Presentation on theme: "22nd Children’s Science Congress (CSC – 2014)"— Presentation transcript:
122nd Children’s Science Congress (CSC – 2014) Dr lalit sharmaMEMBERNATIONAL ACADEMIC CORE COMMITTEE(CSC 2014, 2015)
2A PROGRAM OF NCSTC, DST, GOVT OF INDIA STARTED IN 1993 OBJECTIVES A PROGRAM OF NCSTC, DST, GOVT OF INDIA STARTED IN OBJECTIVES SPREAD CONCEPT OF METHOD OF SCIENCE LEARNING BY DOING IMBIBE SCIENTIFIC TEMPERAMENT ENCOURAGE CHILDREN TO EXPLORE, THINK, SERVE & WONDER
3CHILDREN FROM THE AGE GROUP OF 10- CHILDREN FROM THE AGE GROUP OF YEARS FORM A TEAM OF 2-5 LIKE-MINDED ONES UNDERTAKE A PROJECT ON A FOCAL & SUB-THEME WORK ON A LOCAL, SOCIALLY-RELEVANT PROBLEM USING METHODS OF SCIENCE COME OUT WITH DEFINITE CONCLUSION / SOLUTION PRESENT IN A REPORT FORM AND ORALLY
4ULTIMATELY CHILDREN ACQUIRE THE SKILLS OF. OBSERVATION. MEASUREMENT ULTIMATELY CHILDREN ACQUIRE THE SKILLS OF OBSERVATION MEASUREMENT CLASSIFICATION ESTIMATION PREDICTION INTERPRETATION CRITICAL THINKING CREATIVE THINKING DRAWING CONCLUSION TEAM WORK
7UNDERSTANDING WEATHER AND CLIMATE ELEMENTS OF WEATHERIMPACT ON ECOSYSTEMS, LIVING BEINGSIMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIESCLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTMITIGATION AND / OR ADAPTATION
8Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at particular place and time; with respect to the variables like temperature, air pressure, wind, precipitation, etc.Climate is the regular pattern of weather conditions of a particular place; a region of Earth having particular meteorological conditionWeather changes from day to day or season to season and also change in a regular cycle during the yearClimate is broadly a long term condition of weather pattern taken over a period of at least thirty years of a region
9The geographical situation of any locality/area/region in relation to its latitudinal and longitudinal position, altitude, distribution of land and water, relative location from water bodies, surface cover (viz. vegetation/snow/rocks etc.) are some of the natural factors that influence the weather and climatic condition of that particular location.
10Likewise, weather and climate are among the factors that determine the nature, condition, and pattern of natural resources (e.g. water, soil, flora, and fauna).These are responsible for determining the forms of water, soil-forming processes and creating support systems for floral growth; which again determine the faunal composition.These natural resource bases along with weather and climate determine our way of life (viz. occupation, housing, food habits, dress style, transportation, etc.) to some extent.In totality, weather and climate influence the base of the economy and culture of that area.
11Climate change is considered as one of the most important global environmental challenges being faced by humanity today, with its implication on natural ecosystem, food production systems, fresh water supply, health and weather related calamities.
13India’s weather and climatic conditions are naturally controlled by her geographical location (i.e. its latitudinal and longitudinal extents) and the conditions along her boundaries. (Himalayan ranges from northwestern to northeastern corner in the northern side, existence of Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea as well as Bay of Bengal in southwest to southeast).
14The country also encompasses the Western Ghats, which is one of the 34 Biodiversity hot-spots of the world; extending along the West coast of India from the Vindya, Satpura ranges in the North to the Southern tip of the peninsula to a stretch of 1,600 km, receiving an average of nearly 6000 mm of rainfall every year.
15The latitudinal and longitudinal extension within the country has greater implication on variation of solar days or sunshine hours from east to west, which is one of the fundamental factors regulating weather and climatic variations in the countryFurther, within the country, there are variations in distribution of land and water, altitudinal differences, vegetation type and coverage. All these together have given rise to different climatic zones and agro-climatic zones
16In this context, there is a need to have proper understanding of weather and climate and its changes,mainly oriented towards different aspects, factors, and attributes of weather and climate along with their implications on the natural ecosystem, on society and culture and on human health.Right through, there needs to be focus on climate change aspects, including mitigation and adaptation.
