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Food Safety in Catering Level 2 Award Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 Schedule 1 Chapter V All food handlers must be supervised/instructed.

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Presentation on theme: "Food Safety in Catering Level 2 Award Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 Schedule 1 Chapter V All food handlers must be supervised/instructed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Food Safety in Catering Level 2 Award Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 Schedule 1 Chapter V All food handlers must be supervised/instructed or trained in food hygiene matters to a level appropriate to their job J O Training

2 Welcome to your Food Safety in Catering Module CQC Compliance CQC Outcome 5 – Meeting Nutritional needs CQC Outcome 7 – Safeguarding CQC Outcome 8 - Cleanliness and infection control CQC Outcome 10/11 – Safety and suitability of premises & Equipment CQC Outcome 12 – Requirements relating to workers

3 Food poisoning and the Law Did you know that food poisoning has increased dramatically over the last ten years. Since 1965 the cases of food-borne illness has increased from 20,000 to about 100,000. There has been no single identified cause as to why this number has increased but this could be because of a

4 Change in eating habits A greater reliance on re-heated food Eating out Contamination at source Reduction in preservatives Increased travel abroad Increased shelf life expectancy Changes in shopping and eating habits

5 Every one of us has to eat and drink to stay alive. That is why it is so important that our food does not harm us in any way. You, as a food handler, have a legal obligation to prepare food that does not harm the health of consumers in any way and to keep food safe to eat.

6 High standards of food hygiene bring important benefits to everyone: customers, employees and businesses. There are very high costs for poor food hygiene, including pain and suffering for the individual plus the loss of revenue and reputation of the business.

7 Initiating prosecutions Prohibitions Improvements Condemnation Seizure of food Actions which can be taken by the Environmental Health Officers

8 Hygiene offences: Max. £5,000 per offence and/or 6 months in prison Food Safety Offences: £20,000 per offence and/or 6 months in prison Crown Court: Unlimited fines and/or maximum of 2 years in prison

9 Food poisoning Food poisoning is caused by eating food containing poisonous micro-organisms or substances. Let us look at the symptoms: Abdominal pain Diarrhoea Vomiting Nausea

10 There are two types of illness derived from food. FOOD POISONING:- Caused by eating food contaminated by harmful substances/bacteria living on food FOOD-BORNE DISEASE: Is caused by consuming food or water carrying harmful micro-organisms

11 There are thousands of bacteria all around us that do no harm at all, but some, known as pathogenic bacteria, are harmful and can cause illness, even death, in vulnerable groups of people.

12 Such bacteria include:- Salmonella Staphylococcus aureus Clostridium perfringens

13 Food poisoning is mainly caused by eating large numbers of pathogenic bacteria that are living on food. Examples are:- Viruses and micro-organisms living on and in people, animals and other organisms Moulds and micro-organisms can produce toxins on food such as nuts, plants and fish Red kidney beans, rhubarb leaves, some fungi (toadstools) and fish that have been poorly processed

14 Food poisoning can also occur from chemicals and metal substances absorbed into food from unsuitable metal containers or from cleaning, industrial and agricultural chemicals used carelessly. Never put a tin back in the fridge

15 FOOD-BORNE DISEASE Many pathogenic micro-organisms are passed on to humans through food or water such as:- Campylobacter enteritis Escherichia coli 0157 (E.coli) Typhoid Dysentery A type of hepatitis Tuberculosis from untreated milk

16 Only a few of these micro-organisms are required to infect you. Incubation period and duration of illness can be days, weeks or months and can invade the blood stream and induce long-term health problems. The symptoms are similar to food poisoning and can include kidney failure or paralysis, which can lead to death.

17 Who are most at risk? The old and infirm The very young People who are ill, convalescing or have a weakened immune system Pregnant women or nursing mothers

18 Bacteria are life forms that are invisible to the naked eye but live on and in our bodies. There are thousands of different types of bacteria and many of them are useful to us. But a few are very harmful and can cause food-borne illness and encourage food to perish. Let’s now look at the helpful and harmful bacteria which play a part in our lives.

