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Recognizing Relationships Between Sentences And Within Sentences.

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Presentation on theme: "Recognizing Relationships Between Sentences And Within Sentences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Recognizing Relationships Between Sentences And Within Sentences

2 What do readers mean by “relationships”? “Relationships” refer to words that writers use to connect ideas: Coordinators FANBOYS Conjunctive Adverbs ( therefore, however, meanwhile, for example Subordinators because, since, while, when

3 Coherence These “connecting words” allow a writer to communicate his/her meaning to the reader. Writing that lacks sufficient connecting words is difficult to comprehend, for example, I went home. I had a headache. (no connector) I went home because I had a headache. When I went home, I had a headache. I went home, and I had a headache.

4 Your textbook uses the term transitions to refer to the words and phrases that writers use to connect ideas. However, from a grammatical perspective, not all words are transtions.

5 Grammatical Terms Words used to create coherence can be grouped into three grammatical classes:

6 Grammatical Terms 1. Coordinators Coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) Conjunctive Adverbs (however, therefore, additionally, for example) Correlative Conjunctions (not only...but also; either...or; neither...nor)

7 Grammatical Terms 2. Adverbial Subordinators (because, when, while, even though, etc.) For quick guide to coordinators and subordinators, check out this link TENCE%20COMBINING%20CHART.pdf TENCE%20COMBINING%20CHART.pdf

8 Grammatical Terms 3. Transitional Expressions Conjunctive Adverbs Other Expressions: (later on, on top of, and so on, incidentally, by the way, besides, except for, especially, particularly, outside of) For more information, check out this link:

9 8 kinds of relationships 1. addition 2. time 3. cause and effect 4. comparison 5. contrast 6. illustration/example 7. emphasis/restatement/clarification 8. summary or conclusion

10 Addition Relationship When one idea adds information to the preceding idea, we say that the second idea is in addition to the first idea.

11 Examples of Addition Signals Birds and whales both migrate long distances. Also birds and whales communicate by “singing” complex songs.

12 There are three reasons why students fail. First they do not know how to study. Second, they do not know how to budget their time. Third, they do not know when to seek additional help.

13 Finding a parking space during the first week of classes can be a real headache. Additionally, getting the proper textbooks is a challenge that can bring on a headache of seismic proportions.

14 Finding a parking space during the first week of classes is a problem, and is getting to class on time

15 She not only works full time but also goes to school full time.

16 Time Relationship When one idea describes when one event happened in relation to a date, a specific time, or specific event, we say that the ideas have a time relationship

17 Examples of Time Relationship Students usually work from 3:00 p.m. until midnight. Afterwards, they study for two or three hours. During the first three weeks of the semester, Tom bought more than $500 worth of textbooks. While she was studying for her final exam in Calculus 101, Joyce heard a strange knocking at her living room window.

18 She moved to Orlando in September. Several months later, she got a job.

19 Cause and Effect Relationship When one thing is the cause of another thing, we say that the relationship between these two things is cause and effect. In reading, it is important to recognize which is the cause and which is the effect. Think about cause and effect relationships as having the form X  Y (X is the cause of Y).

20 Examples of Cause and Effect Relationship Joaquin studied for more than three hours; therefore, he was well-prepared for the quiz. Joaquin studied for more than three hours  he was well-prepared for the quiz. Joaquin studied for more than three hours, so he was well-prepared for the quiz. Joaquin studied for more than three hours  he was well- prepared for the quiz. Because Joaquin studied for more than three hours, he was well-prepared for the quiz. Joaquin studied for more than three hours  he was well- prepared for the quiz.

21 Comparison Relationship When a writer shows that two ideas are similar, we say that the relationship between the two ideas is comparison. Words such as likewise, similarly, the same as, just like, just as, like, same, similar to, as similar as signal a comparative relationship.

22 Examples of Comparison Relationship Reading a paragraph is just like moving up and down a staircase. Like a beautiful rose, the child’s happiness blossomed throughout the summer. Mrs. Britton puts all of her empty glass and plastic containers in the recycle bin. Likewise, she reuses bits and pieces of old essays and stories in her lectures. My family home is as busy as a bee hive.

23 Examples of Comparison Relationship Mrs. Britton puts all of her empty glass and plastic containers in the recycle bin. Likewise, she reuses bits and pieces of old essays and stories in her lectures. My family home is as busy as a bee hive. Competing in the Iditarod is similar to getting a college degree.

24 Contrast Relationship When a writer shows that one idea is different from another idea, we can say that those ideas are in contrast. Words such as although, even though, however, but, yet signal a contrast relationship.

25 Examples of contrast relationship John eats a big breakfast, yet he rarely eats even a morsel for dinner. Antonio earned a C- on his exam; however, he wanted to earn an A. Ruby Dee starred in twelve movies before she won her first Oscar. Marge Redmon, in contrast, won an Oscar after making only two films.

26 Illustration/Example Relationship When one idea gives an example of a preceding idea, we can say that the second idea illustrates the preceding idea or that the second idea gives an example of the first idea.

27 Examples of illustration/ example relationship Under primitive agricultural conditions the farmer had few insect problems. For example, before the Spanish explorers taught the Native Americans of the Southwest how to farm intensively, the Native population had bountiful crops, more than enough to feed their people. After they began to farm intensively, their crops were plagued by pests such as grasshoppers and nematodes.

28 College students come to college without practical coping skills, for example, budgeting time and money, knowing how to study.

