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DR LALIT SHARMA MEMBER NATIONAL ACADEMIC CORE COMMITTEE (CSC 2014, 2015) 22 nd Children’s Science Congress (CSC – 2014)

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Presentation on theme: "DR LALIT SHARMA MEMBER NATIONAL ACADEMIC CORE COMMITTEE (CSC 2014, 2015) 22 nd Children’s Science Congress (CSC – 2014)"— Presentation transcript:

1 DR LALIT SHARMA MEMBER NATIONAL ACADEMIC CORE COMMITTEE (CSC 2014, 2015) 22 nd Children’s Science Congress (CSC – 2014)

2 A PROGRAM OF NCSTC, DST, GOVT OF INDIA STARTED IN 1993 OBJECTIVES SPREAD CONCEPT OF METHOD OF SCIENCE LEARNING BY DOING IMBIBE SCIENTIFIC TEMPERAMENT ENCOURAGE CHILDREN TO EXPLORE, THINK, SERVE & WONDER

3 CHILDREN FROM THE AGE GROUP OF YEARS FORM A TEAM OF 2-5 LIKE-MINDED ONES UNDERTAKE A PROJECT ON A FOCAL & SUB-THEME WORK ON A LOCAL, SOCIALLY-RELEVANT PROBLEM USING METHODS OF SCIENCE COME OUT WITH DEFINITE CONCLUSION / SOLUTION PRESENT IN A REPORT FORM AND ORALLY

4 ULTIMATELY CHILDREN ACQUIRE THE SKILLS OF OBSERVATION MEASUREMENT CLASSIFICATION ESTIMATION PREDICTION INTERPRETATION CRITICAL THINKING CREATIVE THINKING DRAWING CONCLUSION TEAM WORK

5 SIMPLEPRACTICAL INNOVATIVEINEXPENSIVE CSC PROJECTS

6 FOCAL THEME

7 UNDERSTANDING WEATHER AND CLIMATE WEATHER CLIMATE ELEMENTS OF WEATHER IMPACT ON ECOSYSTEMS, LIVING BEINGS IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT MITIGATION AND / OR ADAPTATION

8 Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at particular place and time; with respect to the variables like temperature, air pressure, wind, precipitation, etc. Climate is the regular pattern of weather conditions of a particular place; a region of Earth having particular meteorological condition Weather changes from day to day or season to season and also change in a regular cycle during the year Climate is broadly a long term condition of weather pattern taken over a period of at least thirty years of a region

9 The geographical situation of any locality/area/region in relation to its latitudinal and longitudinal position, altitude, distribution of land and water, relative location from water bodies, surface cover (viz. vegetation/snow/rocks etc.) are some of the natural factors that influence the weather and climatic condition of that particular location.

10 Likewise, weather and climate are among the factors that determine the nature, condition, and pattern of natural resources (e.g. water, soil, flora, and fauna). These are responsible for determining the forms of water, soil-forming processes and creating support systems for floral growth; which again determine the faunal composition. These natural resource bases along with weather and climate determine our way of life (viz. occupation, housing, food habits, dress style, transportation, etc.) to some extent. In totality, weather and climate influence the base of the economy and culture of that area.

11 Climate change is considered as one of the most important global environmental challenges being faced by humanity today, with its implication on natural ecosystem, food production systems, fresh water supply, health and weather related calamities.

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13 India’s weather and climatic conditions are naturally controlled by her geographical location (i.e. its latitudinal and longitudinal extents) and the conditions along her boundaries. (Himalayan ranges from northwestern to northeastern corner in the northern side, existence of Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea as well as Bay of Bengal in southwest to southeast).

14 The country also encompasses the Western Ghats, which is one of the 34 Biodiversity hot-spots of the world; extending along the West coast of India from the Vindya, Satpura ranges in the North to the Southern tip of the peninsula to a stretch of 1,600 km, receiving an average of nearly 6000 mm of rainfall every year.

