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Practice Test World History AP #8. Most of the earliest civilizations developed in (A)Areas around the Mediterranean Sea (B)Inland areas in moderate climates.

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Presentation on theme: "Practice Test World History AP #8. Most of the earliest civilizations developed in (A)Areas around the Mediterranean Sea (B)Inland areas in moderate climates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Practice Test World History AP #8

2 Most of the earliest civilizations developed in (A)Areas around the Mediterranean Sea (B)Inland areas in moderate climates (C)Areas with abundant rainfall (D)The Western Hemisphere (E)River valleys in warm, dry climates

3

4 Most experts believe that agriculture first originated in (A) The Middle East and then spread by cultural diffusion to many other areas of the world (B) The Andes Mountain area and China about the same time (C) China and then spread by cultural diffusion to many other areas around the world (D) The Middle East but also began later as independent invention in many other areas of the world (E) Several areas in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres about the same time

5 (D) The Middle East but also began later as independent invention in many other areas of the world

6 Which of the following economic activities is most likely to produce a surplus? (A)Hunting and gathering (B)Shifting cultivation (C)Sedentary agriculture (D)Pastoral nomadism (E)Horticulture

7 (C)Sedentary agriculture

8 One of the earliest cultural hearths in the Americas was developed by (A)Harappans (B)Olmec (C)Akkadians (D)Maya (E)Hittites

9 (B) Olmec

10 One common effect of the process of agricultural settlements developing into civilizations was (A) The rulers came to be seen as gods (B) The religions became more centered on spirits and nature (C) A growing nostalgia for the more nomadic lifestyle (D) The people generally didn’t have to work as hard as nomads did (E) The status of women fell

11 The status of women fell (E) The status of women fell

12 Which of the following is true of both ancient Egypt and Ancient Mesopotamia? (A) Both were politically organized into city- states. (B) Both had polytheistic religions. (C) Neither had a written language. (D) Both had to cope with very rainy climates (E) Neither had written law codes.

13 (B) Both had polytheistic religions.

14 “I have not blasphemed a god, I have not robbed the poor. I have not done what the god abhors, I have not maligned a servant to his master. I have not caused pain, I have not cause tears…” The above is an excerpt from a confession that Egyptians gave to “I have not blasphemed a god, I have not robbed the poor. I have not done what the god abhors, I have not maligned a servant to his master. I have not caused pain, I have not cause tears…” The above is an excerpt from a confession that Egyptians gave to (A)The pharaoh before being sentenced to death (B)The priest before being sacrificed to the gods (C)The king of the underworld after death (D)Spouses during wedding ceremonies (E)The river gods before the flooding season

15 (C) The king of the underworld after death

16 The best single explanation for why so little is known about the Indus River Valley people is that (A)They had no written language (B)Their civilization was less developed than that of the Egyptians and Mesopotamians (C)Most of their artifacts were destroyed by invaders (D)Inscriptions on artifacts are too brief to allow the interpretation of their language (E)Their sites are more difficult to excavate than those of most other ancient peoples

17 (D)Inscriptions on artifacts are too brief to allow the interpretation of their language

18 One of the most important political legacies of the Zhou Dynasty in Ancient China is (A) A written law code (B) The establishment of a theocracy (C) The tradition of having two rulers instead of one (D) Participation by citizens in the decision- making process (E) The Mandate of Heaven

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20 Which of the earliest civilizations generally differed from the others in its emphasis on the supreme importance of the family, life on earth rather than life after death, and learning and literacy? (A)China (B)Egypt (C)Mesopotamia (D)Mycenae (E)Indus Valley

21 (A)China

22 The cultural hearth pictured above is geographically different from most others in the Eastern Hemisphere because it is NOT (A)Next to an ocean (B)Centralized in one place (C)In a river valley (D)In a warm climate (E)In an area with a great deal of rainfall

23 (C) In a river valley

24 Which of the following classical civilizations was composed of city-states? (A)Greece (B)Rome (C)Mauryan India (D)Gupta India (E)Han China

25 (A)Greece

26 Which of the following civilizations is mismatched with an accomplishment? (A)Phoenicia/alphabet based on sounds (B)Greece/democratic government (C)Rome/building of aqueducts (D)Gupta India/Hellenistic synthesis (E)Han China/bureaucracy based on merit

27 (D)Gupta India/Hellenistic synthesis

28 Which of the following is true of both Athens and Rome? (A)Neither valued philosophy or art. (B)Neither were patriarchies. (C)Neither made use of slave labor. (D)Both were monotheistic. (E)Both had strong military organizations.

