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Chapter 22 Notes: Evolution Evolution Evolution Definition: the ______________ change in the heritable characteristics of a ______________. Definition:

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1 Chapter 22 Notes: Evolution Evolution Evolution Definition: the ______________ change in the heritable characteristics of a ______________. Definition: the ______________ change in the heritable characteristics of a ______________. Cumulative change- small change over many ______________ Cumulative change- small change over many ______________ Heritable characteristics- ______________-controlled factors Heritable characteristics- ______________-controlled factors Charles Darwin Charles Darwin Lived in western _______________ and loved nature. Lived in western _______________ and loved nature. Studied medicine at the University of ____________________ Studied medicine at the University of ____________________ Darwin found medicine boring and horrifying Darwin found medicine boring and horrifying Left Edinburg and enrolled at ___________ to become a clergyman. Left Edinburg and enrolled at ___________ to become a clergyman. Received his B.A. and was recommended to travel on the _____________ for a voyage around the world. Received his B.A. and was recommended to travel on the _____________ for a voyage around the world. CUMULATIVE POPULATION GENERATIONS GENE ENGLAND EDINBURGH CAMBRIDGE HMS BEAGLE

2 HMS Beagle HMS Beagle Darwin spent most of his time observing and collecting ______________ of South American plants and _____________ instead of surveying the coast. Darwin spent most of his time observing and collecting ______________ of South American plants and _____________ instead of surveying the coast. He observed various ________________. He observed various ________________. He noticed that the organisms of South America more closely resembled species living in _______________ than in _________________. He noticed that the organisms of South America more closely resembled species living in _______________ than in _________________. Geologic Change Geologic Change Darwin observed an _________________ that caused the coastline to raise by several ___________. Darwin observed an _________________ that caused the coastline to raise by several ___________. He also found fossils of sea creatures high in the _______________________, inferring that the rocks were raised by earthquakes. He also found fossils of sea creatures high in the _______________________, inferring that the rocks were raised by earthquakes. THOUSANDS ANIMALS ADAPTATIONS SOUTH AMERICA EUROPE EARTHQUAKE FEET ANDES MOUNTAINS

3 Darwin’s Finches Darwin’s Finches Darwin noticed that the finches on a set of neighboring islands were all closely ______________, yet separate species. Darwin noticed that the finches on a set of neighboring islands were all closely ______________, yet separate species. Darwin deduced that they had ______________from a single population from the mainland. Darwin deduced that they had ______________from a single population from the mainland. Each habitat had different selection ______________ so over many years, the finches adapted to ______________ their specific islands therefore becoming separate species. Each habitat had different selection ______________ so over many years, the finches adapted to ______________ their specific islands therefore becoming separate species. Adaptive ______________ Adaptive ______________ Environmental change ______________ evolution. Environmental change ______________ evolution. RELATED MIGRATED PRESSURES SUIT RADIATION DRIVES

4 Darwin began to perceive ________ to the environment and the origin of new ___________ as closely related processes. Darwin began to perceive ________ to the environment and the origin of new ___________ as closely related processes. Could a new ________ come from an ancestral form by the gradual accumulation of adaptations to a different environment? Could a new ________ come from an ancestral form by the gradual accumulation of adaptations to a different environment? Yes, as the Galapagos ________ have beaks and behaviors according to the food available on their home islands. Yes, as the Galapagos ________ have beaks and behaviors according to the food available on their home islands. Darwin waited to publish because he knew his ideas would be ___________________. Darwin waited to publish because he knew his ideas would be ___________________. CHANGES SPECIES FINCHES CONTROVERSIAL

5 The Origin of Species The Origin of Species Descent with Modification Descent with Modification All organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past. All organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past. Selective Breeding Selective Breeding Animals Animals Darwin stated that humans had been selecting ______________ traits in domesticated animals for a long time. Darwin stated that humans had been selecting ______________ traits in domesticated animals for a long time. Artificial selection- foundation of _____________________ in plants and animals. Artificial selection- foundation of _____________________ in plants and animals. DESIRABLE SELECTIVE BREEDING

6 Summary of Natural Selection Summary of Natural Selection It is the differential success in reproduction among individuals that vary in their heritable traits. It is the differential success in reproduction among individuals that vary in their heritable traits. Over time, it can increase the adaptation of organisms to their environment. Over time, it can increase the adaptation of organisms to their environment. If an environment changes, or if individuals of a species move to a new one, natural selection may result in adaptation to the new conditions, sometimes leading to speciation. If an environment changes, or if individuals of a species move to a new one, natural selection may result in adaptation to the new conditions, sometimes leading to speciation.