15 The latitudinal and longitudinal extension within the country has greater implication on variation of solar days or sunshine hours from east to west, which is one of the fundamental factors regulating weather and climatic variations in the country Further, within the country, there are variations in distribution of land and water, altitudinal differences, vegetation type and coverage. All these together have given rise to different climatic zones and agro-climatic zones

16 In this context, there is a need to have proper understanding of weather and climate and its changes, mainly oriented towards different aspects, factors, and attributes of weather and climate along with their implications on the natural ecosystem, on society and culture and on human health. Right through, there needs to be focus on climate change aspects, including mitigation and adaptation.

17 UNDERSTANDING WEATHER AND CLIMATE WEATHER CLIMATE ELEMENTS OF WEATHER IMPACT ON ECOSYSTEMS, LIVING BEINGS IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT MITIGATION AND / OR ADAPTATION

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19 SUB-THEMES WEATHER AROUND YOU IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WEATHER AND CLIMATE WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND ECOSYSTEMS WEATHER, CLIMATE: SOCIETY AND CULTURE WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND AGRICULTURE WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND HEALTH

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21 WEATHER AROUND YOU SCOPE UNDERSTANDING OBSERVATION MEASUREMENT FORECASTING

22 Our objective is to be able to decide what aspect / parameter of weather or its manifestation(s) we want to observe / measure / understand / predict; decide what methods we should adopt for this purpose decide on instruments we could use/build for the above purpose report/record our observations/measurements analyze the data we gather predict what might happen in the future

23 The components/ parameters/ aspects that could be studied are: Temperature [ maximum, minimum, average] Atmospheric pressure Wind Speed and wind directions Relative Humidity Clouds Quantum, Intensity and Frequency of Rain Lightning, thunder, rainbow Tides [in coastal regions] Water level [in wells, ponds] Evaporation from surface water Fog, mists and smog and dew Response of Plants and insects to weather Predicting weather from plants and animal behavior Emergence of diseases

24 SUGGESTED PROJECTS Observation and measurement of different elements of weather Comparison of observations with data available from other sources / media Setting up of mini-weather station Comparison of primary and secondary data on weather parameters (temperature / humidity / precipitation) and analysis Observation, measurement, comparison and analysis of data for weather forecasting

25 IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WEATHER AND CLIMATE

26 SCOPE HUMAN ACTIVITIES INTERFACE INTERVENTION INTERFERENCE

27 Agriculture: The practices were at the expense of forest lands and other ecosystems. Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, soil salinity, ground water contamination, methane generation NOx generation etc impacted weather and climate in one or the other way. Animal husbandry: Demand for meat, diary products, manure, draught animals and easy transport led to animal rearing in large scale resulting in soil compaction, over grazing energy wastage, methane generation, deforestation and water depletion. Fisheries: Fertilizing the natural water bodies, eutrophication and ground water contamination results in generation of green house gases.

28 Human settlement and Urbanization: deforestation, conversion of agricultural lands to urban areas, more utilization of energy, infra red radiation, depletion of natural resources etc created heat islands adding to the already aggravating global warming problems. Industrialization: the fast changing scenario in natural resource utilization and industrialization in the 19 th century resulted in rampant deforestation, further conversion of agricultural lands, increased mining, quarrying, energy utilization, heat islands, industrial effluents, solid waste generation, air and water pollution. Transportation: The development of transportation facilities vehicle explosion cause increased fossil fuel utilization, land use changes, heat generation and air pollution

29 The children should be able to understand the direct as well as indirect impacts of human activities on weather and climate. The impacts may be in the form of temperature change, change in humidity, changes in water availability, changes in energy level received from sun etc.

30 SUGGESTED PROJECTS Impact of green house gases on weather and climate Studies on reducing impact of natural disasters arising out of variation in weather conditions Understanding the role of weather and climate in natural calamities to suggest mitigation process Studies on anthropogenic activities that contribute to change in weather and climatic conditions Devising alternatives to improve human life under extreme weather conditions