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30 “The Great King, King of Kings, King in _____, King of countries” were ways of addressing the ruler of (A)Greece (B)The Roman Republic (C)The Roman Empire (D)Persia (E)Mauryan India

31 (D)Persia

32 One difference between Rome and Han China is that (A)High government positions were more likely to be based on scholarly accomplishments in China (B)Engineering accomplishments were more significant in China (C)Religious leaders were more likely to have political power in Rome (D)Rome had more trouble guarding its borders than China did (E)Rome experienced more problems with free peasants clashing with wealthy aristocrats

33 (A)High government positions were more likely to be based on scholarly accomplishments in China

34 Which of the following is often seen as an important accomplishment of Ashoka? (A)He unified India into a long-lasting political dynasty. (B)He probably kept Buddhism from dying out. (C)He promoted the spread of Hinduism to Southeast and East Asia. (D)He built a great Indian navy. (E)He forged an alliance with the Roman Emperor.

35 (B)He probably kept Buddhism from dying out.

36 In comparison to the Mauryan Dynasty, the Gupta Dynasty (A)Controlled much more territory on the Indian subcontinent (B)Built a more complex government bureaucracy (C)Rose from the same powerful area in northern India (D)Did not practice as much “theatre state” (E)Did not practice Hinduism

37 (C)Rose from the same powerful area in northern India

38 The most significant common reason for both the collapse of early civilizations around 1200 B.C.E. and the classical civilizations in the years before 600 C.E. was probably (A)A problem of interdependence (B)Attack by nomadic groups (C)Overuse of natural resources (D)A serious climate change (E)The growing incidence of crime and corruption

39 (A) A problem of interdependence

40 A technological invention used to maneuver the waters of the Indian Ocean was the (A)Square sail (B)Trireme (C)Large-hulled boat (D)Sextant (E)Lateen sail

41

42 Although much about them is mysterious, these clay soldiers were probably created to (A)Demonstrate Chinese artistic abilities (B)Frighten simple nomadic groups from entering Chinese borders (C)Symbolize the power of Shi Huangdi (D)Symbolically protect commerce on the Silk Road (E)Protect the tombs of early Confucian scholars

43 (C) Symbolize the power of Shi Huangdi

44 The most important reason that the Chinese civilization did not lose its identity after the fall of the Han Dynasty was (A)The rapid rise of another equally powerful dynasty (B)A shared belief in Confucianism (C)The relative weakness of nomadic groups that surrounded Chinese borders (D)The leadership of Shi Huangdi (E)Its relatively small geographical size

45 (B) A shared belief in Confucianism

46 Which of the following is NOT a concept central to Buddhism? (A)The Four Noble Truths (B)Atman (C)The Eightfold Path (D)Nirvana (E)The importance of meditation

47 (B) Atman

48 Which of the following belief systems originated on the Indian subcontinent? I.Buddhism II.Hinduism III.Confucianism IV.Daoism Which of the following belief systems originated on the Indian subcontinent? I.Buddhism II.Hinduism III.Confucianism IV.Daoism (A)I and II only (B)II only (C)II and III only (D)II, III, and IV only (E)IV only

49 (A) I and II only

50 Which of the following was a universalizing religion of the era before 600 C.E.? (A)Hinduism (B)Judaism (C)Daoism (D)Christianity (E)Confucianism

51 (D)Christianity

52 Which of the following factors was MOST supportive of the rapid spread of Islam in the years after its founding in the early 7 th century? (A)Strong communications and travel networks on the Arabian Peninsula (B)Its appearance in the post-classical era, with weaker organized states to oppose it (C)The support of elite rulers in the areas that the religion spread (D)The lack of other strong religions in the areas where the religion spread (E)The high literacy rates in the Middle East and northern Africa

53 (B) Its appearance in the post-classical era, with weaker organized states to oppose it

54 One reason that Pope Urban II called for the Crusades in 1095 was to (A)Support the Seljuk Turks in their efforts to capture Constantinople (B)Defend Europe from attack by the Seljuk Turks (C)Promote Eastern Orthodoxy (D)Improve trade relations between Europe and the Middle East (E)Unite the knights in a common cause for Roman Catholicism

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56 Which of the following is an inaccurate statement regarding “big picture” characteristics of the period 600 to 1450? (A)No one political format dominated the era. (B)Trade and communications networks were weaker than they had been before 600. (C)Belief systems were unifying forces for societies. (D)Eastern and Western Hemispheres were not joined. (E)Most societies remained patriarchies with clear social distinctions.

