Presentation on theme: "Food Safety in Catering Level 2 Award"— Presentation transcript:
1Food Safety in Catering Level 2 Award Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995Schedule 1 Chapter VAll food handlers must be supervised/instructed or trained in food hygiene matters to a level appropriate to their jobJ O Training
2Welcome to your Food Safety in Catering Module CQC ComplianceCQC Outcome 5 – Meeting Nutritional needsCQC Outcome 7 – SafeguardingCQC Outcome 8 - Cleanliness and infection controlCQC Outcome 10/11 – Safety and suitability of premises & EquipmentCQC Outcome 12 – Requirements relating to workers
3Food poisoning and the Law Did you know that food poisoning has increased dramatically over the last ten years.Since 1965 the cases of food-borne illness has increased from 20,000 to about 100,000.There has been no single identified cause as to why this number has increased but this could be because of a
4Change in eating habits A greater reliance on re-heated foodEating outContamination at sourceReduction in preservativesIncreased travel abroadIncreased shelf life expectancyChanges in shopping and eating habits
5Every one of us has to eat and drink to stay alive Every one of us has to eat and drink to stay alive. That is why it is so important that our food does not harm us in any way.You, as a food handler, have a legal obligation to prepare food that does not harm the health of consumers in any way and to keep food safe to eat.
6High standards of food hygiene bring important benefits to everyone: customers, employees and businesses.There are very high costs for poor food hygiene, including pain and suffering for the individual plus the loss of revenue and reputation of the business.
7Actions which can be taken by the Environmental Health Officers Initiating prosecutionsProhibitionsImprovementsCondemnationSeizure of food
8Hygiene offences:Max. £5,000 per offence and/or 6 months in prisonFood Safety Offences:£20,000 per offence and/or 6 months in prisonCrown Court:Unlimited fines and/or maximum of 2 years in prison
9Food poisoningFood poisoning is caused by eating food containing poisonous micro-organisms or substances. Let us look at the symptoms:Abdominal painDiarrhoeaVomitingNausea
10There are two types of illness derived from food. FOOD POISONING:-Caused by eating food contaminated by harmful substances/bacteria living on foodFOOD-BORNE DISEASE:Is caused by consuming food or water carrying harmful micro-organisms
11There are thousands of bacteria all around us that do no harm at all, but some, known as pathogenic bacteria, are harmful and can cause illness, even death, in vulnerable groups of people.
13Food poisoning is mainly caused by eating large numbers of pathogenic bacteria that are living on food. Examples are:-Viruses and micro-organisms living on and in people, animals and other organismsMoulds and micro-organisms can produce toxins on food such as nuts, plants and fishRed kidney beans, rhubarb leaves, some fungi (toadstools) and fish that have been poorly processed
14Food poisoning can also occur from chemicals and metal substances absorbed into food from unsuitable metal containers or from cleaning, industrial and agricultural chemicals used carelessly.Never put a tin back in the fridge
15FOOD-BORNE DISEASEMany pathogenic micro-organisms are passed on to humans through food or water such as:-Campylobacter enteritisEscherichia coli 0157 (E.coli)TyphoidDysenteryA type of hepatitisTuberculosis from untreated milk
16Only a few of these micro-organisms are required to infect you. Incubation period and duration of illness can be days, weeks or months and can invade the blood stream and induce long-term health problems.The symptoms are similar to food poisoning and can include kidney failure or paralysis, which can lead to death.
17Who are most at risk? The old and infirm The very young People who are ill, convalescing or have a weakened immune systemPregnant women or nursing mothers
18Bacteria are life forms that are invisible to the naked eye but live on and in our bodies. There are thousands of different types of bacteria and many of them are useful to us.But a few are very harmful and can cause food-borne illness and encourage food to perish.Let’s now look at the helpful and harmful bacteria which play a part in our lives.
19Most types of bacteria are beneficial to humans and we would find it difficult to live without them. There are three groups:-Helpful bacteriaSpoilage bacteriaPathogenic bacteria
21Helpful bacteria allows us to Grow crops and develop new foodsDigest the food we eatTreat sewage to make it safeCreate medical drugsProduce food including yoghurt, cheese and fizzy drinks
22Spoilage bacteria will make food perish Spoilage bacteria will make food perish. Also known as rotting and decaying bacteria.Pathogenic bacteria can transmit illness such as food poisoning and food-borne disease.
