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Solution Concentration Concentration = quantity of solute quantity of solution (not solvent) There are 3 basic ways to express concentration: 1) percentages, 2) ppm and ppb (used for very low concentrations) 3) molar concentrations

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1. Percent concentration % concentration can be in 1a) % V/V 1b) % W/W 1c) % W/V

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%V/V = volume of solute (mL or L) X 100% Volume of solution (mL or L) mL of acetic acid is present in a 500 mL bottle of solution? What is the percentage by volume concentration of acetic acid? 28% V/V 2. Gasohol fuel is a solution of ethanol and gasoline. A typical gasohol mixture available across Canada contains 4.1 L of ethanol in a 55-L tank of fuel. What is the percentage by volume concentration of ethanol? What is approximate % V/V if 30 mL of pure ethanol is added to 250 mL of water? 11% V/V 1a) Percent volume by volume concentration

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%W/W = Weight of solute (g or kg) X100% Weight of solution (g or kg) 1.What is the % W/W if 8.0 g copper is added to enough zinc to produce 100 g of an alloy? 8% W/W. 2.Brass is a copper-zinc alloy. If the concentration of zinc is relatively low, the brass has a golden color and is often used for inexpensive jewellery. If a 35.0 g pendant contains 1.7 g of zinc, what is the percentage weight by weight of zinc in brass? 4.9% W/W 3.What is the % W/W of copper in an alloy when 10 kg of Cu is mixed with 250 kg of Zn? 3.8 % W/W 1b) Percent weight by weight concentration

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%W/V has different units – weight and volume. What does 3% H 2 O 2 W/V mean? % W/V = weight of solute (g) X 100% volume of solution (mL) Can Use g/ml or kg/L 1.Solder flux, available at hardwood stores, contains 16 g of zinc chloride in 50 ml of solution. The solvent is HCl (aq.). What is the percentage weight by volume of zinc chloride in the solution? 16 g / 50 mL = 32% W/V 2.If 250 g of sodium chloride is present in 3 L of solution, what is the percentage weight by volume of sodium chloride? 250g/3000ml = 8.5% W/V 1c) Percent weight by volume concentration

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2. Very low concentrations Usually expressed in parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb) Is a special case of the W/W ratio Ex. chlorine in a swimming pool may be expressed as 1 ppm OR 1 g of Cl in 10 6 g pool water ((1g/ml)) 1 mg/L 1 ppm 1 mg/kg

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Parts per billion is 1 part in _______ parts? 1000 times smaller than ppm. Use mg/1000L mg/1000 kg Do questions 5-7 on pg Very low concentrations

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3. Molar concentration Molar concentration is the most commonly used in chemistry. Molar concentration = amount of solute (in moles) (M)Volume of solution (in L) M = n/V or M = n/L Ensure that units are mol/L. DO question #8 on page 284

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Molar concentration Q) If a reaction produced mol of sodium hydroxide in L of solution. Calculate the molar concentration of sodium hydroxide mol/0.250 L = mol/l or M

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1.Percentage concentration (V/V, W/V, W/W), very low concentration, molar concentration 2.% V/V = 4.1 L / 55 L = 7.5% V/V 3.% W/V = 16 g / 50 mL = 32% W/V 4.% W/W = 1.7 g / 35.0 g = 4.9% W/W 5.8 ppm = 8 _ / 1 L, the units should be 1 million times smaller than 1L (or 1kg): 8ppm = 8 mg/L so the mass in 1 L is 8 mg mg/0.59 kg = mg/kg = 5.4 ppm 7.a) ppb is 1000 times smaller than ppm b) 1 g/10 9 mL, 1 mg/1000 L, 1 g/L, 1 mg/kL, 1 mg/Mg, 1 g/kg mol / L = 1.8 mol/L

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mL x 70 mL/100 mL = 350 mL mL x 1000 = 250 L 250 L x 3 kg/100 L = 7.5 kg ppm = 1.5 mg/L L x 1.5 mg/L = 0.38 mg L x mol/L = 4.1 mol L x 5.0 mol/L = 0.25 mol mol x 1 L/1.24 mol = L or 403 mL mol x 1 L/2.6 mol = L = 54 mL Text book pg. 287 #11-17 Answers

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