57 (B)Trade and communications networks were weaker than they had been before 600.

58 Which of the following is true of both South America and west Africa during the period 600 – 1450? (A)Large, organized political states rose in both areas. (B)The economy in both areas was based mainly on trade. (C)Both areas traded regularly with Europe and the Middle East. (D)Civilizations in both areas centered on river valleys. (E)The main crops in both areas were potatoes, maize, and beans.

59 (A)Large, organized political states rose in both areas.

60 The religious split between Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims originated in disagreement about (A)Strategies for expansion of the faith (B)Whether or not Muhammad was a divine being (C)The basis for succession of the caliph (D)The location of the capital city of the caliphate (E)The treatment of conquered peoples

61 (C)The basis for succession of the caliph

62 Which of the following is an accurate comparison of the political systems of western Europe and Japan during the era 600 – 1450? (A)Both areas were ruled by a highly centralized government (B)Japan’s political system was highly centralized; western Europe developed multiple monarchies (C)Political systems in both areas were based on feudalistic ties among elites. (D)The western European political system was highly centralized; Japan’s political system was headed by two rulers in two different places. (E)In both systems, political legitimacy was based on the belief that rulers were gods on earth.

63 (C)Political systems in both areas were based on feudalistic ties among elites.

64 Which of the following was the most important commodity controlled by west African states in the long-distance trade networks between 600 and 1450? (A)Slaves (B)Exotic animals (C)Rice (D)Gold (E)Guns

65 (D)Gold

66 The architecture of the church interior in this photograph is an example of (A)Gothic architecture (B)The influence of the Romans (C)The revival of interest in Greek architecture (D)The triumph of the Eastern Orthodox Church (E)Renaissance architecture

67 (A)Gothic architecture

68 Among Muslims, the “People of the Book” were (A)Jews and Christians (B)Devout Sunni Muslims (C)Devout Shi’ite Muslims (D)Scholars who interpreted Islamic principles to common people (E)Those who lived in urban areas of the Middle East

69 (A)Jews and Christians

70 Islamic law codes that became well developed during the Abbasid times are called (A)The Qu’ran (B)Hadith (C)Shari’a (D)Qanun (E)The Five Pillars of the Faith

71 (C)Shari’a

72 The photograph of Todai-ji Temple in Japan is an example of (A)Shinto architecture (B)The influence of Confucianism in Japan (C)The power of the shogun (D)Respect for the emperor (E)The influence of Buddhism in Japan

73

74 Which of the following was NOT one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire? (A)Visigoths (B)Franks (C)Huns (D)Vandals (E)Angels

75 (C)Huns

76 “That no one shall presume to rob…the churches of God, or widows, or orphans, or pilgrims, for the lord emperor himself…has constituted himself their protector and defender… That no one shall presume to neglect a summons to war from the lord emperor; and that no one of the Counts shall be so presumptuous as to dare to excuse any one of those who owe military service… …no one shall dare to neglect to pay his dues or tax. …That the counts…shall provide most carefully, as they desire the goodwill of the emperor, for the missi who are sent out… Murders, by which a multitude of the Christian people perish, we command in every way to be shunned and to be forbidden…” The quote above from the Capitulary on the Missi issued in 802 was meant to solidify the power of “That no one shall presume to rob…the churches of God, or widows, or orphans, or pilgrims, for the lord emperor himself…has constituted himself their protector and defender… That no one shall presume to neglect a summons to war from the lord emperor; and that no one of the Counts shall be so presumptuous as to dare to excuse any one of those who owe military service… …no one shall dare to neglect to pay his dues or tax. …That the counts…shall provide most carefully, as they desire the goodwill of the emperor, for the missi who are sent out… Murders, by which a multitude of the Christian people perish, we command in every way to be shunned and to be forbidden…” The quote above from the Capitulary on the Missi issued in 802 was meant to solidify the power of (A)The pope (B)The lords (C)King John of England (D)Charlemagne (E)Local priests

77 (D) Charlemagne

78 Franciscans and Dominicans are examples of (A)Patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church (B)Bishops in the Roman Catholic Church (C)Abbots in the Roman Catholic Church (D)Jewish religious orders in medieval Europe (E)Wandering religious orders in the Roman Catholic Church