19 Most types of bacteria are beneficial to humans and we would find it difficult to live without them. There are three groups:- Helpful bacteria Spoilage bacteria Pathogenic bacteria

20 Useful bacteria Spoilage bacteria Pathogenic bacteria

21 Helpful bacteria allows us to Grow crops and develop new foods Digest the food we eat Treat sewage to make it safe Create medical drugs Produce food including yoghurt, cheese and fizzy drinks

22 Spoilage bacteria will make food perish. Also known as rotting and decaying bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria can transmit illness such as food poisoning and food-borne disease.

23 Examples of contamination Examples of causes of food poisoning PathogenicSourceTypical Symptoms Average onset time Raw food, shell fish and vegetables SalmonellaRaw poultry, eggs, raw meat, milk and animal Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting and fever 12 to 36 hours People, air and dust Staphylococcus Aureus Human body i.e. skin, nose, mouth, cuts and boils Abdominal pain or abdominal cramp 1 to 6 hours Dirt and foodClostridium Perfringens Animal and human excreta, soil, dust, insects and raw meat Abdominal pain. Diarrhoea 12 to 18 hours

24 Other examples PathogenicSourceTypical symptoms Duration Campylobacter Jejuni Raw poultry, raw meat, milk and animals including pets Diarrhoea, often bloody. Abdominal pain, nausea. Fever hours Escherichia coli (E.coli 0157) Human and animal gut, sewage, water and raw meat Diarrhoea. Abdominal pain, nausea. Fever. Kidney damage or failure 12 to 24 hours or longer ListeriaSoft cheese, cheese made from unpasteurised milk, salad, vegetables, pate Symptoms like ‘flu1-70 days

25 Quick recap What is the maximum amount of fine per offence, for hygiene offences? Is it: a. £10,000 per offence and/or 9 months in prison? b. £5,000 per offence and/or 6 months in prison? c. £20,000 per offence and/or 12 months in prison?

26 Sorry. Have another go

27 Have another try. A £20,000 fine is for a food safety offence, not food hygiene.

28 Correct! Well done. Click in this blue box to continue with the course

29 Bacteria. Click on the group you feel is correct Spoilage Bacteria. Grows crops, treats sewage, used to produce food Helpful Bacteria.Makes food perish, rot or decay Pathogenic Bacteria.Used to make medical drugs Spoilage Bacteria. Helps to digest food we eat, makes cheese and yoghurt Helpful Bacteria.Causes illness such as food poisoning or food-borne disease Pathogenic Bacteria.Makes food perish, rot or decay Spoilage Bacteria. Makes food perish, rot or decay Helpful Bacteria.Grows crops, treats sewage, produces food Pathogenic Bacteria.Causes illness such as food poisoning or food-borne disease

30 Well done! Spoilage Bacteria. Makes food perish, rot or decay Helpful Bacteria.Grows crops, treats sewage, produces food Pathogenic Bacteria.Causes illness such as food poisoning or food-borne disease

31 Sorry. Try again

32 How does bacteria make us ill Bacteria food poisoning occurs if food is: Eaten after it has been contaminated by pathogenic bacteria and conditions allow the bacteria to multiply to levels that cause illness If bacteria are not destroyed by adequate cooking

33 How does bacteria multiply? Bacteria reproduces by dividing in to two by a process called “Binary fission”. Bacteria needs only minutes to multiply. It is therefore possible for one bacteria to produce millions of bacteria in a matter of hours.

34 Why does bacteria make us ill? Some bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus produce toxins in food even before we eat it. Others make us ill by forming spores, a protective coating which allows the bacteria to survive very harsh conditions, such as high cooking temperatures, that would normally destroy them.