23Examples of contamination Examples of causes of food poisoningPathogenicSourceTypical SymptomsAverage onset timeRaw food, shell fish and vegetablesSalmonellaRaw poultry, eggs, raw meat, milk and animalAbdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting and fever12 to 36 hoursPeople, air and dustStaphylococcus AureusHuman body i.e. skin, nose, mouth, cuts and boilsAbdominal pain or abdominal cramp1 to 6 hoursDirt and foodClostridiumPerfringensAnimal and human excreta, soil, dust, insects and raw meatAbdominal pain. Diarrhoea12 to 18 hours
24Other examples Pathogenic Source Typical symptoms Duration Campylobacter JejuniRaw poultry, raw meat, milk and animals including petsDiarrhoea, often bloody. Abdominal pain, nausea. Fever46-60 hoursEscherichia coli(E.coli 0157)Human and animal gut, sewage, water and raw meatDiarrhoea. Abdominal pain, nausea. Fever. Kidney damage or failure12 to 24 hours or longerListeriaSoft cheese, cheese made from unpasteurised milk, salad, vegetables, pateSymptoms like ‘flu1-70 days
25Quick recapWhat is the maximum amount of fine per offence, for hygiene offences? Is it:a. £10,000 per offence and/or 9 months in prison?b. £5,000 per offence and/or 6 months in prison?c. £20,000 per offence and/or 12 months in prison?
27Have another try. A £20,000 fine is for a food safety offence, not food hygiene.
28Click in this blue box to continue with the course Correct! Well done.Click in this blue box to continue with the course
29Bacteria. Click on the group you feel is correct Spoilage Bacteria. Grows crops, treats sewage, used to produce foodHelpful Bacteria. Makes food perish, rot or decayPathogenic Bacteria. Used to make medical drugsSpoilage Bacteria. Helps to digest food we eat, makes cheese and yoghurtHelpful Bacteria. Causes illness such as food poisoning or food- borne diseasePathogenic Bacteria. Makes food perish, rot or decaySpoilage Bacteria. Makes food perish, rot or decayHelpful Bacteria. Grows crops, treats sewage, produces foodPathogenic Bacteria. Causes illness such as food poisoning or food- borne disease
30Well done! Spoilage Bacteria. Makes food perish, rot or decay Helpful Bacteria. Grows crops, treats sewage, produces foodPathogenic Bacteria. Causes illness such as food poisoning or food-borne disease
32How does bacteria make us ill Bacteria food poisoning occurs if food is:Eaten after it has been contaminated by pathogenic bacteria and conditions allow the bacteria to multiply to levels that cause illnessIf bacteria are not destroyed by adequate cooking
33How does bacteria multiply? Bacteria reproduces by dividing in to two by a process called “Binary fission”.Bacteria needs only minutes to multiply.It is therefore possible for one bacteria to produce millions of bacteria in a matter of hours.
34Why does bacteria make us ill? Some bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus produce toxins in food even before we eat it. Others make us ill by forming spores, a protective coating which allows the bacteria to survive very harsh conditions, such as high cooking temperatures, that would normally destroy them.
35What does bacteria need to multiply? Bacteria will not multiply in dried foods but as soon as liquid is added to food, such as milk and eggs, then you have ideal conditions.However if enough sugar and salt is added to foods such as bacon, savoury biscuits and jam/confectionary, this will absorb the available moisture in the food so the bacteria cannot multiply easily.
36Warmth and the “danger zone” Most bacteria multiply at temperatures between 5°C and 63°C. Room temperature tends to be within this range.The ideal temperature to multiple is 37°C.Above or below the “danger zone” bacterial growth slows down or stops but resumes when conditions are more suitable.Freezing suspends bacteria. It never kills it.
37TimeWhen food poisoning bacteria are left in the right conditions (the right food and moisture) they multiply (double) every minutes. This knowledge is important.
38Bacteria and the danger zone Cooking at high temperatures for long enough kills most bacteria (at least two minutes at 70°C right through to the centre or the thickest part of the food).Some bacteria can survive even higher cooking temperatures including dehydration and disinfection.Bacteria do not multiply when they are in spore form, but resume when conditions allow.
39So...... Keep high risk and perishable food out of the danger zone. This includes room temperature, heated slowly, cooked slowly or left in the sun such as a shop window.Be aware of hot sauce poured onto cold food.REMEMBER: Keep cold food really cold and hot food really hot.