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80 The reorganization of Roman law codes in a format still used in the west was the work of (A)Charlemagne (B)Constantine (C)Justinian (D)Urban II (E)Clovis

81 (C) Justinian

82 The mit’a labor system was used by the (A)Maya (B)People of Teotihuacan (C)Toltecs (D)Aztecs (E)Incas

83

84 Which of the following was NOT characteristic of all Mesoamerican civilizations between 600 and 1450? (A)Ball games were an important part of life. (B)All used chinampas to raise agricultural produce. (C)All were polytheistic. (D)All practiced human sacrifice. (E)None relied heavily on animals to get their work done.

85 (B)All used chinampas to raise agricultural produce.

86 One difference between Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy during the period 1450 to 1750 is that in Eastern Orthodoxy (A)Priests could not marry (B)A separation exists between political and religious leaders (C)Gothic architecture was used for churches (D)Theology was more influenced by Greek philosophy (E)Religious art conveyed Jesus as suffering for the sins of mankind

87 (D)Theology was more influenced by Greek philosophy

88 In all Mesoamerican civilizations the highest social status was given to (A)Merchants (B)Artisans (C)Priests (D)Land owners (E)Bureaucrats

89 (C)Priests

90 A difference between the Tang and Song Dynasties of China is that during the Tang Dynasty (A)China was militarily weaker (B)Culture was more refined (C)China had less land space (D)Women had more freedom to move about (E)The ruling family was Han Chinese

91 (D)Women had more freedom to move about

92 An important religious clash occurred during the late Tang era between (A)Buddhism and Confucianism (B)Islam and Buddhism (C)Daoism and Confucianism (D)Shintoism and Daoism (E)Hinduism and Confucianism

93 (A)Buddhism and Confucianism

94 During the era of the Tang Dynasty, a tributary state that cooperated with the Chinese but operated with a great deal of independence was (A)Vietnam (B)Minamoto Japan (C)Silla on the Korean Peninsula (D)The Jurchens (E)The Uighurs

95 (C)Silla on the Korean Peninsula

96 The Tale of the Genji was the first book to be written in (A)Chinese (B)Japanese (C)Korean (D)Vietnamese (E)Mongolian

97 (B)Japanese

98 The nomadic group that formed the largest empire in world history was the (A)Huns (B)Turks (C)Uighurs (D)Jurchens (E)Mongols

99

100 During the period from 600 to 1450 the Indian subcontinent experienced (A)Competition between Buddhism and Hinduism (B)The introduction of Hinduism (C)Islamic rule (D)Sustained political fragmentation (E)Economic prosperity based on trade

101 (C)Islamic rule

102 Which of the following political states was (were) MORE powerful in 1750 than in 1450? I.Britain II.Ottoman Empire III.Mughal Empire IV.Russia V.Japan Which of the following political states was (were) MORE powerful in 1750 than in 1450? I.Britain II.Ottoman Empire III.Mughal Empire IV.Russia V.Japan (A)I only (B)I, II, and IV only (C)II and III only (D)I, IV, and V only (E)IV and V only

103 (D) I, IV, and V only

104 All of the following were important events that affected the development of Christianity between 1450 and 1750 EXCEPT: (A)The Protestant Reformation (B)The initial split between Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy (C)Missionary efforts by Jesuits in the Americas, China, and Japan (D)The Catholic Reformation (E)The promotion of Russian Orthodoxy by Russian tsars

105 (B)The initial split between Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy

106 Which of the following is true of both Spain and France in the period between 1450 and 1750? (A)Both had strong parliaments. (B)Both were stronger in 1750 than in (C)Both practiced absolutism. (D)Both preferred to finance exploratory voyages through joint-stock companies. (E)Neither had significant land claims in the Americas.

107 (C)Both practiced absolutism.

