Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table. Elements in the Periodic Table Groups Periods."— Presentation transcript:
The Periodic Table
Elements in the Periodic Table Groups Periods
Introduction to Terminologies Periodic table: It is the tabular display of chemical elements. Group: A group or a family is a vertical column in the periodic table Period : The horizontal row in a periodic table is called a period. Groups Periods
Details in the Periodic Table Atomic Number = number of electrons = number of protons Atomic Mass = number of (protons + neutrons)
Groups 18 groups in standard periodic table, numbered from 1 to 18, as per IUPAC standards. Elements in a group have similar configurations of the outermost shells, leading to similar properties.
Group Names Group 1: Alkali metals Group 2: Alkaline earth metals Group 3-11 : Transition Metals Group 11: Coinage metals/Copper Family Group 12-14: Metalloids & nonmetals Group 15: Pnictogens /Nitrogen Family Group 16: Chalcogens /Oxygen Family Group 17: Halogens /Halide Family Group 18: Noble gases
Periods There are 7 periods in the table. Elements of the same period have the same number of electron shells. Within each group across a period, the number of electrons and protons increases, leading to increase in atomic number. Elements within the same period do not generally show similarity in properties, except d-block and f-block (lanthanides) elements.
Trends in the Periodic Table Trends occur due to the electronic configurations of elements. Across a period, electrons of the outermost shell, experience increased nuclear attraction due to increase in atomic number. Down a group, nuclear attraction decreases due to “shielding effect”.
Periodic Trends - Summary
Classification of Elements in Periodic Table Classification depends on the difference in physical and chemical properties of elements: Metals (yellow ) Nonmetals (green) Metalloids (purple)
Properties of Metals Shiny solids at room temperature, except mercury. Good conductor of both heat and electricity. High melting point and density. Shiny and lustrous. Ductile and malleable. Metals can be alloyed.
Properties of Nonmetals Insulators of heat and electricity. Dull surface. Low density, compared to metals. Low melting temperatures. Brittle solids
Element of the UP – Copper..!!! Symbol – Cu, from the Latin word cuprum Atomic number – 29 Classification – Transition Metal Appearance – Reddish, with a bright metallic luster Position in the Periodic table: Group 11 and Period 4. Melting Point: 1356 K (1981 o F)
Alloys of Copper Brass – Cu and Zn Red Brass/Gunmetal – Cu, Zn and Sn Phosphor Bronze/Bronze – Cu and Sn Aluminum Bronze – Cu and Al Silicon Bronze – Cu and Si Monel – Ni and Cu
Applications of Cu Piping Electrical applications Architecture Household products Coinage Chemical applications Miscellaneous