35 What does bacteria need to multiply? Bacteria will not multiply in dried foods but as soon as liquid is added to food, such as milk and eggs, then you have ideal conditions. However if enough sugar and salt is added to foods such as bacon, savoury biscuits and jam/confectionary, this will absorb the available moisture in the food so the bacteria cannot multiply easily.

36 Warmth and the “danger zone” Most bacteria multiply at temperatures between 5°C and 63°C. Room temperature tends to be within this range. The ideal temperature to multiple is 37°C. Above or below the “danger zone” bacterial growth slows down or stops but resumes when conditions are more suitable. Freezing suspends bacteria. It never kills it.

37 Time When food poisoning bacteria are left in the right conditions (the right food and moisture) they multiply (double) every minutes. This knowledge is important.

38 Bacteria and the danger zone Cooking at high temperatures for long enough kills most bacteria (at least two minutes at 70°C right through to the centre or the thickest part of the food). Some bacteria can survive even higher cooking temperatures including dehydration and disinfection. Bacteria do not multiply when they are in spore form, but resume when conditions allow.

39 So Keep high risk and perishable food out of the danger zone. This includes room temperature, heated slowly, cooked slowly or left in the sun such as a shop window. Be aware of hot sauce poured onto cold food. REMEMBER: Keep cold food really cold and hot food really hot.

40 Quick recap How do bacteria multiply? What do bacteria need in order to multiply? Between what temperature is the danger zone Have babies Lay eggsDivide Time, food, pests, warmth Food, moisture, time, dirt Warmth, moisture, time & food 70°c – 83°c5°c - 63°c-18°c - 5°c

41 Wrong. Sorry. Please have another go

42 Well done! Next question.

43 Correct! Well done. On to the next slide.

44 Contamination and how to prevent illness and harm Contamination is not only caused by bacteria it can also be caused by something harmful or unpleasant in our food or drink. There are three groups of contaminants:-

45 1.Physical ( leaves, pips, egg shell, stones, insects, string, plastic packaging, fingernails, hair, plasters, tops of pens, insects, droppings) 2.Chemical (industrial, agricultural chemicals, pest bait, pesticides) 3.Microbial (the main cause of food-borne illness: viruses, parasites)

46 Sources of microbial contamination At slaughter. Skin and flesh may be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. When minced for burgers the bacteria can spread throughout the food. Shellfish are filter feeders. If the water is polluted by incorrectly treated sewage the shellfish can absorb harmful bacteria and other micro-organisms or micro-virus particles.

47 People Spread through hands, ears, hair, sneezing and coughing, cuts, boils and spots. Compounded by not washing your hands before handling food. Poor personal hygiene, such as not washing your hands after using the toilet, can spread food-borne illness. (Know as faecal-oral route).

48 Contamination Pets and petsFlies, cockroaches, mice, dogs, cats, hamsters, reptiles carry harmful bacteria on their bodies Feathers, fur, eggs, droppings and nesting material may contaminate food Air and DustCarries millions of microscopic particles of dead skin, food and debris that carry pathogenic micro- organisms which will settle on uncovered food WaterPoor/untreated drinking water such as rivers, lakes, ponds or reservoirs, can carry pathogenic micro- organisms that cause food-borne disease SoilFruit, vegetables, grain (rice) and pulses that have not been washed usually carry soil and dirt that can contaminate food Food wasteBacteria from food waste and pests that scraps of food attract can contaminate food

49 How does contamination occur? Whether direct or indirect it can happen at any stage From the start of the chain: growing, slaughtering, harvesting, catching, processing, packing, delivering, storing, preparing, cooking, displaying, serving and selling. We can see or bite on a screw which has dropped off of some machinery but we cannot see the microbial contamination that occurs when raw food such as poultry and vegetables are contaminated by bacteria.

50 But bacteria needs to get to its source first. This is via a ‘vehicle of contamination’ such as people, animals, equipment and utensils. Hands, work surfaces, containers, cutlery and crockery, chopping boards and dish cloths and any food contact that has not been thoroughly cleaned between uses.