40Warmth, moisture, time & food Food, moisture, time, dirt Quick recapHow do bacteria multiply? What do bacteria need in order to multiply? Between what temperature is the danger zoneHave babiesLay eggsDivideWarmth, moisture, time & foodFood, moisture, time, dirtTime, food, pests, warmth70°c – 83°c5°c - 63°c-18°c - 5°c
44Contamination and how to prevent illness and harm Contamination is not only caused by bacteria it can also be caused by something harmful or unpleasant in our food or drink.There are three groups of contaminants:-
45Physical (leaves, pips, egg shell, stones, insects, string, plastic packaging, fingernails, hair, plasters, tops of pens, insects, droppings)Chemical (industrial, agricultural chemicals, pest bait, pesticides)Microbial (the main cause of food-borne illness: viruses, parasites)
46Sources of microbial contamination At slaughter. Skin and flesh may be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. When minced for burgers the bacteria can spread throughout the food.Shellfish are filter feeders. If the water is polluted by incorrectly treated sewage the shellfish can absorb harmful bacteria and other micro-organisms or micro-virus particles.
47PeopleSpread through hands, ears, hair, sneezing and coughing, cuts, boils and spots.Compounded by not washing your hands before handling food.Poor personal hygiene, such as not washing your hands after using the toilet, can spread food-borne illness. (Know as faecal-oral route).
48Contamination Pets and pets Flies, cockroaches, mice, dogs, cats, hamsters, reptiles carry harmful bacteria on their bodiesFeathers, fur, eggs, droppings and nesting material may contaminate foodAir and DustCarries millions of microscopic particles of dead skin, food and debris that carry pathogenic micro-organisms which will settle on uncovered foodWaterPoor/untreated drinking water such as rivers, lakes, ponds or reservoirs, can carry pathogenic micro-organisms that cause food-borne diseaseSoilFruit, vegetables, grain (rice) and pulses that have not been washed usually carry soil and dirt that can contaminate foodFood wasteBacteria from food waste and pests that scraps of food attract can contaminate food
49How does contamination occur? Whether direct or indirect it can happen at any stageFrom the start of the chain: growing, slaughtering, harvesting, catching, processing, packing, delivering, storing, preparing, cooking, displaying, serving and selling.We can see or bite on a screw which has dropped off of some machinery but we cannot see the microbial contamination that occurs when raw food such as poultry and vegetables are contaminated by bacteria.
50But bacteria needs to get to its source first But bacteria needs to get to its source first. This is via a ‘vehicle of contamination’ such as people, animals, equipment and utensils. Hands, work surfaces, containers, cutlery and crockery, chopping boards and dish cloths and any food contact that has not been thoroughly cleaned between uses.
51Pathogenic bacteria are transferred from raw food to high risk food directly (using the same knife) or indirectly (liquid or juices from raw food touching another).Cross contamination might occur when bacteria are carried by the food handler’s hands, utensils or from raw food to high risk food.Bacteria can only travel small distances on their own. They need help to travel!
52These vehicles of contamination move pathogenic bacteria from a contaminated source, such as raw meat, to a place where the conditions are ideal for multiplication. That is food which is high in protein, moisture, warmth and given sufficient time to multiply.Bacterial contamination is responsible for most cases of food poisoning. It is particularly important to ensure that raw and high risk foods are kept apart at all times; this includes storage, transporting, preparation, display and point of sale.
53All surfaces should therefore be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after use. One good way is to use colour-coded preparation equipment such as chopping boards and knives, each colour designated for a particular use, i.e. red for raw meat, green for vegetables.This helps to remind food handlers to separate the preparation of raw and high risk foods.
54Prevention check list Keep food covered To prevent sneezing onto food or air contaminationDo not touch food with your hands unless absolutely necessaryUse utensils such as tongs, forks, slices to move foodDo not keep pens behind ears, in top pockets or hatsOr wear jewellery, loose fastening buttons, name labels on clothing. This can drop into food.Follow strict personal hygiene habitsDo not smoke, eat, drink, chew gum in food areas as you can transmit bacteria from your mouth to your hands and then to food
55Which type of contamination would you class in this list as being? String, plastic, egg shells, finger nails, sticking plasters, nuts and bolts, insectsFood poisoning bacteria, viruses, microscopic parasitesIndustrial processing chemicals, agricultural and cleaning chemicalsMicrobialPhysicalChemicalPhysicalMicrobialChemicalMicrobialChemicalPhysical
57Correct! Well done. Click to go back to finish the recap.
