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Team Members: Zack Reinman Cristhyan Alfaro Travis Robinson Daniel Gilardoni Engineering 45 Dec, 2009 SRJC

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Our primary goal was to study the relationship between the deformation of metals and there resistances Our secondary goal was study how annealing the metals would affect the resistance

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Cold working started earlier than 5000 BC Current applications involve shaping and hardening Cold working is still done Byora USA Corporation Bellevue, WA 425-454-0708 Byora USA Corporation Stalcop Thorntown, IN 765-436-7926 Stalcop o Coldform, Inc. Terryville, CT 860-582-5031 Coldform, Inc.

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Cold rolling, drawing, deep drawing, & pressing Takes place at room temperatures Grain shapes deform allowing for increase in resistivity http://www.the-warren.org/ALevelRevision/engineering/grainstructure.htm

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Apply Heat to metal New Grains Grow Resistance decreases http://www.the-warren.org/ALevelRevision/engineering/grainstructure.htm

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We wanted to cold work large sample and measure its resistance with a Wheatstone bridge Did not have high enough quality materials to build the circuit. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheatstone_bridge

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In order to use multimeter, we had to get a resistance that was in the range the multimeter can detect. To increase the resistance of the object we reduced its cross-sectional area, and increase its length.

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Small cross section to increase resistivity No wheatstone bridge--- use multimeter

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Calculate desired length for R >1 Cut and measure diameter and resistance

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Cold work sample Measure dimensions and resistance

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Things were a little tricky because we were going from round wire to a flat ribbon

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Copper Conductivity (1/omh*m)Length (m)Area (m 2 ) Theoretical R (ohms) Expermental R (ohms)% Error Sample 16.00E+073.05.16892E-080.9673194991.058.55% Sample 26.00E+073.05.16892E-080.9673194991.058.55% Sample 36.00E+073.05.16892E-080.9673194991.113.72% Copper CW% CWLength (m) Conductivity (1/omh*m)Area (m 2 ) Theoretical R (ohms) Experimental R (ohms) R Change Due to CW (ohms) Sample 112.594.316.00E+074.5161E-081.59053.62.01 Sample 220.586.526.00E+074.1032E-082.64835.42.75 Sample 320.086.146.00E+074.1290E-082.47834.652.17

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Average R Change =106% Average CW =17%

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Brass Conductivity (1/omh*m)Length (m)Area (m 2 ) Theoretical R (ohms) Expermental R (ohms)% Error Sample 11.60E+0716.13116E-081.0191.437.34% Sample 21.60E+0716.13116E-081.0191.437.34% Sample 31.60E+0716.13116E-081.0191.437.34% Brass CW% CW Conductivity (1/omh*m) Length (m)Area (m 2 ) Theoretical R (ohms) Expermental R (ohms) R Change Due to CW (ohms) Sample 118.121.60E+071.235.01773E-081.532.250.72 Sample 219.461.60E+071.2354.93547E-081.562.250.69 Sample 323.721.60E+071.244.67418E-081.662.350.69 Average % R Change Due to about 20% CW=44%

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Average R Change = 44% Average CW=20%

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UnknownLength (m)Area (m 2 )Recorded R (ohms) Experimental Conductivity Sample 114.57303E-086.753.24E+06 Sample 214.57303E-086.853.19E+06 Sample 314.57303E-086.953.15E+06 Avg 3.19E+06 Guessed metal---Chromel Conductivity=1.3X10 6 (1/ohm*m) Unknown% CWLength (m)Area (m 2 ) Determined Conductivity Theoretical R (ohms) Expermental R (ohms) R Change Due to CW (ohms) Sample 117.721.445.38E-083.19E+068.3813.154.77 Sample 215.741.395.29E-083.19E+068.2312.254.02 Sample 317.081.414.92E-083.19E+068.9712.753.78

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Average R Change=50% Average CW=17%

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Find Annealing temperature for our three samples Determine the temperature we want to use We decided on 450 degrees F

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We didn’t see any results so… Changed temperature to 650 degrees F Changed from metal to glass due surface area and heat capacity

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Color Dimensions We later found our annealing temperatures were too low… Melting temp for: copper = 1983F Brass= 1710F

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Work_hardening http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Work_hardening http://www.iqsdirectory.com http://www.iqsdirectory.com http://www.keytometals.com http://www.keytometals.com http://www.m-hikari.com/atam/forth/alquranATAM1-4-2010.pdf http://www.m-hikari.com/atam/forth/alquranATAM1-4-2010.pdf http://www.6mmbr.com/annealing.html http://www.6mmbr.com/annealing.html http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TWS- 4N08MH6- 1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_s earchStrId=1124432364&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1 &_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=1e79518e220bfa7b771916e670b0ea5b http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TWS- 4N08MH6- 1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_s earchStrId=1124432364&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1 &_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=1e79518e220bfa7b771916e670b0ea5b http://www.springerlink.com http://www.springerlink.com http://www.the-warren.org/ALevelRevision/engineering/grainstructure.htm http://www.the-warren.org/ALevelRevision/engineering/grainstructure.htm Malki, B., L. Peguet, and B. Baroux. "Influence of Cold Working on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels."Corrosion Science. Isbergues:Elsevier, April 2007. 1933-1948. "Materials Engineering; Study data from M. Gonzalez and colleagues update understanding of materials engineering. " Journal Engineering 12 Aug. 2009: Sciences Module, ProQuest. Web. 3 Dec. 2009.

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