7 Natural Selection in action Natural Selection in action Guppies in Trinidad Guppies in Trinidad 2 different populations 2 different populations One is preyed on by small killifish that preys on juvenile guppies One is preyed on by small killifish that preys on juvenile guppies The other is preyed on by the pike-cichlid which preys on sexually mature guppies. The other is preyed on by the pike-cichlid which preys on sexually mature guppies. The population that was preyed on by pike-cichlid began reproducing younger and are smaller at maturity than those preyed on by killifish. The population that was preyed on by pike-cichlid began reproducing younger and are smaller at maturity than those preyed on by killifish. Reznick and Endler introduced guppies from pike-cichlid pools to killifish pools with no existing guppies. Reznick and Endler introduced guppies from pike-cichlid pools to killifish pools with no existing guppies. After 30-60 generations, the guppies were 14% heavier at maturity and average age rose, too. After 30-60 generations, the guppies were 14% heavier at maturity and average age rose, too.

8 Drug-Resistant HIV Drug-Resistant HIV Researchers have developed numerous drugs to combat HIV, but these medications select for viruses resistant to the drug. Researchers have developed numerous drugs to combat HIV, but these medications select for viruses resistant to the drug. A few drug resistant viruses may be present at the beginning of the medication. A few drug resistant viruses may be present at the beginning of the medication. Overtime, they reproduce and pass on their drug resistant genes Overtime, they reproduce and pass on their drug resistant genes The presence of these drugs forces the viruses that are drug resistant to be the survivors, thus reproducing and passing on their genes. The presence of these drugs forces the viruses that are drug resistant to be the survivors, thus reproducing and passing on their genes.

9 Homology, Biogeography, and the Fossil Record Homology, Biogeography, and the Fossil Record Fossil record Fossil record Contains all fossils, discovered and undiscovered that exist. Fossils are mineralized ______________of organisms. Contains all fossils, discovered and undiscovered that exist. Fossils are mineralized ______________of organisms. Fossilization- process ______________fossils. Fossilization- process ______________fossils. Dead organisms ______________quickly leaving little trace but can become fossils if covered by sediment soon after death. Dead organisms ______________quickly leaving little trace but can become fossils if covered by sediment soon after death. As layers of sedimentary rock are put down, inorganic components of plants, animals, and prokaryotes are preserved. The deeper it is found, the ______________it is. As layers of sedimentary rock are put down, inorganic components of plants, animals, and prokaryotes are preserved. The deeper it is found, the ______________it is. REMAINS PRODUCING DECOMPOSE OLDER

10 Homologous structures- these structures represent ______________ on a structural theme present in a common ancestor had have adapted for different ______________. Homologous structures- these structures represent ______________ on a structural theme present in a common ancestor had have adapted for different ______________. Ex: __________________________________________. (adaptive radiation) Ex: __________________________________________. (adaptive radiation) VARIATIONS FUNCTIONS ARMS, FORELEGS, FLIPPERS, WINGS

11 Vestigial organs- structures of ______________importance that used to serve important functions in ______________. Vestigial organs- structures of ______________importance that used to serve important functions in ______________. Examples: whales humans Examples: whales humans LITTLE ANCESTORS PELVIS *TONSILS *APPENDIX *3 RD MOLARS *AND MANY MORE

12 Chapter 23 The Evolution of Populations Evolution and Allele frequency Evolution and Allele frequency Allele frequency- is the proportion of all copies of a gene that is made up of a particular gene variant (______________) Allele frequency- is the proportion of all copies of a gene that is made up of a particular gene variant (______________) Gene pool- the total collection of ______________alleles in an interbreeding population. Gene pool- the total collection of ______________alleles in an interbreeding population. Example: If allele T makes up 96% of the population, allele t makes up 4%. Example: If allele T makes up 96% of the population, allele t makes up 4%. Frequency: Frequency: Evolution involves a ______________ in allele frequency in a population’s gene pool over a number of generations. Evolution involves a ______________ in allele frequency in a population’s gene pool over a number of generations. New combinations of alleles lead to new ______________ that can be selected for or against by the environment leading to evolutionary change. New combinations of alleles lead to new ______________ that can be selected for or against by the environment leading to evolutionary change. ALLELE DIFFERENT CHANGE PHENOTYPES T-.96 t­-.04

13 Hardy-Weinberg Principle and Equation Hardy-Weinberg Principle and Equation Hardy–Weinberg principle- both allele and genotype ________________ in a population remain ________________. Hardy–Weinberg principle- both allele and genotype ________________ in a population remain ________________. They are in ________________from generation to generation unless specific disturbing influences are introduced. This represents a ________________allele frequency. They are in ________________from generation to generation unless specific disturbing influences are introduced. This represents a ________________allele frequency. Assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg Principle Assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg Principle Equal fitness- no ________________ for this allele Equal fitness- no ________________ for this allele No ________________ No ________________ Very ________________population (no _______________) Very ________________population (no _______________) No assortative ________________ No assortative ________________ FREQUENCIES CONSTANT EQUILIBRIUM STABLE SELECTION MUTATIONS LARGEGENETIC DRIFT MATING

