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Bernardo Rodrigues Manuel Bóia Innovation Measurement “Expenditures, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy” Archibugi, D., Evangelista, R., Perani,

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Presentation on theme: "Bernardo Rodrigues Manuel Bóia Innovation Measurement “Expenditures, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy” Archibugi, D., Evangelista, R., Perani,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bernardo Rodrigues Manuel Bóia Innovation Measurement “Expenditures, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy” Archibugi, D., Evangelista, R., Perani, G., & Rapiti, F. (2000) 2001/03/16

2 Methodology Methodology Results Results Inputs to Innovation Test Model Outputs Generated by Innovation Final Comments Final Comments Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy

3 How many firms innovate? In the long run firms are forced to innovate or perish, but some might be consistent Innovators, while others are lower, and they could also change their nature over time. What is the amount of resources devoted to innovation? Firms innovate trough a variety of sources which are industry-specific, but they value differently inputs to innovation. What is the amount and significance of innovated production? New processes and products will not replace entirely old ones, so the degree of novelty and the share of new versus old is to be assessed. Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy

4 Methodology Two main approaches: Collecting information on the innovations introduced (concentration on the objects of innovative activities)Collecting information on the innovations introduced (concentration on the objects of innovative activities) Questioning firms about input, output, and the nature of the innovative process (focus on the subjects of innovative activities)Questioning firms about input, output, and the nature of the innovative process (focus on the subjects of innovative activities) Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Novelty => heterogeneous adoptions (questionnaires & methods) => No clear temporal & International comparison Permanent Standardization is needed!

5 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy +-

6 Methodology Survey on Innovation in the Italian Manufacturing Industry (CIS) At that time, involved a larger number of firms than any other European Country.At that time, involved a larger number of firms than any other European Country. Accounts for 40% of returned questionnairesAccounts for 40% of returned questionnaires Assess for:Assess for: Innovating and non-innovating firms by size Innovating and non-innovating firms by sector Breakdown of innovation expenditure by firm size Intensity and concentration of innovative activities by firm size Innovative intensity and breakdown of innovation expenditure by sector Distribution of innov. firms total sales accord. to type of innov. by sector Sales according to the degree of novelty of prod. innovations by sector Sales accord. to the degree of novelty of prod. Innovations by firm size

7 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Results (Inputs to Innovation) In the same class, firms show close valuations in all variablesIn the same class, firms show close valuations in all variables Innovation variables grows on importance while firm size increasesInnovation variables grows on importance while firm size increases

8 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Concentration Results (Inputs to Innovation)

9 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Results (Inputs to Innovation) Sources:Sources: Innovative industrial processes consists first and foremost of the purchase and use of embodied technologies (adoption & diffusion of Technologies), and secondly of R&D activities (most important intangible innovation expenditure)

10 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Results (Inputs to Innovation) The role of small and large firms:The role of small and large firms: Large firms – radical innovative process centered on R&D activities Small firms – informal innovative activities, but technologically creative R&D requires a minimum thresholdR&D requires a minimum threshold Small and large innovating firms have no highly significant differences in total innovation expenditure per employeeSmall and large innovating firms have no highly significant differences in total innovation expenditure per employee

11 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Science-Based Traditional Consumer Goods Capital Intensive Sectors Results (Inputs to Innovation)

12 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Results (Inputs to Innovation) R&D-intensive and scale-intensive industries account for 71% of total innovation expenditureR&D-intensive and scale-intensive industries account for 71% of total innovation expenditure Even in Italy in which traditional sectors and small firms play an important role, innovation is highly concentrated within a few industries and a restricted club of large firmsEven in Italy in which traditional sectors and small firms play an important role, innovation is highly concentrated within a few industries and a restricted club of large firms

13 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Results (Test Model) Effect of Size and Industrial SectorsEffect of Size and Industrial Sectors Would firm size be determinant in resource allocation within any of the sectors analyzed? Would industrial sector be determinant in resource allocation within any firm size class? Model : Prob( Innov. )= f( size, sector, region, group ) 0

14 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Results (Outputs Generated by Innovation) Does not measures the economic impactDoes not measures the economic impact Provides direct direct info on how production output changed related to innovationProvides direct direct info on how production output changed related to innovation 1 1 Nature of innovations

15 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Results (Outputs Generated by Innovation) Only 14.2% of sales (from innovation) generated by new productsOnly 14.2% of sales (from innovation) generated by new products Pace of change is slower than generally believedPace of change is slower than generally believed Length of the life cycle of the productLength of the life cycle of the product Degrees of innovation by industry New Product sales New Product sales Total Sales Total Sales

16 Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Results (Outputs Generated by Innovation) Italian production relies heavily on imitation and adaptation from other countries (adoption & diffusion)Italian production relies heavily on imitation and adaptation from other countries (adoption & diffusion) Degrees of innovation by size of firm innovating firms translate only a small portion of innovative inputs into turnoverinnovating firms translate only a small portion of innovative inputs into turnover

17 Final Comments Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy Different Innovation Sources Different Innovation Sources −R&D, most important, however 1/3 of expenditure −innovation patterns differs from firm size and sector Few small companies innovate Few small companies innovate −Small firms expenditure in innovation is quite significant but, −innovating small firms are a minority −R&D requires a minimum threshold Concentration of innovation Concentration of innovation

18 Final Comments Expenditure, Outcomes, and the Nature of Innovation in Italy The inputs are concentrated in a small number of firms and sectors The inputs are concentrated in a small number of firms and sectors Innovative inputs are not entirely translated into output Innovative inputs are not entirely translated into output Strengthen technological core and broaden the innovating industrial base


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