare Management Reports Customer Profitability Analysis The first step in computing Windward Yachts’ customer margin is to gather its sales and direct cost data.

51 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-51  Prepare Management Reports Customer Profitability Analysis The second step is to incorporate Windward Yachts’ previously computed activity-based cost assignments.

52 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-52  Prepare Management Reports Customer Profitability Analysis The third step is to compute Windward Yachts’ customer margin ($699) by deducting all its direct and indirect costs from its sales.

53 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-53 Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The first step in computing product margins is to gather each product’s sales and direct cost data.

54 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-54 Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System Plantwide manufacturing overhead rate $1,000,000 20,000 MH = $50 per machine-hour= The second step in computing product margins is to compute the plantwide overhead rate.

55 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-55 Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The third step in computing product margins is allocate manufacturing overhead to each product. 17,500 hours × $50 per hour = $875,000

56 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-56 Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The fourth step is to actually compute the product margins.

57 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-57 The Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs The traditional cost system overcosts the standard stanchions and reports a lower product margin for this product. The traditional cost system undercosts the custom compass housings and reports a higher product margin for this product.

58 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-58 Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs There are three reasons why the reported product margins for the two costing systems differ from one another.  Traditional costing allocates all manufacturing overhead to products. ABC costing only assigns manufacturing overhead costs consumed by products to those products.

59 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-59 Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs  Traditional costing allocates all manufacturing overhead costs using a volume-related allocation base. ABC costing also uses non-volume related allocation bases. There are three reasons why the reported product margins for the two costing systems differ from one another.

60 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-60 Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs  Traditional costing disregards selling and administrative expenses because they are assumed to be period expenses. ABC costing directly traces shipping costs to products and includes nonmanufacturing overhead costs caused by products in the activity cost pools that are assigned to products. There are three reasons why the reported product margins for the two costing systems differ from one another.

61 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-61 Targeting Process Improvement Activity-based management is used in conjunction with ABC to identify areas that would benefit from process improvements. While the theory of constraints approach discussed in Chapter 1 is a powerful tool for targeting improvement efforts, activity rates can also provide valuable clues on where to focus improvement efforts. Benchmarking can be used to compare activity cost information with world-class standards of performance achieved by other organizations.

62 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-62 Activity-Based Costing and External Reporting Most companies do not use ABC for external reporting because... 1.External reports are less detailed than internal reports. 2.It may be difficult to make changes to the company’s accounting system. 3.ABC does not conform to GAAP. 4.Auditors may be suspect of the subjective allocation process based on interviews with employees. 1.External reports are less detailed than internal reports. 2.It may be difficult to make changes to the company’s accounting system. 3.ABC does not conform to GAAP. 4.Auditors may be suspect of the subjective allocation process based on interviews with employees.

63 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-63 ABC Limitations Substantial resources required to implement and maintain. Resistance to unfamiliar numbers and reports. Desire to fully allocate all costs to products. Potential misinterpretation of unfamiliar numbers. Does not conform to GAAP. Two costing systems may be needed.

64 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Appendix 8A ABC Action Analysis

65 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-65 Learning Objective 6 Prepare an action analysis report using activity-based costing data and interpret the report. (Appendix 8A)

66 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-66 Appendix 8A: ABC Action Analysis Conventional ABC analysis does not identify potentially relevant costs. An action analysis report helps because it: Shows what costs have been assigned to a cost object. Indicates how difficult it would be to adjust those costs in response to changes in the level of activity. Conventional ABC analysis does not identify potentially relevant costs. An action analysis report helps because it: Shows what costs have been assigned to a cost object. Indicates how difficult it would be to adjust those costs in response to changes in the level of activity.

67 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-67 Constructing an action analysis report begins with the first-stage allocation process. In addition to computing an overall activity rate for each activity cost pool, an activity rate is computed for each type of overhead cost that is consumed supporting a given activity. Let’s revisit the stage-one allocations from the Classic Brass example that we discussed earlier. Appendix 8A: ABC Action Analysis

68 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-68 Appendix 8A: ABC Action Analysis $125,000 ÷ 1,000 orders = $125 per order Other entries in the table are computed similarly.

69 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-69 $125 per order × 600 orders = $75,000 Other entries in the table are computed similarly. Appendix 8A: ABC Action Analysis

70 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-70 $125 per order × 400 orders = $50,000 Other entries in the table are computed similarly. Appendix 8A: ABC Action Analysis

71 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-71 Next, label each cost using an ease of adjustment code: Green costs adjust more or less automatically to changes in activity level without any action by managers. Yellow costs can be adjusted to changes in activity level, but it would require management action to realize the change in cost. Red costs can be adjusted to changes in activity level only with a great deal difficulty and with management intervention. Next, label each cost using an ease of adjustment code: Green costs adjust more or less automatically to changes in activity level without any action by managers. Yellow costs can be adjusted to changes in activity level, but it would require management action to realize the change in cost. Red costs can be adjusted to changes in activity level only with a great deal difficulty and with management intervention. Appendix 8A: ABC Action Analysis

72 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-72 Appendix 8A: ABC Action Analysis

73 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Appendix 8B Using a Modified form of Activity-Based Costing to Determine Product costs for External Reports

74 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-74 Learning Objective 7 Use activity-based costing techniques to compute unit product costs for external reports. (Appendix 8B)

75 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-75 Appendix 8B ABC product costs: Include organization-sustaining costs and unused capacity costs. Exclude nonmanufacturing costs even if they are caused by the products. ABC product costs: Include organization-sustaining costs and unused capacity costs. Exclude nonmanufacturing costs even if they are caused by the products. A modified form of activity-based costing can be used to develop product costs for external financial reports.

76 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-76 Appendix 8B Maxtar Industries provides the following information for the company as a whole and for its only two products—premium and standard smoker/barbecue units.

77 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-77 Appendix 8B Assuming that Maxtar’s traditional cost system relies on one predetermined plantwide overhead rate with direct labor-hours (DLHs) as the allocation base, then its plantwide overhead rate is computed as follows: Predetermined overhead rate = $3.80 per DLH= $1,520,000 400,000 DLHs

78 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-78 Appendix 8B Maxtar’s traditional cost system would report unit product costs as follows: 2.0 DLH × $3.80 per DLH 1.5 DLH × $3.80 per DLH

79 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-79 Appendix 8B The ABC project team at Maxtar has developed the following basic information.

80 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-80 Appendix 8B We can calculate the following activity rates: Using the new activity rates, let’s assign overhead to the two products based upon expected activity.

81 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-81 Appendix 8B Premium Product Standard Product

82 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-82 Appendix 8B Activity-based unit product costs for both product lines

83 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-83 Appendix 8B Activity-based unit product costs for both product lines $728,000 ÷ 50,000 units $792,000 ÷ 200,000 units

84 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-84 Appendix 8B Note that the unit product cost of a Standard unit decreased from $53.70 to $51.96.......... while the unit cost of a Premium unit increased from $71.60 to $78.56. Comparing the two approaches

85 Copyright © 2008, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8-85 End of Chapter 8


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