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Small scale / on-farm versus industrial milk processing: Use of quality assurance and HACCP protocols to insure product safety on farm level 1 Daróczi.

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Presentation on theme: "Small scale / on-farm versus industrial milk processing: Use of quality assurance and HACCP protocols to insure product safety on farm level 1 Daróczi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Small scale / on-farm versus industrial milk processing: Use of quality assurance and HACCP protocols to insure product safety on farm level 1 Daróczi L. and Kukovics. S. 2 1 Agricultural Innovation Workshop Public Utility Association; Dózsa György str. 28/A Berettyóújfalu 4100 Hungary; 2 Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition; as well as Hungarian Sheep and Goat Dairying Public Utility Association, 1Gesztenyés str. 1. Herceghalom 2053 Hungary

2 The main income rates of goats Milk – 75-85% Meat – 18-22% Other – 2-6% –Skin, manure, breeding stock –Subsidy 2-4 % Controlled production 30-35% (animal) Ratio of not controlled milk 65-70%

3 Goat milk production in Hungary over the last years Goat milk –Since 2004. going back to „black zones” –Continuous reduction in quality –Officially controlled quantity was 0.7 million litres in 2013 (in 2003 – 3 million litres) –In 2014 0.7 million litres will be under control –In 2003 12 million litres was estimated production; in 2014 it could be 6 million litres

4 Regulations determining the producing and selling of milk and milk products from big and small scale producers These will be presented in details in a separate paper by Dr. Nóra Tóth (NÉBIH) So, they will not be mentioned here, But, objective comparison will be carried out among them looking from the level of producers

5 Requirements Raw milk and milk producing animals should be kept separately in space and place Udder should be cleaned before milking (s, g?) Filtering, cooling and storee of raw milk should be carried out certain pots and coolers, Milk from different species to be handled and stored separately Raw milk kept between +6 – +8 EQ \s\up5(o)C could be sold up to 24 hours, while kept between 0 – +6 EQ \s\up5(o)C could be sold up to 48 hours. Raw milk without cooling could be sold within 2 hours after milking

6 Requirements 2 Raw milk could be packaged into clean, disinfected pots, In the case of using recycling pots, those should be cleaned, disinfected with drinking water, and kept in clean, dry, storage under cover protected from dirt and dust, Tools of milking and handling should be cleaned, disinfected and rinsing with drinking water after use and kept in clean, dry place to be protected from post- contamination,

7 Requirements 3 No milk could be sold in the case sick animal, elevated temperature, diarrhoea, and the veterinary to be reported immediately. The raw milk could be originated from an animal, which –a) not showing symptoms of diseases could be forwarded to human via milk, –b) being in good general body condition, not showing symptoms of any disease which could contaminate the milk, not suffering in infection genital disease being together with mucus development, or with gut and or udder inflammations along with diarrhoea, elevated temperature, –c) there is no such an injury, wound, or deformity on the skin of the udder, which could modify the usability of milk.

8 Requirements 4 In the case of selling raw milk the consumers should be well informed that the raw milk could be consumed after scalding up; Raw milk to be sold or manufactured should adequate to the following two points, based on 2 months geometrical average: –a) raw cow milk: total bacterial count 100 000 or less in one ml milk on 30 EQ \s\up5(o)C –b) raw milk from other species: total bacterial count less than 1 500 000 per ml milk on 30 EQ \s\up5(o)C

9 Quantities of products to be sold by one small scale producer According to this relevant regulation –200 litres milk/day x 365 days –40 kg cheese/day x 365 days In cheese – necessary milk quantity in the case –5 litres/1kg cheese –10 litres/1 kg cheese There is no „and” „or”in the regulation, so the total milk quality to be sold could be –146.000 litres or –219.000 litres

10 Obligatory details of data sheet of foods made from basic material a) the name and address of small scale producer, b) the place of food manufacturing, c) the denomination of food, d) list of components in decreasing order, e) time period to be used, quality assurance time (best before), f) storagee temperature.

11 1169/2011 EU regulation about obligatory information of consumers concerning foods Chronology Legal force from 13. 12. 2011.Legal force from 13. 12. 2011. Obligatory application for general prescriptions from 12. 13. 2014.Obligatory application for general prescriptions from 12. 13. 2014. Obligatory applicable for nutritional values from 13. 12. 2016.Obligatory applicable for nutritional values from 13. 12. 2016. But, implementing legislation But, implementing legislation and the national harmonisations are missing

12 Certificate of origin Already obligatory for milk and milk products From 01. 04. 2015. it will be obligatory for sheep and goat meat - fresh chilled or frozen Monitoring specification: the origin of given piece of meat /traceability/ should be lead back to producer The name of manufacturer of wholesaler does not mean automatic certificate of origin!