14 For the equation to work: For the equation to work: The organism involved must be ________________ and reproduce sexually. The organism involved must be ________________ and reproduce sexually. Generations must not ________________. Generations must not ________________. The trait must be ________________. The trait must be ________________. Frequency in a population of T(tall) and t (short): __Tt, __TT, __tt Frequency in a population of T(tall) and t (short): __Tt, __TT, __tt Phenotype frequency: Phenotype frequency: Allele frequency: Allele frequency: Consider two alleles B(brown) and b(blue) Consider two alleles B(brown) and b(blue) B has a frequency of ___b has a frequency of ____ B has a frequency of ___b has a frequency of ____ Therefore ________________ Therefore ________________ As the two alleles are the only _________ at that specific locus. As the two alleles are the only _________ at that specific locus. DIPLOID OVERLAP AUTOSOMAL 105 5 pq p + q = 1 OPTIONS

15 Punnett Square: Punnett Square: What is the frequency of the genotypes? What is the frequency of the genotypes? What does this mean? What does this mean? p 2 = probability of receiving 2 _______________alleles (__) p 2 = probability of receiving 2 _______________alleles (__) q 2 = probability of receiving 2 _______________alleles (__) q 2 = probability of receiving 2 _______________alleles (__) pq= probability of receiving 1 ____________, 1 ____________ allele (__) pq= probability of receiving 1 ____________, 1 ____________ allele (__) Why is there a coefficient of 2 in front of pq? Why is there a coefficient of 2 in front of pq? AA ¼ Aa ½ aa ¼ DOMINANT TT RECESSIVEtt DOMINANT RECESSIVETt Two ways of receiving the genotype of Tt: 1: T from mom t from dad 2: t from mom T from dad: therefore must be 2pq

16 Using the Hardy-Weinberg Equation (Calculating allele, genotype, and phenotype frequencies for two alleles of a gene) Using the Hardy-Weinberg Equation (Calculating allele, genotype, and phenotype frequencies for two alleles of a gene) An estimated ___% of people are left handed. They are homozygous for the recessive allele for handedness. An estimated ___% of people are left handed. They are homozygous for the recessive allele for handedness. What is the phenotypic frequency of ___? What is the phenotypic frequency of ___? Calculate the frequency of the recessive and dominant alleles. Calculate the frequency of the recessive and dominant alleles. 10 DIPLOID

17 D4.2 Calculate allele, genotype and phenotype frequencies for two allelles of a gene, using the Hardy-Weinberg equation Online practise questions Online practise questions And more practise And more practise

18 ___% of a population of 2,000 have blue eyes. What information can we figure out? ___% of a population of 2,000 have blue eyes. What information can we figure out? If ______ out of 200 individuals in a population express the recessive phenotype, what percent of the population are homozygous dominant? Heterozygotes? If ______ out of 200 individuals in a population express the recessive phenotype, what percent of the population are homozygous dominant? Heterozygotes? 40 85

19 Brown hair is dominant to black hair. If there are _____ brown hairs in a population of 200. What is the predicted frequency of heterozygotes? Homozygous dominant? Brown hair is dominant to black hair. If there are _____ brown hairs in a population of 200. What is the predicted frequency of heterozygotes? Homozygous dominant? 168

20 A change in the ______________of genes in the gene pool of a population which can be caused by natural selection. A change in the ______________of genes in the gene pool of a population which can be caused by natural selection. Mutations that give an advantage are ___________________. Mutations that give an advantage are ___________________. if certain alleles (______________) make individual better adapted to its environment, it is likely to ______________and have a larger number of offspring. if certain alleles (______________) make individual better adapted to its environment, it is likely to ______________and have a larger number of offspring. The offspring will also have some of the successful ______________ which are more likely to be more frequent in the population over time. The offspring will also have some of the successful ______________ which are more likely to be more frequent in the population over time. Mutations that give a ______________ are selected against. Mutations that give a ______________ are selected against. A mutation or trait that means an individual is less suited to the environment means it will be ______________ for the individual to survive to a reproductive age. A mutation or trait that means an individual is less suited to the environment means it will be ______________ for the individual to survive to a reproductive age. Individual is less likely to ______________ the trait. Individual is less likely to ______________ the trait. FREQUENCY SELECTED FOR COMBINATIONS SURVIVE ALLELES DISADVANTAGE DIFFICULT PASS ON

