Presentation on theme: "Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers I., Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2008. LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica."— Presentation transcript:
Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers I., Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2008. LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica engleskog jezika za pomorce, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2003. Tomislav Skračić, MA Undergraduate English Course for MARINE ENGINEERS 2nd Semester
Ferrous and non-ferrous metals Ferrous metals- željezni metali a) iron- željezo b) steel- čelik c) pig iron- sirovo željezo d) cast iron- lijevano željezo e) forged iron- kovano željezo Non-ferrous metals- obojani metali a) copper and alloys- bakar i slitine b) aluminium- aluminij c) zinc- cink d) tin- kositar e) lead- olovo
Ferrous and non-ferrous metals alloy (n.)- legura a) brasses- mjedi, mesingi b) bronzes- bronce (e.g. aluminium bronze, manganese bronze, phosphor bronze) c) cupro-nickel alloys- slitine bakra i nikla rubber (n.)- guma, kaučuk epoxy (n.)- epoksidna smola lignum vitae- sveto drvo, "lenjo santo" iron ore- željezna ruda limestone (n.)- vapnenac, krčenjak coke (n.)- koks blast furnace- visoka peć
Ferrous and non-ferrous metals impurities- nečistoće a) carbon- ugljik b) silicon- silicij, kremen c) manganese- mangan d) sulphur- sumpor mould (n.)- kalup, odljev open hearth process- Siemens-Martinov tehnološki postupak open hearth furnace- Siemens-Martinova peć impact strength- čvrtoća na udar fine-grained- sitnozrnati vanadium (n.)- vanadij tungsten (n.)- volfram high-speed steel- brzorezni čelik (visokologerani čelik)
IRON MANUFACTURING PROCESS Iron ores are first prepared by crushing, screening and roasting with limestone and coke. A mixture of ore, coke and limestone is used to fill the blast furnace. Within the furnace an intense heat is generated as a result of the coke burning. Blasts of air entering the furnace towards the base assist in this burning process. The iron ore is reduced to iron and falls to the base of the furnace, becoming molten as it falls. Variors impurities, such as carbon, silicon, manganese and sulphur are absorbed by the iron as it descends. The molten iron runs into moulds to make bars of pig iron.
STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESS Cast iron is produced by remelting pig iron under controlled conditions in a miniature type of blast furnace known as a cupola. Making iron is the first stage in the production of steel. Steel is an alloy of carbon and iron. Various other metals are alloyed to steel in order to improve its properties, i.e. reach a higher tensile strength, yield point, endurance limit and impact strength.
Special steelsMetal and amounts in % 1. Stainless steel 2. High-speed steel 3. Temperature-resistant steel 4. Fatigue-resistant steel 5. Wear-resistant steel 6. Corrosion / erosion-resistant steel 7. Fine-grained steel 8. Elastic steel Ni 8%, Cr 18 % W 12 - 18%, Cr 5% Mo 1% V 1% Mn 11 - 14% Cr 13 - 18% Ni 3 - 3.75% Si 0.5 - 3.5%
QUESTIONS 1.What is pig iron? 2.Does pig iron have the same components and properties of cast iron? ( NO. Pig iron = 4-5% C + S + Si + P + impurities. Cast iron = 2-7% C + Si + Mn, very hard, brittle, not malleable ) 3.How is cast iron made? 4.How may steel be defined? 5.How is it produced?
NON-FERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS play an important part in engineering constructions due to their wide range of properties and they are often adapted to uses to which iron alloys and steel cannot be applied.
Non- ferrous metal Physical properties Mechani- cal properties Applica- tion ColourOther aluminium Whitish with bluish cast Lightness, good conductivity Softness, ducitility, malleability Alloys, car & air-craft industry copper Redish with brownish cast Good conductivity, resistance to corrosion Soft, malleable Forms many useful alloys (brasses, bronzes...) lead Grey Resistant to corrosion Malleable, soft, but little ductility Electrodes, cables, paints tin White, lustruos Resistant to corrosion Soft, malleable, ductile Coating for steel; alloys (white metal) zinc Bluish-whiteNon corrosive Ductile, malleable Galvanizing, alloys, piping industry...
BRASS Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Types of brass: admiralty brass, aluminum brass... Admiralty brass is used for tube plants and tubes for condensers Aluminium brass is used for tube plates and tubes for condensers and heat exchangers.
BRONZE Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. Bronze alloys include typically 88% copper and 12% tin Types of bronze: aluminium bronze, phosphor bronze, manganese bronze, gunmetal... In industry bronze is used for bearings and springs. Gunmetal is used for valves and bearing bushes. WHITE METAL The most important tin-based alloy with amounts of lead, copper and antimony is the so-called white metal used as a lining material for bearings.
FINAL QUESTIONS 1.Describe briefly the iron manufacturing process. 2.What are non-ferrous metals? 3.What is “white metal”? Where is it employed? 4.What is “galvanizing”? 5.What is gunmetal? What is it used for? 6.What is steel? 7.What engine parts are made from steel?