4Old Testament History Israel’s entry into Canaan under Joshua OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah EstherOld Testament HistoryIsrael’s entry into Canaan under JoshuaIsrael’s life under the judges and the transition from theocracy to monarchyDivision of the nation in the rival kingdoms of Israel and JudahThe decline and downfall of both kingdomsJudah’s life in Babylonian exileJudah’s return from exile
6In the tables that follow for each book, the first table in each set is largely from The Life Application Bible (Tyndale, 1996) and The ESV Study Bible (Crossway, 2008); and the second table is from Bruce Wilkinson, Your Daily Walk (Zondervan, 1991).
9OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther JOSHUAAUTHOROriginated with Joshua, but edited by othersWHATConquest & Division of the Promised LandWHEREJericho; CanaanWHENEvents near B.C.; written document probably much laterWHYTo give the history of Israel’s conquest of the Promised LandKEY PEOPLEJoshua, Rahab, Achan, Phinehas, Eleazar
10JOSHUA FOCUS CONQUEST CONSOLIDATION DIVISIONS 1-5 Preparing for War 6-8 Beginning the Conquest9-12 Completing the Conquest13-17 Allocations for 5 Tribes and Caleb18-21 Allocations for 7 Tribes and Levites22-24Joshua’s Farewell and DeathTOPICSSecuring the LandSettling the LandWarlords in CanaanLandlords in CanaanPLACEBoth Sides of the JordanTIME7 years18 yearsJOSHUA
11JOSHUA: Key VersesJoshua 3: Now the Jordan is at flood stage all during harvest. Yet as soon as the priests who carried the ark reached the Jordan and their feet touched the water’s edge, 16 the water from upstream stopped flowing. It piled up in a heap a great distance away, at a town called Adam in the vicinity of Zarethan, while the water flowing down to the Sea of the Arabah (that is, the Dead Sea) was completely cut off. So the people crossed over opposite Jericho. 17 The priests who carried the ark of the covenant of the LORD stopped in the middle of the Jordan and stood on dry ground, while all Israel passed by until the whole nation had completed the crossing on dry ground.
12JOSHUA: Key VersesJoshua 5: The manna stopped the day after they ate this food from the land; there was no longer any manna for the Israelites, but that year they ate the produce of Canaan.
13JOSHUA: Key VersesJoshua 6: When the trumpets sounded, the army shouted, and at the sound of the trumpet, when the men gave a loud shout, the wall collapsed; so everyone charged straight in, and they took the city.
14JOSHUA: Key VersesJoshua 24:15, But if serving the LORD seems undesirable to you, then choose for yourselves this day whom you will serve, whether the gods your ancestors served beyond the Euphrates, or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land you are living. But as for me and my household, we will serve the LORD.” 23 “Now then,” said Joshua, “throw away the foreign gods that are among you and yield your hearts to the LORD, the God of Israel.”
16OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther JUDGESAUTHORUnknown; perhaps SAMUELWHATThe record of Israel’s history between Conquest & Kingdom;Israel’s first Civil WarWHERECanaanWHENc – 1050 B.C.WHYTo show that God’s judgment against sin is certain, and God’s forgiveness of sin and restoration to relationship are just as certain for those who repent.KEY PEOPLEOthniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Abimelech, Jephthah, Samson, Delilah
17JUDGES FOCUS CONDITIONS CYCLES CONCLUSION DIVISIONS 1-2 Review & Preview of the Judges3-5 Deborah & Four Judges6-8 Gideon & the Midianites9-12 Seven Judges & Civil War13-16 Samson & the Philistines17-21 Idolatry & Immorality During the JudgesTOPICSIsrael’s Need for JudgesIsrael’s JudgesFailure of Israel’s JudgesDefeat & DeliveranceDecay & DeclinePLACECanaan & TransjordanTIMEc. 350 yearsJUDGES
19Israel’s Judges Deborah Gideon Jephthah Samson Othniel Ehud Shamgar You probably know . . .But how about . . .DeborahGideonJephthahSamsonOthnielEhudShamgarTolaJairIbzanElonAbdon
20The Cycle of JudgesRebellionJudgmentRepentanceRenewal
21JUDGES: Key VersesJudges 2: After that whole generation had been gathered to their ancestors, another generation grew up who knew neither the LORD nor what he had done for Israel.
22JUDGES: Key VersesJudges 6: Gideon said to God, “If you will save Israel by my hand as you have promised— 37 look, I will place a wool fleece on the threshing floor. If there is dew only on the fleece and all the ground is dry, then I will know that you will save Israel by my hand, as you said.” 38 And that is what happened. Gideon rose early the next day; he squeezed the fleece and wrung out the dew—a bowlful of waterJudges 16: Then Samson prayed to the LORD, “Sovereign LORD, remember me. Please, God, strengthen me just once more, and let me with one blow get revenge on the Philistines for my two eyes.”