17UNDERSTANDING WEATHER AND CLIMATE ELEMENTS OF WEATHERIMPACT ON ECOSYSTEMS, LIVING BEINGSIMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIESCLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTMITIGATION AND / OR ADAPTATION
19SUB-THEMES WEATHER AROUND YOU IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WEATHER AND CLIMATEWEATHER, CLIMATE, AND ECOSYSTEMSWEATHER, CLIMATE: SOCIETY AND CULTUREWEATHER, CLIMATE, AND AGRICULTUREWEATHER, CLIMATE, AND HEALTH
21WEATHER AROUND YOU SCOPE UNDERSTANDING OBSERVATION MEASUREMENT FORECASTING
22Our objective is to be able to decide what aspect / parameter of weather or its manifestation(s) we want to observe / measure / understand / predict;decide what methods we should adopt for this purposedecide on instruments we could use/build for the above purposereport/record our observations/measurementsanalyze the data we gatherpredict what might happen in the future
23The components/ parameters/ aspects that could be studied are: Temperature [ maximum, minimum, average]Atmospheric pressureWind Speed and wind directionsRelative HumidityCloudsQuantum, Intensity and Frequency of RainLightning, thunder, rainbowTides [in coastal regions]Water level [in wells, ponds]Evaporation from surface waterFog, mists and smog and dewResponse of Plants and insects to weatherPredicting weather from plants and animal behaviorEmergence of diseases
24SUGGESTED PROJECTSObservation and measurement of different elements of weatherComparison of observations with data available from other sources / mediaSetting up of mini-weather stationComparison of primary and secondary data on weather parameters (temperature / humidity / precipitation) and analysisObservation, measurement, comparison and analysis of data for weather forecasting
25IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WEATHER AND CLIMATE
26IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WEATHER AND CLIMATE SCOPEHUMAN ACTIVITIESINTERFACEINTERVENTIONINTERFERENCE
27Agriculture: The practices were at the expense of forest lands and other ecosystems. Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, soil salinity, ground water contamination, methane generation NOx generation etc impacted weather and climate in one or the other way.Animal husbandry: Demand for meat, diary products, manure, draught animals and easy transport led to animal rearing in large scale resulting in soil compaction, over grazing energy wastage, methane generation, deforestation and water depletion.Fisheries: Fertilizing the natural water bodies, eutrophication and ground water contamination results in generation of green house gases.
28Human settlement and Urbanization: deforestation, conversion of agricultural lands to urban areas, more utilization of energy, infra red radiation, depletion of natural resources etc created heat islands adding to the already aggravating global warming problems.Industrialization: the fast changing scenario in natural resource utilization and industrialization in the 19th century resulted in rampant deforestation, further conversion of agricultural lands, increased mining, quarrying, energy utilization, heat islands, industrial effluents, solid waste generation, air and water pollution.Transportation: The development of transportation facilities vehicle explosion cause increased fossil fuel utilization, land use changes, heat generation and air pollution
29The children should be able to understand the direct as well as indirect impacts of human activities on weather and climate. The impacts may be in the form of temperature change, change in humidity, changes in water availability, changes in energy level received from sun etc.