21 Chapter 24 The Origin of Species Barriers Between Gene Pools (p. 474-475) Barriers Between Gene Pools (p. 474-475) Reproductive isolating mechanisms- circumstances ______________ different species from interbreeding. Reproductive isolating mechanisms- circumstances ______________ different species from interbreeding. Prezygotic barriers- barriers that ______________ mating or fertilization Prezygotic barriers- barriers that ______________ mating or fertilization Temporal isolation- species that breed during ______________seasons, times of the day, or years cannot mix their gametes. Temporal isolation- species that breed during ______________seasons, times of the day, or years cannot mix their gametes. PREVENTING IMPEDE DIFFERENT

22 » » Pinus radiata and Pinus attenuata are prevented from hybridizing because they have separate ______________ times. They can be made to hybridize by pollinating them manually. – – Ecological isolation- species occupy different ______________ in the same area and may not encounter each other. » » Example: Viola arvensis and Viola tricolor – – Behavioral isolation- Animals participate in courtship ______________that attract mates. Individuals are only attracted to and will only mate with members of opposite sex who perform the appropriate ritual or release appropriate chemical. » » Song, dance, other form, or release ______________ » » Example: POLLINATION HABITATS RITUALS PHEROMONES

23 Mechanical isolation- _________________ differences in genitalia that prevents successful mating. Mechanical isolation- _________________ differences in genitalia that prevents successful mating. Flowers have distinct appearances that attract different ______________ and can differ greatly in shapes and colors thus cannot cross-pollinate. Flowers have distinct appearances that attract different ______________ and can differ greatly in shapes and colors thus cannot cross-pollinate. Different species of bush baby have particular shapes for their genitalia and they are physically incapable of copulation. Different species of bush baby have particular shapes for their genitalia and they are physically incapable of copulation. Postzygotic barriers- barriers that prevent a hybrid zygote from becoming a strong (______________)adult. Postzygotic barriers- barriers that prevent a hybrid zygote from becoming a strong (______________)adult. Hybrid Inviability- genes of different parent species may interact and ______________ the hybrid’s development Hybrid Inviability- genes of different parent species may interact and ______________ the hybrid’s development Example: Horse+Donkey  ______________ Example: Horse+Donkey  ______________ MORPHOLOGICAL POLLINATORS VIABLE IMPAIR SAD MULE

24 Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation Allopatric Speciation Allopatric Speciation This arises when a species is subject to ___________________. This arises when a species is subject to ___________________. This can occur when a population is split by: This can occur when a population is split by: A river, a mountain range, a desert, a road, the sea etc. A river, a mountain range, a desert, a road, the sea etc. ________________ is cut off between the two split populations and they can evolve in different directions. ________________ is cut off between the two split populations and they can evolve in different directions. Once the populations have been separated into two gene pools they can diverge through natural selection or through random ___________________. Once the populations have been separated into two gene pools they can diverge through natural selection or through random ___________________. Example: Darwin’s Finches Example: Darwin’s Finches Sympatric Speciation Sympatric Speciation The formation of two or more descendant species from a single ancestral species all occupying the same geographic ______________. The formation of two or more descendant species from a single ancestral species all occupying the same geographic ______________. Did this happen? Did this happen? GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION GENE FLOW GENETIC DRIFT LOCATIONS

25 Polypoloidy and speciation Polypoloidy and speciation Polyploidy- condition in which organism has more than ___ homologous sets of chromosomes Polyploidy- condition in which organism has more than ___ homologous sets of chromosomes This is due to _________________ where homologous chromosomes fail to separate during ______________ or sister chromatids fail to separate during Anaphase II. This is due to _________________ where homologous chromosomes fail to separate during ______________ or sister chromatids fail to separate during Anaphase II. Few animals are able to survive with polyploidy but it is a great source of speciation amongst ______________. Few animals are able to survive with polyploidy but it is a great source of speciation amongst ______________. Polyploidy often leads to increased _________, resistance to disease and overall vigor. Polyploidy often leads to increased _________, resistance to disease and overall vigor. Many plants used by humans are ______________. Ex. cereal crops like wheat. Many plants used by humans are ______________. Ex. cereal crops like wheat. Polyploid crops generally have ______________fruits, seeds and storage organs Polyploid crops generally have ______________fruits, seeds and storage organs TWO NONDISJUNCTION ANAPHASE I PLANTS SIZE POLYPLOID BIGGER

26 Two Versions Two Versions Autopolyploidy- Autopolyploidy- Autopolyploids are polyploids with multiple chromosome sets derived from a ______________species. Autopolyploids are polyploids with multiple chromosome sets derived from a ______________species. Autopolyploids form following ______________of 2n gametes Autopolyploids form following ______________of 2n gametes Autopolyploidy can be induced in plants using colchicine, a chemical extracted from the autumn crocus. Autopolyploidy can be induced in plants using colchicine, a chemical extracted from the autumn crocus. Autopolyploids with odd ploidys Autopolyploids with odd ploidys Ex. triploid or pentaploid have ______________ reproducing sexually WHY? Ex. triploid or pentaploid have ______________ reproducing sexually WHY? That does not stop them from being good crops if they can be propagated ______________. That does not stop them from being good crops if they can be propagated ______________. SINGLE FUSION TROUBLE ASEXUALLY

