Presentation on theme: "Psychology Experiment Guidelines Directions: After reading Pgs 37-41, you will need to record the guidelines for both human and animal experimental research."— Presentation transcript:
Psychology Experiment Guidelines Directions: After reading Pgs 37-41, you will need to record the guidelines for both human and animal experimental research in your notes. Also, answer who sets up the guidelines and how are they enforced? You have 10-15 minutes to work quietly. We will review after your done.
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GUIDELINES Humans VS Animals Personal information/confidential Protect the subject from Psychology/Physical Subject may withdraw from experiment Must inform subject after experiment is over Responsibilities of both-must agree If undesirable results do arise Experimenter is responsible for removing or correcting result Must be treated/local law Comfortable environment Every care must be taken Any use of animals by students/guided by qualified teacher
5 problems in using The Experimental Method 1.Realizing that they are part of the experiment, may change behavior 2.Selection of individuals- Age? Gender? 3.Generalization or results 4.Opinions of experimenters may enter in 5.Protecting subjects privacy-?
Co-relational Research Study: Refers to consistent relationship between two Variables. Positive- when changes in variables move in similar directions Negative- when changes in variables move in opposite directions
Positive correlation In a positive correlation, as the values of one of the variables increase, the values of the second variable also increase. Likewise, as the value of one of the variables decreases, the value of the other variable also decreases. The example above of income and education is a positive correlation. People with higher incomes also tend to have more years of education. People with fewer years of education tend to have lower income.
Here are some examples of positive corelations: 1. SAT scores and college achievement—among college students, those with higher SAT scores also have higher grades 2. Happiness and helpfulness—as people’s happiness level increases, so does their helpfulness (conversely, as people’s happiness level decreases, so does their helpfulness)
scatter plot We can make a graph, which is called a scatter plot. On the scatter plot below, each point represents one person’s answers to questions about income and education. The line is the best fit to those points. All positive correlations have a scatter plot that looks like this. The line will always go in that direction if the correlation is positive.
Negative correlation negative correlation, as the values of one of the variables increase, the values of the second variable decrease.In a negative correlation, as the values of one of the variables increase, the values of the second variable decrease. Likewise, as the value of one of the variables decreases, the value of the other variable increases. This is still a correlation. It is like an “inverse” correlation. The word “negative” is a label that shows the direction of the correlation. There is a negative correlation between TV viewing and class grades—students who spend more time watching TV tend to have lower grades (or phrased as students with higher grades tend to spend less time watching TV).
Co-relational a statistical measure of a relationship between two or more variables, gives an indication of how one variable may predict another.
Casual the effect of independent variable on dependent variable for subject’s with the understanding that the independent variable is not under experimental control.
Examples: An example would be “The effect of gender on a visual alertness measure for 6 th grade public school pupils.” here the independent variable is gender and the dependent variable is the visual alertness task.
Psychology Experimental Definitions Descriptive- Any scientific process begins with description, based on observation, of an event or events, from which theories may later be developed to explain the observations. In psychology, techniques used to describe behavior include case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation, interviews, and psychological test.
Natural Observation Method What is it? Observing and recording behavior of a living organism in its natural environment. Provides a description of the way an organism behaves in their surroundings. Involves: The use of tape recorders, motion pictures(videos) Disadvantages: NO information of why the behavior occurs.
Directed Observation Method What is it? Observing behavior under controlled conditions, usually in a experimental, or laboratory setting. Involves: the use of the tape recorder, motion pictures (videos), and lab., or other device rooms. Disadvantages: people object to the data be obtained, not a true (valid) natural environment, bias of the observer.
Case-Study Method What is it?What is it? Psychology, social workers, and Psychiatrists. Objective descriptions of “forces” that may have influenced the subject (individual) Involves: information obtained from personal family, friends, home life, employment, employers etc. Disadvantages: information sometimes bias, neglected, forgotten, or interpretation unclear
Interview Method What is it? research conducted in usually face to face, question and answer response. Involves: good interviewer, advanced preparation (questions prepared in general order), flexibility, and good communication skills (body language etc.). Tape recorder, possible video (???). Disadvantages: personal prejudices, difficulty interpreting behavior (responses), lack of expression (subject), environment where interview takes place etc.
Questionnaire Method What is it? List of questions, designed to gather facts. Involves: accurate questions, that eliminate ambiguous answers and require a direct response. (well-formed questions) Disadvantages: subject6s may elect not to respond to questionnaire, inaccurate replies, false responses, false responses, limited to selected groups may in turn require further testing leaving the audience (subjects) over-exposed to data.
Testing and Methods of Measurement What is it? testing to measure intellectual ability, designed to predict an outcome that will determine possible accomplishment, either social, attitudes, vocational, interests, personality or achievement test. Involves: objective questionnaires, that measure how well a task has been accomplished, or mastered. Disadvantages: They give results that can be measured in statistical response and are often compares with scores in large groups. Talents, gifts creativity, and past accomplishments often overlooked. Do not give full and final answers to individual problems.