13 Allergenic materials All ingredients causing allergy or intolerance should be listed if they are present in the terminal products even if in modified forms (like caseins /milk cheese/) Only the „E” number is not enough information The cross-contaminations are still not concerned

14 Nutritive value Entry into force: 12. 12. 2011. Transitional time: 13. 12. 2014. Obligatory application: 13. 12. 2016. Except the products of small producers!!! Indication: uniformly in the main field of vision Packaging materials could be used up to 12. 12. 2014. or by the end of resources Energy value should be calculated in kcal, and kJ

15 Statements concerning nutrient composition Only those listed in 1924/2006 EC regulation The quantity necessary to reach the beneficial effect should be given The importance of diversified and well balanced diet should be appealed Notice the dangers of excessive consumption

16 The quality of basic milk The studied goat milk samples could be qualified as originated mainly from small scale producers These results will be evaluated in a separate paper (Kukovics & Császár) later on!

17 Comparison Dairy with EU licence Small producer Dissemination of products In whole country (EU) for Retail trade and wholesale 40 km radius within the country for terminal user Basic material Buying up; sometimes + own production Home production Animal health requirements for basic material Free from Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Licensing requirements 28 authorities NÉBIH registration, official veterinary Licensing requirements Independent processing firm Isolated place in family house

18 Comparison VerificationDairy with EU licenceSmall producer WeeklyOwn? MonthlyOfficial veterinary? AnnuallyAnimal health authority - general and product marking; -environment, fire departments, health labour safety, sewage works, water works, local government, taxation office, etc. (all authority) Official veterinary

19 Comparison Dairy with EU licence Small producer Quality insurance, Traceability HACCP, ISO, F.S.S.C. 22 000. 2010; IFS, SGS audit, purchaser audit Log-book register ResponsibilityFor the quality, safety, traceability, and documentation of the released products

20 Comparison Dairy with EU licence Small producer Buying up price0.86-1.00 €/l (J) 0.44-0.49 €/l (]) - Length of milk collecting circle 220-550 km- Number of partner producers 3-15-22 producer/ processing firm - Average milk quantity per producer 4-50.000 litres/year? Transporting cost €/l milk 0.13-0.22 €/litres- Ratio of quality defected milk items 0.1-0.3%?

21 Comparison Dairy with EU licence Small producer Cheese manufacturing cost 5.81-8.40 €/kg? Transfer / selling price 6.40-9.68 €/kg? Retail prise10.32-25.81 €/kg9.68-14.52 €/kg Cheese transporting cost 0.60-0.71 €/kg? Net cheese income0.80-1.15 Ft/kg? No. labours10-60 head/firm1-3/producer

22 Comparison Dairy with EU licenceSmall producer Extra commercial cots in chains 30% on average, (refunds, continuous saling actions, end on racks, bonuses, publicity toll, marketing contribution, invoice discount, etc.) Annually, quarterly information toll for supplying data, logistic discount Practically none

23 Comparison Dairy with EU licence Small producer Processed milk quantity 35 000 - 350 000 litres/year 5 000 - 30 000 litres/year No. of products6-10/firm6-20/producer Productmilk productsRaw milk, milk products PackagingEven smallest change annually controlled optional, Customized content Product identification Manufacture sheetProduct leaf

24 The quality assurance and traceability in production The base of traceability and quality assurance is the well developed and detailed process figure with necessary documents And the continuous attention for the details in –Milk production –Food manufacturing

25 The CRP and TRP in the process CRP (COP) : critical regulatory point, in small scale dairy it manifests in three essential points –Store temperature of basic material –Accuracy of heat treatment (temperature and holding period) –Store temperature of terminal product TRP (TOP) : technological regulatory point, such manufacturing traits, which do not cause problems themselves, but their cumulated effect could result serial trouble ( e.g. sluggish clot originated from feed error, which has higher water content as consequence, and the cheese will have less resistance ability against yeast and mould infections)






31 The quality assurance and traceability Main differences among dairies –Not every „small scale producer” is real small producer (several small dairies with EU licence manufacturing less milk) –Dairies with EU number the HACCP, ISO, etc. methods are used – more safety background and traceability, but enormous number of restrictions and weekly official checking –in „small scale producer” minimum number of restrictions, lower level of quality assurance, low number of official checking, lower level of costs (manufacturing and checking),

32 The role of 52/2010 FVM regulation Make the small producers understand their rights, and tasks (apart from the present contradictions), but it should be revised based on sizes Quality assurance –Not originated from „devil”, as same old as human, religious regulations –In itself is not „cure-all” – no good end product from bad basic material, but –„small scale dairy” is not a shrunken big factory, different peculiarities

33 The elements and more important functions of quality assurance List of materials : assurance of basic materials and auxiliary materials ( like groceries ) ( not the paper based documents is essence, but the real authenticity) List of products: product sheet is not necessary, but data sheet is obligatory to get permission; its most important elements –components, –use by and durability –store temperature

34 The elements and more important functions of quality assurance 2 Figure of process : beside the honour of traditions and the routine of several decades one has to be awarded the sequential processes, being ready to intervene in the case of any problem Hazard analyses : on the contrary of popular belief not the quality of basic and auxiliary materials are the biggest hazard, but the cross- infections from labour and production circumstances

35 The elements and more important functions of quality assurance 3 Documentation: the credibility is important not the form and the style of diary Retrieval ability: the approach should be changed : „ I have sold, its not my business any more ”. The responsibility could be passed here if we can clearly demonstrate our true. Because of the abovementioned ones every details are needed! Clarifications are needed for the sustainability!


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