27 Allopolyploidy- Allopolyploidy- Allopolyploids come about when a sterile F1 hybrid ______________ all of its chromosomes and becomes fertile. Allopolyploids come about when a sterile F1 hybrid ______________ all of its chromosomes and becomes fertile. Example: For example, Triticale is the hybrid of wheat (Triticum turgidum) and rye (Secale cereale). Example: For example, Triticale is the hybrid of wheat (Triticum turgidum) and rye (Secale cereale). It ______________ sought-after characteristics of the parents, but the initial hybrids were sterile until doubling of the number of chromosomes occurred. It ______________ sought-after characteristics of the parents, but the initial hybrids were sterile until doubling of the number of chromosomes occurred. DOUBLES COMBINES

28 Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systems Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systems Taxonomy Taxonomy Definition- the practice and science of _______________. Definition- the practice and science of _______________. As we move from _______________ all the way to _______________, organisms _______ more and more characteristics. As we move from _______________ all the way to _______________, organisms _______ more and more characteristics. The system of taxonomy allows us to _______ organisms while also assigning unique species _______________ and is helpful in identifying and naming new species. The system of taxonomy allows us to _______ organisms while also assigning unique species _______________ and is helpful in identifying and naming new species. ____________ as an example ____________ as an example ____________ as an example ____________ as an example CLASSIFICATION DOMAIN SPECIESSHARE GROUP NAMES HUMANS DOGS

29 Seven levels of classification: DOMAIN Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Subspecies Seven levels of classification: DOMAIN Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Subspecies

30 Species Species Species are named: Genus species Species are named: Genus species Example: Heliconius charitonius (Zebra longwing), Homo sapiens Example: Heliconius charitonius (Zebra longwing), Homo sapiens Species is the smallest taxonomic group, Species is the smallest taxonomic group, Some _____________ are recognized. Some _____________ are recognized. Subspecies may potentially _______________ if a barrier or other challenge (like ______________) was removed. Anartia jatrophae semifusca vs. Anartia jatrophae jamaicensis. Subspecies may potentially _______________ if a barrier or other challenge (like ______________) was removed. Anartia jatrophae semifusca vs. Anartia jatrophae jamaicensis. SUBSPECIES INTERBREED DISTANCE

31 Binomial nomenclature- 2 ___________ naming system Binomial nomenclature- 2 ___________ naming system This system was developed by Carl ____________, a Swedish botanist and taxonomist. This system was developed by Carl ____________, a Swedish botanist and taxonomist. It is still used today and it is the basis for classification and naming of all _____ species. It is still used today and it is the basis for classification and naming of all _____ species. It is based on _______________ traits of species, and most of the classified groups are still _______________. It is based on _______________ traits of species, and most of the classified groups are still _______________. Example: Humans Example: Humans Rules: __________ ____________ genusspecies Rules: __________ ____________ genusspecies Genus is always _______________. Both genus and species name are _______________ separately (_______________ if typed). Genus is always _______________. Both genus and species name are _______________ separately (_______________ if typed). Genus name can be _______________if you have used the full name already in text. Example: Genus name can be _______________if you have used the full name already in text. Example: NAME LINNAEUS NEW PHYSICAL ACCURATE Homo sapiens CAPITALIZED ITALICIZED ABBREVIATED H. sapiens or E. coli UNDERLINED

32 Cladistics Cladistics Cladistics is a method of classifying species of organisms into groups called ________, which consist of an ancestor organism and all its ___________________ (and ______________ else). Cladistics is a method of classifying species of organisms into groups called ________, which consist of an ancestor organism and all its ___________________ (and ______________ else). For example, birds, dinosaurs, crocodiles, and all descendants (living or extinct) of their most recent common ancestor form a clade. For example, birds, dinosaurs, crocodiles, and all descendants (living or extinct) of their most recent common ancestor form a clade. Three Assumptions Three Assumptions Characteristics ____________ over time, thus the amount of change can help determine relationships. Characteristics ____________ over time, thus the amount of change can help determine relationships. Groups of organisms are descended from a _______________ ancestor. Groups of organisms are descended from a _______________ ancestor. There is a branching ___________________ in the evolution of species and when a split occurs, two distinct species occurs as a result. There is a branching ___________________ in the evolution of species and when a split occurs, two distinct species occurs as a result. CLADES DESCENDANTSNOTHING CHANGE COMMON PATTERN