30SUGGESTED PROJECTS Impact of green house gases on weather and climate Studies on reducing impact of natural disasters arising out of variation in weather conditionsUnderstanding the role of weather and climate in natural calamities to suggest mitigation processStudies on anthropogenic activities that contribute to change in weather and climatic conditionsDevising alternatives to improve human life under extreme weather conditions
32WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND ECOSYSTEMS SCOPEBIOTIC COMPONENTSABIOTIC FACTORS
33Types of ecosystemsTerrestrial ecosystemsForest ecosystem – Various types of forests across the countryAgricultural ecosystem _ various crop systems across the countryGrassland – Secondary, rarely the primary grass lands in many parts of the countryDesert ecosystem – Ex: Thar desert in RajasthanHill and mountain ecosystems : Ex: Himalayas, Western & Eastern Ghats, North Eastern Hills, Aravali, Vindya-Satpura etcIceland ecosystems : HimalayasAquatic ecosystemsPond, Lake, River ecosystem Temporary Wetlands : most parts of the countryMangroves, Marine, , Estuaries and Lagoons : Coastal area
34Different component and aspects to be covered under this subtheme The various components contributing to the weather and climate conditions such as temperature, pressure, wind, precipitation and humidity are important for the study depending on the question under study.Biotic components such as flora, fauna and microbes in a given ecosystemAbiotic component such as air, water and soil.
35SUGGESTED PROJECTS Impact of temperature / humidity on plant growth Studies on the rate of carbon sequestration by the plantsStudies on levels of different pollutants in the air under different weather conditionsStudies on migration of birds / animals under different weather conditionsInfluence of weather on pollinators
37WEATHER, CLIMATE: SOCIETY AND CULTURE SCOPELIVELIHOODTRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGECULTURAL PRACTICES
38Society is a group of people with common territory, interaction, and culture. Society evolved through formation of groups from family to occupation based to interest based groups, etc. varying from region to region on the basis of natural environmental situation over different time scales. time.Based on such practical experience and knowledge human beings designed their way of life, which is linked to formation of different social groups and with its elements of similarities, differences, cooperation, interdependence, social relationship, organization, etc.Culture is everything made, learnt, or shared by the members of a society, including values, beliefs, behaviors, and material objects. Culture is learnt, and it varies tremendously from society to society.A culture is the totally acquired way of life or life style for a group of people. It consists of the patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling and acting that are characteristics of members of a particular society or segment of a society.
39Focused research questions What type of influences are exerted by weather and climate related factors impact human social and cultural practices?What are the negative factors of human practices of a particular social and cultural framework which impinge on weather and climatic condition or its associated factors?Where are such influences prominent?Why such influences do exist or existed?How does weather and climatic factors influence human social and cultural practices?How socio-culturally defined human practices affect the weather and climatic situation or its associated factors?How do human beings try to get accustomed with such situations and re-design their life style?How the knowledge and technology help in strengthening their resilience and adaptation system?
40SUGGESTED PROJECTSStudies on the local calendar system for agricultural practices in relation to weather and climateStudies on traditional knowledge about weather predictionImpact of weather on different cultural practicesComparing age old practices with modern techniques in relation to weather and climateInfluence of varying weather on food / clothing / shelter / occupation
42WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND AGRICULTURE SCOPECROP SYSTEMSFISHERIESANIMAL HUSBANDRY
43Eastern Himalayan Region Western Himalayan RegionTrans-Gangetic Plains RegionLower Gangetic Plains RegionMiddle Gangetic Plains RegionUpper Gangetic Plains RegionEast Coast Plains and Hills RegionWest Coast Plains and Ghat RegionEastern Plateau and Hills RegionCentral Plateau and Hills RegionGujarat Plains and Hills RegionWestern Plateau and Hills RegionWestern Dry RegionSouthern Plateau and Hills RegionThe Islands Region
44SUGGESTED PROJECTSStudies on the influence of weather conditions on agricultural practices (crop systems)Impact of variable weather on milk / egg productionStudies on agricultural practices (storage of food grains) under extreme weather conditionsIdentifying methods or techniques to mitigate the impact of varying weather conditions on agricultureStudy the role of weather in fish production
49SUGGESTED PROJECTSStudies on the incidence of communicable diseases during extreme weather conditionsStudies on the vector borne diseases (malaria / dengue) in relation to weatherImpact of weather conditions on health and production of animalsStudies on air-borne infections during variable weather conditionsIncidences of ecto-parasitic infestations in animals under different weather conditions
50Contributions of Google Images are duly acknowledged