31 WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND ECOSYSTEMS

32 SCOPE BIOTIC COMPONENTS ABIOTIC FACTORS

33 Types of ecosystems Terrestrial ecosystems Forest ecosystem – Various types of forests across the country Agricultural ecosystem _ various crop systems across the country Grassland – Secondary, rarely the primary grass lands in many parts of the country Desert ecosystem – Ex: Thar desert in Rajasthan Hill and mountain ecosystems : Ex: Himalayas, Western & Eastern Ghats, North Eastern Hills, Aravali, Vindya-Satpura etc Iceland ecosystems : Himalayas Aquatic ecosystems Pond, Lake, River ecosystem Temporary Wetlands : most parts of the country Mangroves, Marine,, Estuaries and Lagoons : Coastal area

34 Different component and aspects to be covered under this subtheme The various components contributing to the weather and climate conditions such as temperature, pressure, wind, precipitation and humidity are important for the study depending on the question under study. Biotic components such as flora, fauna and microbes in a given ecosystem Abiotic component such as air, water and soil.

35 SUGGESTED PROJECTS Impact of temperature / humidity on plant growth Studies on the rate of carbon sequestration by the plants Studies on levels of different pollutants in the air under different weather conditions Studies on migration of birds / animals under different weather conditions Influence of weather on pollinators

36 WEATHER, CLIMATE: SOCIETY AND CULTURE

37 SCOPE LIVELIHOOD TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE CULTURAL PRACTICES

38 Society is a group of people with common territory, interaction, and culture. Society evolved through formation of groups from family to occupation based to interest based groups, etc. varying from region to region on the basis of natural environmental situation over different time scales. time. Based on such practical experience and knowledge human beings designed their way of life, which is linked to formation of different social groups and with its elements of similarities, differences, cooperation, interdependence, social relationship, organization, etc. Culture is everything made, learnt, or shared by the members of a society, including values, beliefs, behaviors, and material objects. Culture is learnt, and it varies tremendously from society to society. A culture is the totally acquired way of life or life style for a group of people. It consists of the patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling and acting that are characteristics of members of a particular society or segment of a society.

39 Focused research questions What type of influences are exerted by weather and climate related factors impact human social and cultural practices? What are the negative factors of human practices of a particular social and cultural framework which impinge on weather and climatic condition or its associated factors? Where are such influences prominent? Why such influences do exist or existed? How does weather and climatic factors influence human social and cultural practices? How socio-culturally defined human practices affect the weather and climatic situation or its associated factors? How do human beings try to get accustomed with such situations and re-design their life style? How the knowledge and technology help in strengthening their resilience and adaptation system?

40 SUGGESTED PROJECTS Studies on the local calendar system for agricultural practices in relation to weather and climate Studies on traditional knowledge about weather prediction Impact of weather on different cultural practices Comparing age old practices with modern techniques in relation to weather and climate Influence of varying weather on food / clothing / shelter / occupation

41 WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND AGRICULTURE

42 SCOPE CROP SYSTEMS FISHERIES ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

43 Eastern Himalayan Region Western Himalayan Region Trans-Gangetic Plains Region Lower Gangetic Plains Region Middle Gangetic Plains Region Upper Gangetic Plains Region East Coast Plains and Hills Region West Coast Plains and Ghat Region Eastern Plateau and Hills Region Central Plateau and Hills Region Gujarat Plains and Hills Region Western Plateau and Hills Region Western Dry Region Southern Plateau and Hills Region The Islands Region

44 SUGGESTED PROJECTS Studies on the influence of weather conditions on agricultural practices (crop systems) Impact of variable weather on milk / egg production Studies on agricultural practices (storage of food grains) under extreme weather conditions Identifying methods or techniques to mitigate the impact of varying weather conditions on agriculture Study the role of weather in fish production

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46 WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND HEALTH SCOPE HUMAN AND ANIMAL WATER / AIR / VECTOR BORNE DISEASES INFECTIONS INFESTATIONS ZOONOSIS REEMERGENCE OF DISEASES

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49 SUGGESTED PROJECTS Studies on the incidence of communicable diseases during extreme weather conditions Studies on the vector borne diseases (malaria / dengue) in relation to weather Impact of weather conditions on health and production of animals Studies on air-borne infections during variable weather conditions Incidences of ecto-parasitic infestations in animals under different weather conditions

50 Contributions of Google Images are duly acknowledged

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