2 Sir Thomas WyattSir Thomas Wyatt introduced the Petrarchan sonnet to England in the early sixteenth century. His famed translations of Petrarch’s sonnets, as well as his own sonnets, drew fast attention to the form.He is also famous for his feelings for Anne Boleyn, King Henry VIII’s wife.He was a diplomat in the service of Henry VIII, traveling to Italy, France and Spain. Wyatt was imprisoned for his affair with Anne Boleyn, and imprisoned a second time for treason after the fall of Cromwell.
3 Sir Thomas Wyatt continued For more details, check the Poetry Reader, pp
4 Poetic Form: SonnetFrom the Italian sonetto, which means “a little sound or song," the sonnet is a popular classical form that has compelled poets for centuries. Traditionally, the sonnet is a fourteen-line poem written in iambic pentameter, which employ one of several rhyme schemes and adhere to a tightly structured thematic organization. Two sonnet forms provide the models from which all other sonnets are formed: the Petrachan and the Shakespearean.
5 Poetic Form: Sonnet cont. Petrarchan Sonnet The first and most common sonnet is the Petrarchan, or Italian. Named after one of its greatest practitioners, the Italian poet Petrarch, the Petrarchan sonnet is divided into two stanzas, the octave (the first eight lines) followed by the answering sestet (the final six lines). The tightly woven rhyme scheme, abba, abba, cdecde or cdcdcd, is suited for the rhyme-rich Italian language, though there are many fine examples in English. Since the Petrarchan presents an argument, observation, question, or some other answerable charge in the octave, a turn, or volta, occurs between the eighth and ninth lines. This turn marks a shift in the direction of the foregoing argument or narrative, turning the sestet into the vehicle for the counterargument, clarification, or whatever answer the octave demands.
6 PetrarchKnown in English as Petrarch, Francesco Petrarca was born on July 20, 1304, in the city of Arezzo, in central Italy, just south of Florence.Petrarch’s considerable influence in England, and therefore in English, began with Chaucer, who incorporated elements and translations of Petrarch’s work into his own. Petrarch’s influence in English lasted at least through the 19th century and can be found in the work of many famous English poets, such as Sir Thomas Wyatt and Percy Bysshe Shelley.BACK
7 Poetic Form: Sonnet cont. Shakespearean SonnetThe second major type of sonnet, the Shakespearean, or English sonnet, follows a different set of rules. Here, three quatrains and a couplet follow this rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, gg. The couplet plays a pivotal role, usually arriving in the form of a conclusion, amplification, or even refutation of the previous three stanzas, often creating an epiphany quality to the end
8 Poetic Form: Sonnet cont. Sonnet Variations Though Shakespeare’s sonnets were perhaps the finest examples of the English sonnet, John Milton’s Italian-patterned sonnets (later known as “Miltonic” sonnets) added several important refinements to the form. Milton freed the sonnet from its typical incarnation in a sequence of sonnets, writing the occasional sonnet that often expressed interior, self-directed concerns. He also took liberties with the turn, allowing the octave to run into the sestet as needed. Both of these qualities can be seen in “When I Consider How my Light is Spent.”
9 Poetic Form: Sonnet cont. Sonnet Variations The Spenserian sonnet, invented by sixteenth century English poet Edmund Spenser, cribs its structure from the Shakespearean--three quatrains and a couplet--but employs a series of “couplet links” between quatrains, as revealed in the rhyme scheme: abab, bcbc, cdcd, ee. The Spenserian sonnet, through the interweaving of the quatrains, implicitly reorganized the Shakespearean sonnet into couplets, reminiscent of the Petrarchan. One reason was to reduce the often excessive final couplet of the Shakespearean sonnet, putting less pressure on it to resolve the foregoing argument, observation, or question.