51 Pathogenic bacteria are transferred from raw food to high risk food directly (using the same knife) or indirectly (liquid or juices from raw food touching another). Cross contamination might occur when bacteria are carried by the food handler’s hands, utensils or from raw food to high risk food. Bacteria can only travel small distances on their own. They need help to travel!

52 These vehicles of contamination move pathogenic bacteria from a contaminated source, such as raw meat, to a place where the conditions are ideal for multiplication. That is food which is high in protein, moisture, warmth and given sufficient time to multiply. Bacterial contamination is responsible for most cases of food poisoning. It is particularly important to ensure that raw and high risk foods are kept apart at all times; this includes storage, transporting, preparation, display and point of sale.

53 All surfaces should therefore be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after use. One good way is to use colour-coded preparation equipment such as chopping boards and knives, each colour designated for a particular use, i.e. red for raw meat, green for vegetables. This helps to remind food handlers to separate the preparation of raw and high risk foods.

54 Prevention check list Keep food coveredTo prevent sneezing onto food or air contamination Do not touch food with your hands unless absolutely necessary Use utensils such as tongs, forks, slices to move food Do not keep pens behind ears, in top pockets or hats Or wear jewellery, loose fastening buttons, name labels on clothing. This can drop into food. Follow strict personal hygiene habits Do not smoke, eat, drink, chew gum in food areas as you can transmit bacteria from your mouth to your hands and then to food

55 Which type of contamination would you class in this list as being? String, plastic, egg shells, finger nails, sticking plasters, nuts and bolts, insects Food poisoning bacteria, viruses, microscopic parasites Industrial processing chemicals, agricultural and cleaning chemicals Chemical MicrobialPhysical Microbial PhysicalChemicalMicrobial

56 Sorry, not quite right. Please have another go

57 Correct! Well done. Click to go back to finish the recap.

58 Well done! Right again. Ready to move on or would you like a break?

59 Temperature control Food items may already be contaminated when they are delivered to your workplace. Your role is to do everything possible to prevent food-borne illness by controlling conditions that will encourage bacterial multiplication. By keeping food under proper control you will destroy many pathogenic micro-organisms through temperature control.

60 Your role in temperature control Basic rules of good practice are:- Restrict the time that high-risk foods spend in the danger zone (5°C - 63°C degrees) Keep cold food really cold (5°C degrees or under) Keep hot food really hot (63°C degrees or over)

61 Remember! Food passes through the danger zone whilst it is being cooked, thawed or heated, therefore it is essential to check food is at a safe temperature when delivered to your work place and

62 Refrigerate raw, highly perishable and high risk foods immediately after delivery or shopping Keep refrigerated food in place until it is needed for preparation or serving Cook food thoroughly Cool food rapidly so that it spends as little time as possible in the danger zone

63 Thaw frozen food in the fridge so that the outside temperature of the food cannot reach danger zone temperatures whilst still frozen inside. Remember - re-heat food to at least 82°C for 2 minutes to kill most pathogenic micro- organisms.

64 Destroying micro-organisms Pathogenic micro-organisms can be destroyed by chemicals or heat, or by combining the two. Cooking at a temperature of 70°C or hotter for sufficient time kills most pathogenic bacteria although some bacterial spores can survive at higher temperatures. Food must be cooked thoroughly right through to the thickest part.

65 Some processes which use very high temperatures such as sterilisation and ultra heat treatment (UHT) can kill greater numbers of bacteria than ordinary cooking temperatures but can alter the taste of food. There are a range of chemicals designed to destroy micro-organisms which we will explore later in the course.

66 Checking temperatures Temperatures may be monitored automatically by giving a read out by using a probe. All food businesses must check food temperatures regularly and keep records of the readings. If it is your job to check a temperature, you must be trained on how to do this and told the readings to take and action if the readings are unsafe.