58Ready to move on or would you like a break? Well done!Right again.Ready to move on or would you like a break?
59Temperature controlFood items may already be contaminated when they are delivered to your workplace.Your role is to do everything possible to prevent food-borne illness by controlling conditions that will encourage bacterial multiplication.By keeping food under proper control you will destroy many pathogenic micro-organisms through temperature control.
60Your role in temperature control Basic rules of good practice are:-Restrict the time that high-risk foods spend in the danger zone (5°C - 63°C degrees)Keep cold food really cold (5°C degrees or under)Keep hot food really hot (63°C degrees or over)
61Remember!Food passes through the danger zone whilst it is being cooked, thawed or heated, therefore it is essential to check food is at a safe temperature when delivered to your work place and
62Refrigerate raw, highly perishable and high risk foods immediately after delivery or shopping Keep refrigerated food in place until it is needed for preparation or servingCook food thoroughlyCool food rapidly so that it spends as little time as possible in the danger zone
63Thaw frozen food in the fridge so that the outside temperature of the food cannot reach danger zone temperatures whilst still frozen inside.Remember - re-heat food to at least 82°C for 2 minutes to kill most pathogenic micro-organisms.
64Destroying micro-organisms Pathogenic micro-organisms can be destroyed by chemicals or heat, or by combining the two.Cooking at a temperature of 70°C or hotter for sufficient time kills most pathogenic bacteria although some bacterial spores can survive at higher temperatures.Food must be cooked thoroughly right through to the thickest part.
65Some processes which use very high temperatures such as sterilisation and ultra heat treatment (UHT) can kill greater numbers of bacteria than ordinary cooking temperatures but can alter the taste of food.There are a range of chemicals designed to destroy micro-organisms which we will explore later in the course.
66Checking temperatures Temperatures may be monitored automatically by giving a read out by using a probe.All food businesses must check food temperatures regularly and keep records of the readings.If it is your job to check a temperature, you must be trained on how to do this and told the readings to take and action if the readings are unsafe.
67Poor practicesAlways remember that poor temperature control frequently leads to food poisoning usually caused by:-Preparing/leaving out food too far ahead of sale or service and keeping it at ambient temperatures instead of refrigerating it;
68Cooling food too slowly before refrigeration; Under-cooking meat and poultry;Thawing food insufficiently;Holding food temperatures below 63°C for periods of time that allow multiplication to happen (remember bacteria doubles every minutes);
69Recap What should the temperature be in the freezer? When hot food is on display, at what temperature should it be kept?When food is reheated, what temperature should it reach for at least two minutes?-5°C or lower-18°C or lower-30°C or lower63°C minimum36°C minimum72°C minimum63°C or higher30°C or higher82°C or higher
70Good guess but not quite right. Please try again
72Please take a break if you wish before continuing. Well done!Ready to continue?Please take a break if you wish before continuing.
73Preparing and presenting food Whenever you can, cut large joints and poultry into smaller portions to ensure they cook evenly through to the centre.Cook stuffing separately so it does not prevent the meat or poultry from cooking through to the centre.Stir stews and casseroles during cooking to make sure there are no cool spots at temperatures in the danger zone.
74Thawing Frozen FoodSome food may be cooked from frozen, but always follow the manufacturer’s instructions.Most raw foods such as meat and poultry must be completely thawed before cooking.Inadequate thawing often causes food poisoning. The surface of food may cook while the inside temperature remains in the danger zone temperature, ideal for bacterial growth.
75If you have to use the same fridge you use for other foods always put the food you are thawing in a container, on the bottom shelf, covered, to prevent juices from dripping onto other foods and contaminating them.Microwave ovens can be useful for thawing some items, provided that the manufacturer’s instructions are followed carefully.Plan your work to allow time for food to defrost.
76Precautions for re-heating Food re-heated inadequately is a common cause of food poisoning, especially if the initial cooking, cooling and storage was inadequate.Remove food from the refrigerator just before re-heating and serving and not any earlier.Re-heat food to core temperature of at least 82°C for 2 minutes. Never re-heat more than once and discard any left-overs.
77Displaying foodDisplayed food must be protected against all sources of contamination by lids or sneeze guards.Packaged food must be securely wrapped.In self-service areas there should be food servers such as tongs, spoons or slices available so that customers are less likely to touch the food with their hands. Replace these regularly.