10 Poetic TermsParadoxThe term Paradox is from the Greek word “paradoxon” that means contrary to expectations, existing belief or perceived opinion. It is a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or silly but may include a latent truth. It is also used to illustrate an opinion or statement contrary to accepted traditional ideas. A paradox is often used to make a reader think over an idea in innovative way.Paradox
11 Poetic Terms cont. Examples of Paradox Your enemy’s friend is your enemy.I am nobody.“What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young.” – George Bernard ShawWise foolTruth is honey which is bitter.“I can resist anything but temptation.” Oscar WildeFrom the above examples of paradox, we can say that paradox creates a humorous effect on the readers because of its ridiculousness.Paradox
12 Poetic Terms cont. Function of Paradox Poets usually make use of a paradox to create a remarkable thought or image out of words.Some types of paradox in poetry are meant to communicate a tone of irony to its readers as well as lead their thoughts to the immediate subject. Paradox in most poems normally strives to create feelings of intrigue and interest in readers’ minds to make them think deeper and harder to enjoy the real message of the poem.Paradox
13 Poetic Terms cont. Denotation & Connotation Denotation the literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests.Connotation refers to a meaning that is implied by a word apart from the thing which it describes explicitly. Words carry cultural and emotional associations or meanings in addition to their literal meanings or denotations.Paradox
14 Poetic Terms cont. Common Examples of Connotation Below are a few connotation examples. Their suggested meanings are shaped by cultural and emotional associations:A dog connotes shamelessness or an ugly face.A dove implies peace or gentility.Home suggests family, comfort and security.Politician has a negative connotation of wickedness and insincerity while statesperson connotes sincerity.Mom and Dad when used in place of mother and father connote loving parents.Paradox
15 Poetic Terms cont. Function of Connotation In literature, connotation paves way for creativity by using figures of speech like metaphor, simile, symbolism, personification etc. Had writers contented themselves with only the literal meanings, there would have been no way to compare abstract ideas to concrete concepts in order to give readers a better understanding. Therefore, connotative meanings of words allow writers to add to their works, dimensions which are broader, more vivid and fresher.Paradox
16 Poetic Terms cont. The Petrarchan conceit The Petrarchan conceit was especially popular with Renaissance writers of sonnets, is a hyperbolic comparison most often made by a suffering lover of his beautiful mistress to some physical object—e.g., a tomb, the ocean, the sun.Paradox
17 I Find no Peace By Sir Thomas Wyatt I find no peace, and all my war is done.I fear and hope. I burn and freeze like ice.I fly above the wind, yet can I not arise,And nought I have, and all the world I seize on.That looseth nor locketh holdeth me in prisonAnd holdeth me not, yet can I ‘scape no wise;Nor letteth me live nor die at my devise,And yet of death it giveth me occasion.Without eyen I see, and without tongue I plain.I desire to perish, and yet I ask health.I love another, and thus I hate myself.I feed me in sorrow and laugh in all my pain;Likewise displeaseth me both life and death,And my delight is causer of this strife.
18 “I Find no Peace” cont. Structure of the Poem This poem is written in a form that is very similar to a Petrarchan sonnet.It has 14 lines and a rhyme scheme that divides it into an octave (a group of eight lines) and a sestet (a group of six lines).However, there are some variations on its form compared to a Petrarchan sonnet.The lines are not written in strict iambic pentameters (that is, ten syllables per line with a pattern of stress)The rhyme scheme, although it conforms to a Petrarchan sonnet in the octave with its rhyme scheme of abbaabba, varies in the sestet becoming cddcdd as opposed to ccdeed.
19 “I Find no Peace” cont. Opening of the Poem The poet begins by enumerating the conflicting states of mind occasioned by the onset of love:“I find no peace and all my war is done,I fear and hope, I burn and freeze like ice…”His ‘peace’ of mind has been destroyed by the ‘war’ he has been waging against himself and his ladylove in order to win her love.He writes this sonnet in an attempt to communicate to her the words of his desire.The rest of the lines in the poem are set almost as disguised appeals, as desperate cries to the mistress.
20 “I Find no Peace” cont. The Contrary Thoughts and Emotions The poet speaks of experiencing his despair with contrary thoughts and emotions.He is unable to rest, and yet he has no fight left in him.He is optimistic yet afraidHe is ablaze yet frozen.He is soaring, yet cannot take off;He has nothing, yet he holds the whole world.Though there are no locks strong enough to imprison him, he cannot escape.
21 “I Find no Peace” cont. Paradoxical Contrast The narrator feels he has no control over whether he lives or dies.He can see without his eyes, and complains without a tongue.He says he wishes to expire, and yet demands strength.By line 11 he reveals a less paradoxical contrast: that he loves another therefore must not love himself.He revels in the joy of the sadness and discomfort of this love, and although the situation is almost like a living death, the cause of his pain is his greatest pleasure.