67 Poor practices Always remember that poor temperature control frequently leads to food poisoning usually caused by:- o Preparing/leaving out food too far ahead of sale or service and keeping it at ambient temperatures instead of refrigerating it;

68 o Cooling food too slowly before refrigeration; o Under-cooking meat and poultry; o Thawing food insufficiently; o Holding food temperatures below 63°C for periods of time that allow multiplication to happen (remember bacteria doubles every minutes);

69 Recap What should the temperature be in the freezer? When hot food is on display, at what temperature should it be kept? When food is reheated, what temperature should it reach for at least two minutes? -5°C or lower 63°C minimum 36°C minimum -18°C or lower -30°C or lower 63°C or higher 30°C or higher 82°C or higher 72°C minimum

70 Good guess but not quite right. Please try again

71 Correct! Well done Next question

72 Well done! Ready to continue? Please take a break if you wish before continuing.

73 Whenever you can, cut large joints and poultry into smaller portions to ensure they cook evenly through to the centre. Cook stuffing separately so it does not prevent the meat or poultry from cooking through to the centre. Stir stews and casseroles during cooking to make sure there are no cool spots at temperatures in the danger zone. Preparing and presenting food

74 Thawing Frozen Food Some food may be cooked from frozen, but always follow the manufacturer’s instructions. Most raw foods such as meat and poultry must be completely thawed before cooking. Inadequate thawing often causes food poisoning. The surface of food may cook while the inside temperature remains in the danger zone temperature, ideal for bacterial growth.

75 If you have to use the same fridge you use for other foods always put the food you are thawing in a container, on the bottom shelf, covered, to prevent juices from dripping onto other foods and contaminating them. Microwave ovens can be useful for thawing some items, provided that the manufacturer’s instructions are followed carefully. Plan your work to allow time for food to defrost.

76 Precautions for re-heating Food re-heated inadequately is a common cause of food poisoning, especially if the initial cooking, cooling and storage was inadequate. Remove food from the refrigerator just before re-heating and serving and not any earlier. Re-heat food to core temperature of at least 82°C for 2 minutes. Never re-heat more than once and discard any left-overs.

77 Displaying food Displayed food must be protected against all sources of contamination by lids or sneeze guards. Packaged food must be securely wrapped. In self-service areas there should be food servers such as tongs, spoons or slices available so that customers are less likely to touch the food with their hands. Replace these regularly.

78 Where staff use scales to weigh raw meat, poultry or fish or any high risk food, they should place a clean sheet of food paper on the weighing platform first. This helps to prevent cross contamination.

79 Spoilage and Prevention Gradually all food will go bad through the natural process of aging. This is called spoilage. Different techniques combat spoilage: salting, smoking and drying. This can prolong the length of time the food is safe, palatable and nutritious to eat. We will now look at what part modern prevention methods play in food safety.

80 Spoilage Starts from the moment the food is harvested or slaughtered. Some foods spoil faster than others but the spread of deterioration can be controlled by preservation methods and safe food handling practices. Food spoilage is accelerated by careless handling, inappropriate storage (temperature) and contamination (pests or chemicals).

81 Fungi Fungi are used in food production such as blue cheese and soy sauce. Yeast is also a fungi and used for making bread, beer and vinegar. But the mixture of unwanted yeast or mould, some of which can produce toxins, can spoil food, making it unfit for human consumption.

82 Recognising spoilt food Sometimes this is easy to recognise. The smell of mould is often unpleasant. Texture and flavour of food changes including wrinkling/drying, softening and becoming pulpy.

83 Preventing spoilage The bacteria, yeasts and moulds that cause spoilage also need food, moisture, warmth and time to reproduce. The steps to prevent bacterial contamination and multiplication also apply to food spoilage. Covering food, temperature and moisture level control, all play a part in delaying spoilage and keeping food safe and appetising to eat.