33 Each clade is determined by common ___________________ of its members that are different from that of the other species from which it has ___________________ Each clade is determined by common ___________________ of its members that are different from that of the other species from which it has ___________________ These traits which tie the clades together are called shared ___________________. These traits which tie the clades together are called shared ___________________. CHARACTERISTICS DIVERGED DERIVED CHARACTERS

34 Constructing and using a Cladogram Constructing and using a Cladogram The two cladograms below are ___________________. The two cladograms below are ___________________. The shape and the order of the __________________ nodes does not matter. The shape and the order of the __________________ nodes does not matter. The only information to be gathered from the cladograms below is the order of nesting of ___________________ and the relative relatedness of species The only information to be gathered from the cladograms below is the order of nesting of ___________________ and the relative relatedness of species IDENTICAL TERMINAL SISTER CLADES

35 ___________________ on a cladogram can be scaled or unscaled. ___________________ on a cladogram can be scaled or unscaled. If the branches are scaled, the length of the branch often indicates ___________________ evolutionary change has occurred in a species since it split from it’s sister clade at the last node. If the branches are scaled, the length of the branch often indicates ___________________ evolutionary change has occurred in a species since it split from it’s sister clade at the last node. Rooted cladograms show ___________________ relationships. Rooted cladograms show ___________________ relationships. Unrooted trees just show the relationships ___________________ clades Unrooted trees just show the relationships ___________________ clades Cladograms are made by compiling data on homologous characteristics _________ by species. Cladograms are made by compiling data on homologous characteristics _________ by species. These characteristics can be structural, physiological and/or ___________________. These characteristics can be structural, physiological and/or ___________________. With increasing taxa comes increasing ___________________. With increasing taxa comes increasing ___________________. So software is often used to find the best possible tree that has the _______ evolutionary steps. So software is often used to find the best possible tree that has the _______ evolutionary steps. BRANCHES HOW MUCH EVOLUTIONARY BETWEEN SHARED BIOCHEMICAL COMPLEXITY FEWEST

36 Analyzing Cladograms Analyzing Cladograms Of the three nodes, __ is most recent and ___ occurred earliest. Of the three nodes, __ is most recent and ___ occurred earliest. Node ___ is the most recent common ancestor for C and D Node ___ is the most recent common ancestor for C and D Node ___ is the most recent common ancestor for B and C Node ___ is the most recent common ancestor for B and C Node ___ is the common ancestor of all taxa Node ___ is the common ancestor of all taxa And so on… And so on… 31 3 2 3

37 Relationship between cladograms and classification of organisms Relationship between cladograms and classification of organisms Mammals have the unique homologous characteristic of producing ______________. Mammals have the unique homologous characteristic of producing ______________. They form a __________. They form a __________. Likewise, birds share the common characteristic of _____________; they too form a clade. Likewise, birds share the common characteristic of _____________; they too form a clade. Reptiles, as a group consist of the crocodilians, lizards, snakes, tortoises, turtles, and tuatara. Reptiles, as a group consist of the crocodilians, lizards, snakes, tortoises, turtles, and tuatara. They are not a clade. One of them is more related to _____? Guess which one. They are not a clade. One of them is more related to _____? Guess which one. MILK CLADE FEATHERS BIRDS CROCODILES

38 Chapter 26 The Origin of Life Four Processes for the Spontaneous Origin of Life Four Processes for the Spontaneous Origin of Life Non-living _______________ of simple organic molecules Non-living _______________ of simple organic molecules If nothing was alive yet, the source of these molecules had to be _______________. If nothing was alive yet, the source of these molecules had to be _______________. We assume that early Earth had all of the __________ elements and compounds required. We assume that early Earth had all of the __________ elements and compounds required. Somehow the _______________ to make organic compounds occurred. Somehow the _______________ to make organic compounds occurred. Did organic compounds generate here? Somewhere else? Did organic compounds generate here? Somewhere else? Assembly of these molecules into polymers Assembly of these molecules into polymers To make molecules necessary for ________, simple organic compounds have to _______________. To make molecules necessary for ________, simple organic compounds have to _______________. SYNTHESIS ABIOTIC BASE COMBINATION LIFE POLYMERIZE

39 Origin of self-replicating molecules made inheritance possible Origin of self-replicating molecules made inheritance possible DNA cannot self replicate as it needs _______________. DNA cannot self replicate as it needs _______________. Some RNA can self-replicate and can catalyze the formation of _________ of itself. Some RNA can self-replicate and can catalyze the formation of _________ of itself. These are called _______________ These are called _______________ Packaging of these molecules into membranes with internal chemistry _______________ from their surroundings Packaging of these molecules into membranes with internal chemistry _______________ from their surroundings Formation of closed _______________ is an important step. Formation of closed _______________ is an important step. Closed membrane vesicles can form spontaneously from _______. Closed membrane vesicles can form spontaneously from _______. This allowed _______________ between internal and external environments. This allowed _______________ between internal and external environments. ENZYMES COPIES RIBOZYMES DIFFERENT MEMBRANES LIPIDS DIFFERENTIATION