78Where staff use scales to weigh raw meat, poultry or fish or any high risk food, they should place a clean sheet of food paper on the weighing platform first. This helps to prevent cross contamination.
79Spoilage and Prevention Gradually all food will go bad through the natural process of aging. This is called spoilage.Different techniques combat spoilage: salting, smoking and drying. This can prolong the length of time the food is safe, palatable and nutritious to eat. We will now look at what part modern prevention methods play in food safety.
80Spoilage Starts from the moment the food is harvested or slaughtered. Some foods spoil faster than others but the spread of deterioration can be controlled by preservation methods and safe food handling practices.Food spoilage is accelerated by careless handling, inappropriate storage (temperature) and contamination (pests or chemicals).
81FungiFungi are used in food production such as blue cheese and soy sauce. Yeast is also a fungi and used for making bread, beer and vinegar.But the mixture of unwanted yeast or mould, some of which can produce toxins, can spoil food, making it unfit for human consumption.
82Recognising spoilt food Sometimes this is easy to recognise.The smell of mould is often unpleasant.Texture and flavour of food changes including wrinkling/drying, softening and becoming pulpy.
83Preventing spoilageThe bacteria, yeasts and moulds that cause spoilage also need food, moisture, warmth and time to reproduce.The steps to prevent bacterial contamination and multiplication also apply to food spoilage.Covering food, temperature and moisture level control, all play a part in delaying spoilage and keeping food safe and appetising to eat.
84PreservationFood manufacturers and processors play a major role in protecting food from spoilage.Many preservation methods delay spoilage or kill the spoilage organism that destroys food.These are
85Heat treatment in cooking, canning, bottling, sterilising, pasteurising and ultra heat treatment (UHT)Low temperatures and freezing of perishable foodsDrying (dehydration) including fish, meat, fruit, soups, vegetables, stocks and beveragesChemical preservation such as curing, salting and pickling
86Vacuum sealing, vacuum packing, sous vide (in the bag) Smoking fish, meats, (especially ham and sausages) and poultryIrradiation. A method of preservation that kills spoilage and pathogenic bacteria microbes.Some processes, such as sterilisation and UHT may alter the taste of the food.
87Date marksOnce preserved food has been opened, the contents must be stored and handled as if they were fresh. Highly perishable packaged food is always labelled with a use by date indicating the period when the food is safe to eat.
88Any food past the use by date is likely to be unfit to eat and could cause food-borne illness. It is against the law to sell or serve food that has passed the use by date.Less perishable items such as frozen food, dried fruit, flour, cakes, cereals and canned food must carry a best before date. This indicates when food is in the best condition.
89The aim of storageMost food businesses have to store food, even if that storage may be brief.Correct storage is when food is kept in the right conditions, at the correct temperature for the appropriate period.
90Because .... This helps to prevent food-borne illness Preserve the taste, appearance and nutritional value of foodProvide adequate supplies when they are neededContinued
91Avoid spoilage and wasted food Keep to budgetKeep within the law and avoid prosecution for selling unfit food
92StoragePlace food in the appropriate storage areas, following any storage instructions on the labels or boxes.Protect food from contamination.Always store food off the floor, on shelves or pallets.Continued
93Use clean, dry containers and wrappers if food needs to be divided into smaller quantities or re-wrapped.Stack shelves carefully, do not overload, leave enough space between goods to enable air to circulate.
94Keep storage areas clean and dry, clean up any spillages immediately. Check food regularly and always before you use it.Rotate stock to keep food in date.Inform the manager of any signs of pests.Store cleaning materials separately.
95Stock rotationWhenever you store food you should always use the stock with the shortest shelf life. Throwing away out of date food is expensive and unnecessary.So bring stock with the shortest shelf life to the front so that it will be used first.But still check the date mark, packaging and condition of the food before use.
96Fridge storageHigh risk and perishable food must be refrigerated because food kept at 0°C to 5°C will prevent or slow down bacterial multiplication.Examples of foods to be refrigerated are:-Raw, cooked and vacuum packed meat, poultry, fish, seafood, pies and patésThe contents of opened cans, once they have been transferred to a suitable container
97Unopened pasteurised canned food, such as ham Milk, dairy products and products containing them (i.e. quiche)Anything labelled for refrigeration, such as bottled sauces without preservativesPrepared saladsEggs should be kept in a fridge provided there is no chance of contamination
98Stacking the fridgeAlways store raw meat, fish and poultry on the lowest shelf so that blood or juices cannot drip onto other foods and contaminate them.Stack shelves neatly and allow room for air to circulate.Do not leave fridge doors open as the temperature inside the fridge will rise causing condensation, which can cause contamination by dripping onto other food.