84 Preservation Food manufacturers and processors play a major role in protecting food from spoilage. Many preservation methods delay spoilage or kill the spoilage organism that destroys food. These are

85  Heat treatment in cooking, canning, bottling, sterilising, pasteurising and ultra heat treatment (UHT)  Low temperatures and freezing of perishable foods  Drying (dehydration) including fish, meat, fruit, soups, vegetables, stocks and beverages  Chemical preservation such as curing, salting and pickling

86  Vacuum sealing, vacuum packing, sous vide (in the bag)  Smoking fish, meats, (especially ham and sausages) and poultry  Irradiation. A method of preservation that kills spoilage and pathogenic bacteria microbes. Some processes, such as sterilisation and UHT may alter the taste of the food.

87 Date marks Once preserved food has been opened, the contents must be stored and handled as if they were fresh. Highly perishable packaged food is always labelled with a use by date indicating the period when the food is safe to eat.

88 Any food past the use by date is likely to be unfit to eat and could cause food-borne illness. It is against the law to sell or serve food that has passed the use by date. Less perishable items such as frozen food, dried fruit, flour, cakes, cereals and canned food must carry a best before date. This indicates when food is in the best condition.

89 The aim of storage Most food businesses have to store food, even if that storage may be brief. Correct storage is when food is kept in the right conditions, at the correct temperature for the appropriate period.

90 Because.... This helps to prevent food-borne illness Preserve the taste, appearance and nutritional value of food Provide adequate supplies when they are needed Continued

91 Avoid spoilage and wasted food Keep to budget Keep within the law and avoid prosecution for selling unfit food

92 Storage Place food in the appropriate storage areas, following any storage instructions on the labels or boxes. Protect food from contamination. Always store food off the floor, on shelves or pallets. Continued

93 Use clean, dry containers and wrappers if food needs to be divided into smaller quantities or re-wrapped. Stack shelves carefully, do not overload, leave enough space between goods to enable air to circulate.

94 Keep storage areas clean and dry, clean up any spillages immediately. Check food regularly and always before you use it. Rotate stock to keep food in date. Inform the manager of any signs of pests. Store cleaning materials separately.

95 Stock rotation Whenever you store food you should always use the stock with the shortest shelf life. Throwing away out of date food is expensive and unnecessary. So bring stock with the shortest shelf life to the front so that it will be used first. But still check the date mark, packaging and condition of the food before use.

96 Fridge storage High risk and perishable food must be refrigerated because food kept at 0°C to 5°C will prevent or slow down bacterial multiplication. Examples of foods to be refrigerated are:- Raw, cooked and vacuum packed meat, poultry, fish, seafood, pies and patés The contents of opened cans, once they have been transferred to a suitable container

97 Unopened pasteurised canned food, such as ham Milk, dairy products and products containing them (i.e. quiche) Anything labelled for refrigeration, such as bottled sauces without preservatives Prepared salads Eggs should be kept in a fridge provided there is no chance of contamination

98 Stacking the fridge Always store raw meat, fish and poultry on the lowest shelf so that blood or juices cannot drip onto other foods and contaminate them. Stack shelves neatly and allow room for air to circulate. Do not leave fridge doors open as the temperature inside the fridge will rise causing condensation, which can cause contamination by dripping onto other food.

99 Stacking the freezer Treat the same as you would in a fridge. Stock rotate, store raw foods below high risk foods to avoid contamination. Never put unwrapped food in the freezer. It could become contaminated or damaged by freezer burn.

100 Storing dry or other goods Dry goods must be stored in cool, dry, well ventilated conditions. The goods must be kept off the floor with sufficient space around them to allow air to circulate and for you to check the goods. Keep food in secure packaging or containers as many dry foods attract pests.