29 Punctuation can signal examples Two marks of punctuation can signal an illustration/example the colon and the dash

30 Simon prefers to relax on his days off from work : last weekend, he floated in his pool and watched baseball games.

31 Since moving to Orlando, Mandy has been keeping busy – she’s a full-time student at Valencia Community College, a part-time worker at Universal Studios, and a volunteer with Habitat for Humanity.

32 Clarification/Restatement Relationship When writers want to make sure that their readers understand what they have said, they will repeat, reaffirm or clarify by representing the important idea in different words.

33 Examples of Clarification/Restatement Relationship It isn’t enough to say that you are sorry. Indeed, you must show that you are sorry through your actions. Convincing young people to abstain from sexual activity until they are married may be the most difficult task facing political leaders. As a matter of fact, it may be an impossible task.

34 Punctuation can signal clarification Colons and dashes may also signal that what follows is a clarification of the idea before the colon or dash.

35 It isn’t enough to say that you are sorry : you must show that you are sorry through your actions. Convincing young people to abstain from sexual activity until they are married may be the most difficult task facing political leaders : it may be an impossible task.

36 Clarifying information may include more specific statistical measures, more specific terms, more in-depth description. Here are some examples:

37 Examples of clarifying information More specific statistical measures: The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teens has been an increasing problem in the past forty years, and 2004 continued that trend: the number of reported cases among teens 15 to 18 years of age rose by 11.5%. More specific terms/in-depth description : The hail stones were huge deadly -- those that were the size of baseballs actually killed people and animals.

38 Summary/Conclusion Relationship When writers are nearing the end of an essay or piece of writing, they frequently represent their main idea. To summarize, a jerk, then, is a man or woman who is utterly unable to see himself or herself as he appears to others. In conclusion, the major problems facing Hurricane Katrina refugees are psychological and physical dislocation, financial distress due to job loss, and integration into a new community.

39 Here is an example of how you will be tested on this skill: 1. “ Many of the excuses students offer for late work relate to not having enough time; however, further examination often shows that the problem is poor time management rather than no enough time.” Which of the following best identifies the relationship between the two parts of the above sentence? a. Timec. Contrast b. Exampled. Listing

40 “If we apply Brunvand’s analysis to these two urban legends, three major points emerge.” Which of the following best describes the relationship between the two parts of the above sentence? a. Comparison b. Time c. Example d. Cause and effect

41 “ A lawyer from the company offered them $100,000 if they would sign a release and not tell anyone. This was the second time this happened.” The implied relationship between the two sentences above is a. example b. Addition c. Clarification d. Cause and effect

42 “Men involved in these encounters,” says Perper, “don’t describe themselves as “feeling powerful.” In fact, he and Moore agree, neither party wholly dominates in a flirtation. The relationship between the two sentences above is a. Clarificationb. Time c. Exampled. Contrast

43 Let’s practice: See if you can find the coordinator, subordinator, or transitional expression connecting the ideas Within a single sentence or Between two separate sentences

44 What is the relationship between the 2 sentences? For example, before the Spanish explorers taught the Native Americans of the Southwest how to farm intensively, the Native population had bountiful crops, more than enough to feed their people. After they began to farm intensively, their crops were plagued by pests such as grasshoppers and nematodes.

45 What is the explicit relationship between the 2 sentences? For example, before the Spanish explorers taught the Native Americans of the Southwest how to farm intensively, the Native population had bountiful crops, more than enough to feed their people. After they began to farm intensively, however, their crops were plagued by pests such as grasshoppers and nematodes. Contrast Relationship

46 What is the relationship between the two parts of the single sentence? While all of them are very professional and competent, no one appears oppressed or fixed, nose to the grindstone, at his or her station.

47 What is the relationship between the two parts of the sentence? While all of them are very professional and competent, no one appears oppressed or fixed, nose to the grindstone, at his or her station. The subordinator “while” singlas contrast in this sentence.

48 What is the explicit relationship between the two parts of the single sentence? If you spend time with the family before or after the meal, keep your eyes open.

49 What is the explicit relationship between the two parts of the sentence? If you spend time with the family before or after the meal, keep your eyes open. Cause and Effect Relationship is signaled by “if.”

50 What is the explicit relationship between the two sentences? The overall feel is one of ideal equaiity, respect, and teamwork. In fact, if I didn’t know that in a dentist’s office the dentist is typically the boss, I would probably pick the receptionist as the one in charge, since she’s always directing traffic.

51 What is the explicit relationship between the two sentences? The overall feel is one of ideal equaiity, respect, and teamwork. In fact, if I didn’t know that in a dentist’s office the dentist is typically the boss, I would probably pick the receptionist as the one in charge, since she’s always directing traffic. Clarification/Restatement Relationship is signaled by “in fact.”

52 Implied Relationships Sometimes, relationships are NOT stated. Rather they are only implied.

53 Not signal: use context When there is no signal, you must rely on context and/or punctuation. Let’s look at some examples for sentences that have no stated relationship signal word or phrase.

54 What is the implied relationship between the 2 parts of the sentence? Can you spot evidence of family projects—a jigsaw puzzle, art projects, a plate of kid-decorated cookies?

55 Answer: Can you spot evidence of family projects—a jigsaw puzzle, art projects, a plate of kid-decorated cookies? Example relationship is implied.

56 What is the relationship between the two sentences:

57 Homework:


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