99Stacking the freezerTreat the same as you would in a fridge. Stock rotate, store raw foods below high risk foods to avoid contamination.Never put unwrapped food in the freezer. It could become contaminated or damaged by freezer burn.
100Storing dry or other goods Dry goods must be stored in cool, dry, well ventilated conditions.The goods must be kept off the floor with sufficient space around them to allow air to circulate and for you to check the goods.Keep food in secure packaging or containers as many dry foods attract pests.
101Where should the following foods be stored? RecapWhere should the following foods be stored?Tea, coffee, spices, canned food, bottled food, cereals, grainLettuce, tomatoes, cooked meats, cheese, yogurtsBleach, washing up liquid, disinfectantFridgeDry storeChemical storeDry storeFridgeChemical storeFridgeChemical storeDry store
103Click to return to the recap. Correct! Well done.Click to return to the recap.
104Are you ready to move on through the course? Correct again!Are you ready to move on through the course?Take a break here if you wish.
105Personal hygienePeople are a common source of pathogenic bacteria so everyone who works with food must have the highest possible standards of personal hygiene and personal habits to avoid contaminating food.Remember - The public react to what they see so all food handlers must
106Shower dailyUse unscented deodorants as perfume can taint foodDo not wear jewellery or watches as bacteria can live under straps and ringsWear appropriate clothing before entering the food area. Store clothing separately.
107Clothes should always be clean and light coloured to show when dirty Clothes should always be clean and light coloured to show when dirty. Appropriate for the task i.e. hair nets, moustache nets, gloves, gauntlets, body warmers (cold areas). A hat or head covering must cover as much of your hair as possible. Long hair should be tied or clipped back.
108Head coveringPut the head covering on before you put your clothes on because hair can fall onto your work clothes and then onto food.Of course, never brush or comb your hair in a food area.
109Essential hand hygiene Even if you can avoid touching food by hand, you will still touch equipment, utensils and surfaces throughout the working day, so hands must be scrupulously clean at all times.Wash your hands frequently throughout the day.
110If you have internet access please watch the YouTube video
111Always wash your hands.... Before starting work Before, during and after touching raw or high risk foodAfter visiting the toiletHandling raw eggs in their shells (remember which part of the chicken then come from!)Coughing or sneezing
112Hand washing continued Touching your hair or faceCleaning or touching containers of chemicalsDealing with rubbish/waste binsEating, drinking or smokingNever test food with your fingers or lick your finger tip to make it easier to pick something up
113Cuts and spotsCover cuts, scratches and spots with a blue waterproof plaster to prevent the spreading of bacteria to food and to protect the wound or spot from infection and cross contamination.Use blue waterproof plasters so they can be seen if they come off.Some plasters contain a thin metal strip so they can be automatically identified by a metal detector on production lines.
114If you do lose a plaster into food tell your supervisor immediately. If you have a septic cut, weeping spot or boil, you must report this to your supervisor before you start work. Remember, people are the main source of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning
115Recap Why should food handlers wear hats? Why is it a good idea to where coloured plasters?Why should food handlers wear protective clothing?To keep their hair cleanTo stop their hair falling into foodTo keep hair out of their eyesTo let everyone know you have cut yourselfTo remind you to keep your finger out of the waySo it can be seen if it falls into foodTo protect food from contaminationTo keep their hair cleanSo all staff look the same
117Absolutely right!Well done.Back to the questions.
118Ready to continue with the course? Click this box to continue. You are doing so well.Ready to continue with the course?Click this box to continue.
119Cleaning and disinfection If you were going to eat in a cafe or restaurant you would expect it to be clean and your food cooked hygienically.Cleaning must be uppermost in our minds if we are to keep food and the workplace safe.
120Cleaning.... Protects food from microbial contamination Reduces opportunities for bacterial multiplication by removing food particlesProtects food from contaminationAvoids attracting pestsPrevents accidents on a wet or greasy floorCreate a good impression for customers
121DetergentsHelp to dissolve grease and remove dirt. With the use of some ‘elbow grease”, a detergent and hot water, you may kill some pathogenic bacteria, but more will survive.Detergents prevent bacteria from causing food-borne illness although some items and equipment should also be disinfected after they have been cleaned.