101 Recap Where should the following foods be stored? Tea, coffee, spices, canned food, bottled food, cereals, grain Lettuce, tomatoes, cooked meats, cheese, yogurts Bleach, washing up liquid, disinfectant Chemical store FridgeDry store Fridge Chemical store Dry store Chemical store Fridge

102 Not quite right. Please try again

103 Correct! Well done. Click to return to the recap.

104 Correct again! Are you ready to move on through the course? Take a break here if you wish.

105 Personal hygiene People are a common source of pathogenic bacteria so everyone who works with food must have the highest possible standards of personal hygiene and personal habits to avoid contaminating food. Remember - The public react to what they see so all food handlers must

106 Shower daily Use unscented deodorants as perfume can taint food Do not wear jewellery or watches as bacteria can live under straps and rings Wear appropriate clothing before entering the food area. Store clothing separately.

107 Clothes should always be clean and light coloured to show when dirty. Appropriate for the task i.e. hair nets, moustache nets, gloves, gauntlets, body warmers (cold areas). A hat or head covering must cover as much of your hair as possible. Long hair should be tied or clipped back.

108 Head covering Put the head covering on before you put your clothes on because hair can fall onto your work clothes and then onto food. Of course, never brush or comb your hair in a food area.

109 Essential hand hygiene Even if you can avoid touching food by hand, you will still touch equipment, utensils and surfaces throughout the working day, so hands must be scrupulously clean at all times. Wash your hands frequently throughout the day.

110 If you have internet access please watch the YouTube video

111 Always wash your hands.... Before starting work Before, during and after touching raw or high risk food After visiting the toilet Handling raw eggs in their shells (remember which part of the chicken then come from!) Coughing or sneezing

112 Hand washing continued Touching your hair or face Cleaning or touching containers of chemicals Dealing with rubbish/waste bins Eating, drinking or smoking Never test food with your fingers or lick your finger tip to make it easier to pick something up

113 Cuts and spots Cover cuts, scratches and spots with a blue waterproof plaster to prevent the spreading of bacteria to food and to protect the wound or spot from infection and cross contamination. Use blue waterproof plasters so they can be seen if they come off. Some plasters contain a thin metal strip so they can be automatically identified by a metal detector on production lines.

114 If you do lose a plaster into food tell your supervisor immediately. If you have a septic cut, weeping spot or boil, you must report this to your supervisor before you start work. Remember, people are the main source of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning

115 Recap Why should food handlers wear hats? Why is it a good idea to where coloured plasters? Why should food handlers wear protective clothing? To keep their hair clean To stop their hair falling into food To keep hair out of their eyes To let everyone know you have cut yourself To protect food from contamination So it can be seen if it falls into food To remind you to keep your finger out of the way To keep their hair clean So all staff look the same

116 Sorry - incorrect. Try again.

117 Absolutely right! Well done. Back to the questions.

118 You are doing so well. Ready to continue with the course? Click this box to continue.

119 Cleaning and disinfection If you were going to eat in a cafe or restaurant you would expect it to be clean and your food cooked hygienically. Cleaning must be uppermost in our minds if we are to keep food and the workplace safe.

120 Cleaning.... Protects food from microbial contamination Reduces opportunities for bacterial multiplication by removing food particles Protects food from contamination Avoids attracting pests Prevents accidents on a wet or greasy floor Create a good impression for customers

121 Detergents Help to dissolve grease and remove dirt. With the use of some ‘elbow grease”, a detergent and hot water, you may kill some pathogenic bacteria, but more will survive. Detergents prevent bacteria from causing food- borne illness although some items and equipment should also be disinfected after they have been cleaned.

122 Steam and chemical disinfectants Heat disinfection and chemical disinfection are often combined. Cleaning chemicals which reduce pathologic micro-organisms to a safe level are called disinfectants. They destroy enough bacteria to safeguard health, even though they cannot kill all known food poisoning bacteria and their spores.

123 Disinfectants must be used after cleaning because disinfectants cannot remove grease and dirt. The disinfectant must be left on the surface long enough (contact time) to work properly as per the manufacturer’s recommendation. Many companies use a sanitizer (combined detergent and disinfectant) instead of just a detergent but contact time is still required.