40 Miller and Urey’s Experiments (origin of _______________ compounds) Miller and Urey’s Experiments (origin of _______________ compounds) Earth’s atmosphere was ‘_______________’ in the early days and did not contain oxygen gas until after plants starting using _______________. Earth’s atmosphere was ‘_______________’ in the early days and did not contain oxygen gas until after plants starting using _______________. Original compounds in the atmosphere Original compounds in the atmosphere _______________, nitrogen, water vapor, _______________, _______________, hydrogen sulfide came from _______________ activity. _______________, nitrogen, water vapor, _______________, _______________, hydrogen sulfide came from _______________ activity. These monomers mixed in a ‘primeval __________,’ shallow oceans filled with chemicals where it is believed they _______________ to form biological molecules. These monomers mixed in a ‘primeval __________,’ shallow oceans filled with chemicals where it is believed they _______________ to form biological molecules. Miller and Urey tried to recreate this “soup” in the lab in 1953 as they wanted to demonstrate ‘chemical _______________,’ or the formation of more complex molecules from _______________ molecules in the primeval soup. Miller and Urey tried to recreate this “soup” in the lab in 1953 as they wanted to demonstrate ‘chemical _______________,’ or the formation of more complex molecules from _______________ molecules in the primeval soup. ORGANIC REDUCING PHOTOSYNTHESIS HYDROGENMETHANE AMMONIA VOLCANIC SOUP REACTED EVOLUTION SIMPLER

41 Steps Steps Combined the molecules above in a closed glass vessel (simulated _______________) Combined the molecules above in a closed glass vessel (simulated _______________) They heated water (simulated _______________activity) They heated water (simulated _______________activity) Sparked electricity through the gases (simulated ___________) Sparked electricity through the gases (simulated ___________) Diagram- figure 26.2 pg 513 Diagram- figure 26.2 pg 513 Results Results After one week: After one week: 13 of 20 naturally occurring ___________________ formed. 13 of 20 naturally occurring ___________________ formed. 15% of _______________ was found in _______________ compounds. 15% of _______________ was found in _______________ compounds. ATMOSPHERE VOLCANIC LIGHTNING AMINO ACIDS CARBONORGANIC

42 Half Life Half Life Some elements exist in a variety of ________________, some of which are radioactive. Some elements exist in a variety of ________________, some of which are radioactive. Radioactive decay- when atoms of radioactive elements release ________________ in the form of radiation. Radioactive decay- when atoms of radioactive elements release ________________ in the form of radiation. Radioactive decay takes place at a ________________ rate which is independent of ________________ conditions like temperature and pressure. Radioactive decay takes place at a ________________ rate which is independent of ________________ conditions like temperature and pressure. Each radioactive isotope undergoes a __________ rate of decay and these rates are measured in terms of ________________. Each radioactive isotope undergoes a __________ rate of decay and these rates are measured in terms of ________________. Half life definition- the time it takes for half of a radioisotope to ________________. Half life definition- the time it takes for half of a radioisotope to ________________. Figure 26.7 pg 517 Figure 26.7 pg 517 ISOTOPES ENERGY CONSTANT PHYSICAL DIFFERENT HALF LIFE DECAY

43 Dating Rocks and Fossils using 14 C and 40 K. Dating Rocks and Fossils using 14 C and 40 K. C-14 is a naturally occurring isotope of carbon with a half life of ______ years C-14 is a naturally occurring isotope of carbon with a half life of ______ years It is constantly being made in the atmosphere when cosmic rays cause ________________ to fuse with nitrogen nuclei and “kick out” ________________. It is constantly being made in the atmosphere when cosmic rays cause ________________ to fuse with nitrogen nuclei and “kick out” ________________. C-14 production is in ________________ with its decay to C-12 C-14 production is in ________________ with its decay to C-12 The C-14 is incorporated in carbon dioxide which is then taken up by plants. In the end all living things have the same ________________ of C-14 to C-12 The C-14 is incorporated in carbon dioxide which is then taken up by plants. In the end all living things have the same ________________ of C-14 to C-12 When an organism dies it no longer takes in C-14. So over time the ratio of C-14 to C-12 ____________. This is measurable and can be used to estimate _______. When an organism dies it no longer takes in C-14. So over time the ratio of C-14 to C-12 ____________. This is measurable and can be used to estimate _______. The limit for accurate determination of age is about ______________ years. The limit for accurate determination of age is about ______________ years. 5730 NEUTRONS PROTONS EQUILIBRIUM RATIO CHANGES AGE 50,000

