3 Introduction to Terminologies GroupsPeriodsPeriodic table: It is the tabular display of chemical elements.Group: A group or afamily is a vertical column in the periodic tablePeriod : The horizontal row in a periodic table is called a period.
4 Details in the Periodic Table Atomic Number= number of electrons= number of protonsAtomic Mass= number of (protons + neutrons)
5 Groups18 groups in standard periodic table, numbered from 1 to 18, as per IUPAC standards.Elements in a group have similar configurations of the outermost shells, leading to similar properties.
6 Group Names Group 1: Alkali metals Group 2: Alkaline earth metals Group 3-11 : Transition MetalsGroup 11: Coinage metals/Copper FamilyGroup 12-14: Metalloids & nonmetalsGroup 15: Pnictogens /Nitrogen FamilyGroup 16: Chalcogens /Oxygen FamilyGroup 17: Halogens /Halide FamilyGroup 18: Noble gases
7 Periods There are 7 periods in the table. Elements of the same period have the same number of electron shells.Within each group across a period, the number of electrons and protons increases, leading to increase in atomic number.Elements within the same period do not generally show similarity in properties, except d-block and f-block (lanthanides) elements.
8 Trends in the Periodic Table Trends occur due to the electronic configurations of elements.Across a period, electrons of the outermost shell, experience increased nuclear attraction due to increase in atomic number.Down a group, nuclear attraction decreases due to “shielding effect”.
10 Classification of Elements in Periodic Table Classification depends on the difference in physical and chemical properties of elements:Metals (yellow )Nonmetals (green)Metalloids (purple)
11 Properties of Metals Shiny solids at room temperature, except mercury. Good conductor of both heat and electricity.High melting point and density.Shiny and lustrous.Ductile and malleable.Metals can be alloyed.
12 Properties of Nonmetals Insulators of heat and electricity.Dull surface.Low density, compared to metals.Low melting temperatures.Brittle solids
13 Element of the UP – Copper..!!! Symbol – Cu, from the Latin word cuprumAtomic number – 29Classification – Transition MetalAppearance – Reddish, with a bright metallic lusterPosition in the Periodic table: Group 11 and Period 4.Melting Point: 1356 K (1981 oF)
14 Alloys of Copper Brass – Cu and Zn Red Brass/Gunmetal – Cu, Zn and Sn Phosphor Bronze/Bronze – Cu and SnAluminum Bronze – Cu and AlSilicon Bronze – Cu and SiMonel – Ni and Cu
15 Applications of Cu Piping Electrical applications Architecture Household productsCoinageChemical applicationsMiscellaneous