124 Food pests Pests are attracted to places where food is stored, prepared, sold, served or thrown away or to places where there is warmth and shelter. They can enter buildings through open windows and doors, or through the tiniest cracks in walls and around windows and pipes.

125 A food pest is any creature that lives on or in human food causing damage or contamination, or both. Pests are sources of contamination. The main ones are: Insects such as flies, moths, ants Cockroaches and wasps

126 Stored product pests, such as beetles, mites and weevils Rodents, rats and mice Birds, mainly feral pigeons, sparrows, starlings and seagulls It is important to remember that food premises are attractive to pests because they contain everything most pests need to survive. Such as

127 Food in storage, under preparation or as waste Moisture from condensation, cooking activities, dripping taps or from stored liquids Warmth from heating systems or from processing activities Shelter for sleeping or nesting in any undisturbed areas, such as under fridges that has not been regularly moved for cleaning

128 Pets Dogs, cats, hamsters and other pets can contaminate food if they are allowed into food areas. There have been cases of food poisoning where someone has contaminated food after handling pets.

129 Unhealthy habits Many pests inhabit unhealthy places where they pick up pathogenic bacteria on their bodies and legs. For example, rats live in sewers and flies live on food found on rubbish tips, dustbins, drains and animal dropping. Some pests also have pathogenic bacteria living inside their bodies and can spread to food from their droppings or saliva as they eat.

130 As well as spreading food poisoning bacteria, pests can spread food-borne diseases such as dysentery and other illness such as Weil’s disease (from water contaminated by rat urine). Pests also cause physical contamination with their droppings, eggs, fur, nesting material, mites, parasites and their own dead bodies.

131 Problems with pest infestation Damage to the business’ reputation and profit. Food contamination and wastage. Damage to buildings, equipment and electrical cables, creating a safety hazard. Non-compliance with the law. The spread of diseases, including food poisoning and food-borne disease.

132 Preventing problems Effective pest control involved protecting premises so that pests cannot gain access. This is known as ‘proofing’. Protecting food from contamination and taking swift, safe action to deal with any infestation that occurs, despite your precautions.

133 Your employer has the responsibility for ensuring that your workplace is designed and equipped to keep pests out. You can play an important part in preventing problems by: Keeping food covered at all times Storing food off the floor in suitable containers Never leaving food outside

134 Further precautions Keep doors and window screens closed. Telling your supervisor if you see any holes in brickwork or around windows, doors, pipes or any evidence of a problem. Preventing food pests entering is always best, but we know this is not easy. Therefore it is essential to keep a look out for signs of pests.

135 Look out for.....  Dead bodies, (mainly insects and rodents)  Droppings, smears or rat runs  Unusual smells  Scratching, pecking or gnawing sounds  Gnawed pipes or cables and/or paw or claw prints  Torn or damaged sacks or packaging, sometimes surrounded by spilled food.  Eggs/larvae/pupae, feathers or fur, nesting material

136 Dealing with an infestation It can be dangerous to attempt to deal with a pest infestation unless you have been trained and given the authority to do so. Most organisations use a specialist contractor to kill pests. For your own safety and that of others, it is essential not to touch or interfere with anything designed to eliminate pests.

137 Most infestations may be tackled using: Bait and baited traps Poisons, pesticides and insecticides Electric ultraviolet fly killers

138 Whatever your role, you will play an important part in food safety control by Following the rules in your organisation Protecting food from contamination Following the basic rules of temperature control Looking out for any food hazards Reporting faults, problems or possible food hazards to your manager

139 There is a multiple choice question paper to complete as the final part of your module. Once you have completed the knowledge test please save to your computer and who will mark it and to you a Food Hygiene Certificate.

140 Thank you for completing the course and for your support as a volunteer. If you have any questions or suggestions for improvement please let Anita Rigler know. I hope you will find this course to be helpful.

141 Answer paper


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