108 Which of the following did NOT live during the period 1450 to 1750? (A)Shi Huangdi (B)Michelangelo (C)Martin Luther (D)Akbar (E)Suleiman the Magnificent

109 (A)Shi Huangdi

110 Which of the following was MOST negatively affected by the infusion of New World silver into the world economy? (A)Portugal (B)Britain (C)China (D)Russia (E)Ottoman Empire

111

112 Sati, the practice of a widow throwing herself onto her husband’s funeral pyre, was most commonly practiced in (A)The Ottoman Empire (B)Ming China (C)Tokugawa Japan (D)The Russian Empire (E)The Mughal Empire

113

114 Which of the following was the LEAST politically unified during the 16 th century? (A)Renaissance Italy (B)Ming China (C)Spain (D)The Mughal Empire (E)The Ottoman Empire

115 (A)Renaissance Italy

116 Which of the following was most commonly carried on “Leg Two” of the Atlantic Circuit? (A)Guns (B)Sugar (C)Tobacco (D)Slaves (E)Gold 1 2 3

117 (D)Slaves

118 Which of the following profited the MOST from the Atlantic Circuit during the 16 th century? (A)Kongo (B)France (C)Spain (D)The English colonies in North America (E)The Swahili states

119 (C)Spain

120 In Russia, the position that most closely matched the position of the “daimyo” in Japan was (A)Tsar (B)Boyar (C)Vizier (D)Opricniki (E)Patron

121 (B)Boyar

122 Which of the following correctly described Britain during the early 18 th century? (A)It had established colonies in South America. (B)It had established a constitutional monarchy. (C)It controlled trade on the Indian Ocean. (D)It was politically and economically weaker than Spain. (E)It had established a stable and growing trade with Japan.

123 (B)It had established a constitutional monarchy.

124 Most sugar plantations in the New World were located in (A)The southern British colonies and Mexico (B)The Caribbean and Peru (C)The French colonies in North America and Brazil (D)New Granada and La Plata (E)The Caribbean and Brazil

125

126 Which of the following had the LEAST real political power during the era 1450 – 1750? (A)The Spanish king (B)The Ottoman sultan (C)The Safavid shah (D)The Japanese emperor (E)The Russian tsar

127 (D)The Japanese emperor

128 Most people that lived in the Safavid Empire during the 16 th century were (A)Sunni Muslim (B)Shi’ite Muslim (C)Sikhs (D)Hindu (E)Buddhist

129 (B)Shi’ite Muslim

130 The architecture depicted in the photo is best described as (A)Medieval Gothic (B)Arab Islamic (C)Persian Islamic (D)Hindu (E)Renaissance

131

132 Which of the following is an accurate comparison of the African slave trade to the Middle East and the African slave trade to the Americas? (A)The overall number of slaves that went to the Middle East was much larger. (B)Women made up a larger percentage of the total slave trade to the Americas. (C)Women made up a larger percentage of the total slave trade to the Middle East. (D)A larger percentage of the slaves that went to the Middle East were destined for work in plantations fields. (E)The Africans controlled the slave trade to the Americas; Middle Easterners controlled the slave trade to the Middle East.

133 (C)Women made up a larger percentage of the total slave trade to the Middle East.

134 Which of the following rulers most directly applied sea-based technology to his land- based empire? (A)Kangxi (B)Suleiman the Magnificent (C)Abbas the Great (D)Peter the Great (E)Babur

135 (D)Peter the Great

136 “I do not feel obliged to believe that the same god who has endowed us with senses, reason, and intellect has intended to forgo their use and by some other means to give us knowledge which we can attain by them.” The quote above from Galileo’s Letter to the Grand Duchess Christiana in 1615 most directly reflects a belief in “I do not feel obliged to believe that the same god who has endowed us with senses, reason, and intellect has intended to forgo their use and by some other means to give us knowledge which we can attain by them.” The quote above from Galileo’s Letter to the Grand Duchess Christiana in 1615 most directly reflects a belief in (A)Scholasticism (B)Humanism (C)Roman Catholicism (D)Orthodox Christianity (E)Mercantilism

137 (B)Humanism

138 Which of the following had the highest social status in Latin American colonies? (A)Peninsulares (B)Creoles (C)Amerindians (D)Mestizos (E)Mulattos

139 (A)Peninsulares

140 Which of the following most accurately compares the relationship that English and Spanish colonists had with Amerindians? (A)Both English and Spanish colonists rejected Amerindian crops and planting techniques. (B)The English colonists dominated Amerindians; Spanish colonists pushed Amerindians out of the way. (C)The English colonists pushed Amerindians out of the way; the Spanish colonists put Amerindians to work for them. (D)English colonists were more likely to marry Amerindians than the Spanish colonists were. (E)The English colonists were more interested in converting Amerindians to Christianity than Spanish colonists were.

141 (C)The English colonists pushed Amerindians out of the way; the Spanish colonists put Amerindians to work for them.


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