122Steam and chemical disinfectants Heat disinfection and chemical disinfection are often combined.Cleaning chemicals which reduce pathologic micro-organisms to a safe level are called disinfectants.They destroy enough bacteria to safeguard health, even though they cannot kill all known food poisoning bacteria and their spores.
123Disinfectants must be used after cleaning because disinfectants cannot remove grease and dirt. The disinfectant must be left on the surface long enough (contact time) to work properly as per the manufacturer’s recommendation.Many companies use a sanitizer (combined detergent and disinfectant) instead of just a detergent but contact time is still required.
124Food pestsPests are attracted to places where food is stored, prepared, sold, served or thrown away or to places where there is warmth and shelter.They can enter buildings through open windows and doors, or through the tiniest cracks in walls and around windows and pipes.
125A food pest is any creature that lives on or in human food causing damage or contamination, or both. Pests are sources of contamination.The main ones are:Insects such as flies, moths, antsCockroaches and wasps
126Stored product pests, such as beetles, mites and weevils Rodents, rats and miceBirds, mainly feral pigeons, sparrows, starlings and seagullsIt is important to remember that food premises are attractive to pests because they contain everything most pests need to survive. Such as
127Food in storage, under preparation or as waste Moisture from condensation, cooking activities, dripping taps or from stored liquidsWarmth from heating systems or from processing activitiesShelter for sleeping or nesting in any undisturbed areas, such as under fridges that has not been regularly moved for cleaning
128PetsDogs, cats, hamsters and other pets can contaminate food if they are allowed into food areas.There have been cases of food poisoning where someone has contaminated food after handling pets.
129Unhealthy habitsMany pests inhabit unhealthy places where they pick up pathogenic bacteria on their bodies and legs. For example, rats live in sewers and flies live on food found on rubbish tips, dustbins, drains and animal dropping.Some pests also have pathogenic bacteria living inside their bodies and can spread to food from their droppings or saliva as they eat.
130As well as spreading food poisoning bacteria, pests can spread food-borne diseases such as dysentery and other illness such as Weil’s disease (from water contaminated by rat urine).Pests also cause physical contamination with their droppings, eggs, fur, nesting material, mites, parasites and their own dead bodies.
131Problems with pest infestation Damage to the business’ reputation and profit.Food contamination and wastage.Damage to buildings, equipment and electrical cables, creating a safety hazard.Non-compliance with the law.The spread of diseases, including food poisoning and food-borne disease.
132Preventing problemsEffective pest control involved protecting premises so that pests cannot gain access. This is known as ‘proofing’.Protecting food from contamination and taking swift, safe action to deal with any infestation that occurs, despite your precautions.
133Your employer has the responsibility for ensuring that your workplace is designed and equipped to keep pests out.You can play an important part in preventing problems by:Keeping food covered at all timesStoring food off the floor in suitable containersNever leaving food outside
134Further precautions Keep doors and window screens closed. Telling your supervisor if you see any holes in brickwork or around windows, doors, pipes or any evidence of a problem.Preventing food pests entering is always best, but we know this is not easy. Therefore it is essential to keep a look out for signs of pests.
135Look out for..... Dead bodies, (mainly insects and rodents) Droppings, smears or rat runsUnusual smellsScratching, pecking or gnawing soundsGnawed pipes or cables and/or paw or claw printsTorn or damaged sacks or packaging, sometimes surrounded by spilled food.Eggs/larvae/pupae, feathers or fur, nesting material
136Dealing with an infestation It can be dangerous to attempt to deal with a pest infestation unless you have been trained and given the authority to do so.Most organisations use a specialist contractor to kill pests.For your own safety and that of others, it is essential not to touch or interfere with anything designed to eliminate pests.
137Most infestations may be tackled using: Bait and baited trapsPoisons, pesticides and insecticidesElectric ultraviolet fly killers
138Whatever your role, you will play an important part in food safety control by Following the rules in your organisationProtecting food from contaminationFollowing the basic rules of temperature controlLooking out for any food hazardsReporting faults, problems or possible food hazards to your manager
139There is a multiple choice question paper to complete as the final part of your module. Once you have completed the knowledge test please save to your computer and who will mark it and to you a Food Hygiene Certificate.
140Thank you for completing the course and for your support as a volunteer. If you have any questions or suggestions for improvement please let Anita Rigler know. I hope you will find this course to be helpful.