44 Example: A fossil of a modern day mammal was found to contain ______ th of the C-14 found in the same type of bone from a recently killed mammal. What would be the estimated age of the fossil given that the half life of C-14 is 5.6 x10 3 years? Example: A fossil of a modern day mammal was found to contain ______ th of the C-14 found in the same type of bone from a recently killed mammal. What would be the estimated age of the fossil given that the half life of C-14 is 5.6 x10 3 years? 1/16

45 K-40 is an isotope with a half life of 1.3 X 10 9 years K-40 is an isotope with a half life of 1.3 X 10 9 years It decays to Ar-40. Decay formula (electron capture): It decays to Ar-40. Decay formula (electron capture): When 40K is released from a volcano in lava all of the argon gas is driven off. When 40K is released from a volcano in lava all of the argon gas is driven off. So brand new rocks effectively have a ratio K-40: Ar-40 of _______ So brand new rocks effectively have a ratio K-40: Ar-40 of _______ Over time the lava may be weathered and eroded and incorporated into sedimentary ________. Over time the lava may be weathered and eroded and incorporated into sedimentary ________. The measured ratio of K-40: Ar-40 can be used to ______ rocks over one million years old with an accuracy of around _______________ years. The measured ratio of K-40: Ar-40 can be used to ______ rocks over one million years old with an accuracy of around _______________ years. 100:0 ROCKS DATE 50,000

46 Contribution of Prokaryotes to Oxygen Contribution of Prokaryotes to Oxygen The early atmosphere contained little free oxygen as the small amounts available were produced by UV radiation _______________ water vapor. The early atmosphere contained little free oxygen as the small amounts available were produced by UV radiation _______________ water vapor. Oxygen was indirectly _______________ as it reacted with water to form hydrogen peroxide that _______________lipids and nucleic acids. Oxygen was indirectly _______________ as it reacted with water to form hydrogen peroxide that _______________lipids and nucleic acids. The gradual build up of oxygen selected for organisms that produced protective enzymes like __________ which converts hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. The gradual build up of oxygen selected for organisms that produced protective enzymes like __________ which converts hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. After about 2 billion years of prokaryotic life, a major transition occurred as a form of _______________appeared allowing bacteria to do oxygenic _________________________. Ex. cyanobacteria After about 2 billion years of prokaryotic life, a major transition occurred as a form of _______________appeared allowing bacteria to do oxygenic _________________________. Ex. cyanobacteria SPLITTING DAMAGING DEGRADED CATALASE CHLOROPHYLL PHOTOSYNTHESIS

47 Increase of oxygen led to: Increase of oxygen led to: _______________ of chemicals in “soup” to carbon dioxide and oxidized sediments. _______________ of chemicals in “soup” to carbon dioxide and oxidized sediments. Formation of the _____________ layer which blocked UV radiation and stopped production of more “soup” molecules. Formation of the _____________ layer which blocked UV radiation and stopped production of more “soup” molecules. Oxygen concentration rose to.45%. This rise coincides with the rise of _______________. Oxygen concentration rose to.45%. This rise coincides with the rise of _______________. BREAKDOWN OZONE EUKARYOTES

48 Endosymbiotic Theory Endosymbiotic Theory This is a theory that choloroplasts and mitochondria were once free-living _______________ that were engulfed by larger prokaryotes and survived to _______________ into the modern organelles. This is a theory that choloroplasts and mitochondria were once free-living _______________ that were engulfed by larger prokaryotes and survived to _______________ into the modern organelles. Evidence in support of: Evidence in support of: Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA that is more like _______________ DNA than what is found in the _______________. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA that is more like _______________ DNA than what is found in the _______________. Structure and biochemistry of _______________ is very similar to that of cyanobacteria. Structure and biochemistry of _______________ is very similar to that of cyanobacteria. New organelles are made by a process resembling ___________________. New organelles are made by a process resembling ___________________. Both organelles have a _______________ membrane that resembles prokaryote structure. Both organelles have a _______________ membrane that resembles prokaryote structure. PROKARYOTES EVOLVE BACTERIAL NUCLEUS CHLOROPLASTS BINARY FISSION DOUBLE

49 _______________ resemble those of bacteria _______________ resemble those of bacteria DNA analysis suggests some DNA in plant nuclei were previously in _______________. DNA analysis suggests some DNA in plant nuclei were previously in _______________. Some proteins coded for in the nucleus are _______________to the organelles. The organelles have _____ the DNA to make it themselves. Some proteins coded for in the nucleus are _______________to the organelles. The organelles have _____ the DNA to make it themselves. RIBOSOMES CHLOROPLASTS TRANSPORTED LOST


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