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Joining Processes: Welding, Brazing, Soldering 1.Brazing and Soldering: Melting of filler rod only Brazing: higher temperature, ~brass filler, strong Soldering:

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Presentation on theme: "Joining Processes: Welding, Brazing, Soldering 1.Brazing and Soldering: Melting of filler rod only Brazing: higher temperature, ~brass filler, strong Soldering:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Joining Processes: Welding, Brazing, Soldering 1.Brazing and Soldering: Melting of filler rod only Brazing: higher temperature, ~brass filler, strong Soldering: lower temp, ~tin-lead filler, weak 2.Welding: Melting of filler rod and base metals 3.Both: Join inexpensive parts to form complex product sales.nordex-online.com

2 Kalpakjian Types of Joints

3 Brazing Steel base metal + Brass filler rod is common Lower temp than welding: retains heat treatment (if present), minimizes grain growth. Strong but slow (careful preparation, cleanup) Furnace brazing is easily automated Kalpakjian en.wikipedia.org

4 Kalpakjian Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW): “Stick welding” Older, simple technology The electrode is also the filler rod Only for steel Strong welds if done properly (but often not) Very high heat input: good for thick parts, bad for grain growth and distortion

5 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW): “MIG” (Metal-Inert-Gas) ~Complex mechanism but simple to perform and easy to automate The electrode is also the filler rod, fed continuously from a spool. It melts in the arc. For steel or aluminum Low skill level can achieve good weld Medium heat input: distortion and grain growth are significant Kalpakjian

6 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW): “MIG” (Metal-Inert-Gas) A fair/typical quality MIG weld (still hot!)

7 Kalpakjian Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW): “TIG” (Tungsten-Inert-Gas) The electrode is tungsten (not consumed) The filler rod is separate and fed manually High skill level required to achieve good weld Difficult to automate Low heat input and small weld bead: distortion and grain growth are minimized

8 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW): “TIG” (Tungsten-Inert-Gas) Typical good quality TIG welds

9 Kalpakjian Resistance Spot Welding (RSW): “Spot Welding” No filler rod: electrical current is passed through metal under pressure Low skill level required Easy to automate Low heat input and no weld bead: distortion and grain growth are minimized

10 Kalpakjian Distortion from Welding Processes Non-uniform shrinkage of weld bead Difficult to maintain alignments Solution: Rigid fixtures, pre-compensate for warping, loose tolerances

11 Weld bead profile: Convex or Concave? Solidification of molten bead leads to shrinkage Shrinkage of a concave bead leads to tension on surface  tends to crack Shrinkage of a convex bead leads to compression on surface  does not crack Generally, slightly convex beads are preferred. Lincoln Electric

12 Kalpakjian Welding Flaws

13 Welding Flaws: Incomplete Penetration (not enough heat input)

14 References Kalpakjian:


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