23JUDGES: Key VersesJudges 21: In those days Israel had no king; everyone did as they saw fit.
25OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther RUTHAUTHORUnknown; traditionally SamuelWHATA Story of Faithfulness & LoveWHEREBehlehemWHENc B.C.WHYAdds detail to the genealogy of King DavidKEY PEOPLERuth, Naomi, Boaz
26RUTH FOCUS RUTH’S FAITHFULNESS REVEALED RUTH’S FAITHFULNESS REWARDED DIVISIONS1:1 – 1:18Ruth’s Decision1:19 – 2:23Ruth’s Devotion3:1 – 3:18Ruth’s Deliverer4:1 – 4:22Ruth’s DelightTOPICSRuth & NaomiRuth & BoazGoing with NaomiGleaning for NaomiLoved by BoazMarried to BoazPLACEMoabFields in BethlehemThreshing Floor in BethlehemHome in BethlehemTIMEAbout 30 yearsRUTH
27RUTH: Key VersesRuth 4: Salmon the father of Boaz, Boaz the father of Obed, 22 Obed the father of Jesse, and Jesse the father of David.
28RUTH: Key VersesRuth 1: But Ruth replied, “Don’t urge me to leave you or to turn back from you. Where you go I will go, and where you stay I will stay. Your people will be my people and your God my God. 17 Where you die I will die, and there I will be buried. May the LORD deal with me, be it ever so severely, if even death separates you and me.”
30OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther 1 SAMUELAUTHORPossibly SAMUEL, but also NATHAN and GADWHATTheocracy ends: the establishment of Israel’s Monarchy through God’s sovereign Will & PowerWHERECanaanWHENc B.C.WHYTo record the life of Samuel, Israel’s last Judge, and the reign of Saul, Israel’s first KingKEY PEOPLEEli, Hannah, Samuel, Saul, Jonathan, David
31The Decline of Saul and the Rise of David FOCUSSAMUELSAULDAVIDDIVISIONS1-3 Samuel’s Call4-8Israel’s Defeat9-12 Saul’s SelectionSaul’s Rejection16-19 David in the Court20-23 David on the Run24-26 David’s Mercy27-31 Saul’s DownfallTOPICSLast JudgeFirst KingKing-ElectTransitionThe Rise of SaulThe Decline of Saul and the Rise of DavidPLACEIsrael in CanaanTIMEc. 60 years1 SAMUEL
321 SAMUEL: Key Verses1 Samuel 2: And the boy Samuel continued to grow in stature and in favor with the LORD and with people.
331 SAMUEL: Key Verses1 Samuel 3: The boy Samuel ministered before the LORD under Eli. In those days the word of the LORD was rare; there were not many visions Now Samuel did not yet know the LORD: The word of the LORD had not yet been revealed to him. 8 A third time the LORD called, “Samuel!” And Samuel got up and went to Eli and said, “Here I am; you called me.” Then Eli realized that the LORD was calling the boy. 9 So Eli told Samuel, “Go and lie down, and if he calls you, say, ‘Speak, LORD, for your servant is listening.’ ” So Samuel went and lay down in his place. 10 The LORD came and stood there, calling as at the other times, “Samuel! Samuel!” Then Samuel said, “Speak, for your servant is listening.”
341 SAMUEL: Key Verses1 Samuel 17: David said to the Philistine, “You come against me with sword and spear and javelin, but I come against you in the name of the LORD Almighty, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied. 46 This day the LORD will deliver you into my hands, and I’ll strike you down and cut off your head. This very day I will give the carcasses of the Philistine army to the birds and the wild animals, and the whole world will know that there is a God in Israel. 47 All those gathered here will know that it is not by sword or spear that the LORD saves; for the battle is the LORD’s, and he will give all of you into our hands.”
35OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther 2 SAMUELAUTHORSAMUEL may have written some of the book; also NATHAN and GADWHATThe Story of DavidWHERECanaanWHENc. 930 B.C.WHYTo record the history of David, the heroic leader of an imperfect kingdom, who foreshadowed Christ, the perfect Leader of the Eternal KingdomKEY PEOPLEDavid, Joab, Bathsheba, Nathan, Absalom
36Disobedience & Judgment 7 ½ years in Hebron; 33 years in Jerusalem FOCUSDAVID’S TRIUMPHSDAVID’S TROUBLESDIVISIONS1-4 A Divided Nation5-7 A United Kingdom8-10 An Expanded Kingdom11-14 Adultery & Murder15-18 Absalom’s Revolt19-20 Unrest & Violence21-24 David’s Last WordsTOPICSCivil WarCrimes & ConflictObedience & BlessingDisobedience & JudgmentPLACEHebron & JerusalemTIME7 ½ years in Hebron; 33 years in Jerusalem2 SAMUEL
372 SAMUEL: Key Verses2 Samuel 5:4 4 David was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned forty years.2 Samuel 12: Then Nathan said to David, “You are the man!”
39OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther 1 KINGS AUTHORTraditionally, JEREMIAH; current scholarship attributes the books to unknown “Deuteronomists”WHATThe Jewish Monarchy from the United Kingdom to the ExileWHERECanaanWHENProbably written during and shortly after the Exile, c B.C.WHYTo contrast the lives of those who live for God and those who refuse to do so, using the kings of Israel and Judah as case studiesKEY PEOPLEDavid, Solomon, Rehoboam, Jeroboam, Elijah, Ahab, Jezebel
401 KIGNS FOCUS UNITED KINGDOM DIVIDED KINGDOM DIVISIONS 1-4 Solomon’s Rise5-8 Solomon’s Temple9-11 Solomon’s Fame12-16 A Nation Torn17-19 The Ministry of Elijah20-22 The Reign of AhabTOPICSExpansion & GloryDivision & DeclineOne KingMany KingsPLACEJerusalemNorthern Kingdom (Israel)Southern Kingdom (Judah)TIMEAbout 40 yearsAbout 90 years1 KIGNS
411 KINGS: Key Verses1 Kings 9: “As for you, if you walk before me faithfully with integrity of heart and uprightness, as David your father did, and do all I command and observe my decrees and laws, 5 I will establish your royal throne over Israel forever, as I promised David your father when I said, ‘You shall never fail to have a successor on the throne of Israel.’
42OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther 2 KINGSAUTHORTraditionally, JEREMIAH; current scholarship attributes the books to unknown “Deuteronomists”WHATThe Jewish Monarchy from the United Kingdom to the ExileWHEREThe Divided Kingdoms of Israel & JudahWHENProbably written during and shortly after the Exile, c B.C.WHYTo contrast the lives of those who live for God and those who refuse to do so, using the kings of Israel and Judah as case studiesKEY PEOPLEElijah, Elisha, the woman from Shunem, Naaman, Jezebel, Jehu, Joash, Hezekiah, Sennacherib, Isaiah, Manasseh, Josiah, Jehoiakim, Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar
432 KINGS FOCUS THE LAST DAYS OF ISRAEL and JUDAH DIVISIONS 1-3 Elisha, God’s Mouthpiece4-8 Elisha, God’s Miracle Worker9-12 Jehu, Destroyer of Ahab’s House13-17 Assyria, Destroyer of Israel18-21 Hezekiah, Reformer in Judah22-25 Babylon, Conqueror of JudahTOPICSIsrael’s CaptivityJudah’s CollapseDispersionDisplacementPLACEIsrael & JudahJudahTIMEAbout 300 years2 KINGS
442 KINGS: Key Verses2 Kings 17: So the people of Israel were taken from their homeland into exile in Assyria, and they are still there.2 Kings 25: So Judah went into captivity, away from her land.
46OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther1 CHRONICLESAUTHORTraditionally, EZRA; today, “the Chronicler”WHATThe Genealogies of Israel & the Reign of DavidWHERECanaanWHENPost-exilic, c. 400 B.C., recording events that occurred B.C.WHYTo teach the significance of the Davidic Covenant as the enduring basis of Israel’s life and hopeKEY PEOPLEDavid, Solomon
471 CHRONICLES FOCUS The Line of David The Reign of David DIVISIONS 1-9 Genealogies of David and Israel10-16 The Ark of God17-21 Covenant with God22-27 A Temple for God28-29 Final WordsTOPICSGenealogyHistoryThe Ancestry of DavidThe Administration of DavidPLACEThe United Kingdom of IsraelTIMEThousands of YearsAbout 40 Years1 CHRONICLES
48OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther 2 CHRONICLESAUTHORTraditionally, EZRA; today, “the Chronicler”WHATDivided Kingdom, Decline, Exile, RestorationWHEREIsrael, Judah, BabylonWHENPost-exilic, c. 400 B.C., recording events that occurred B.C.WHYTo teach the significance of the Davidic Covenant as the enduring basis of Israel’s life and hopeKEY PEOPLESolomon, Rehoboam, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Jehoram, Joash, Uzziah, Ahaz, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Josiah
50The Post-Exilic Chronicles of Israel Parallels 2 Samuel and serves as a commentary on itParallels 1 & 2 Kings and serves as a commentary on them
512 CHRONICLES: Key Verses 2 Chronicles 7: If my people, who are called by my name, will humble themselves and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and I will forgive their sin and will heal their land.
54OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther EZRAAUTHORTraditionally, EZRA, with the ChroniclerWHATTo show God’s faithfulness in keeping the promise to restore Israel to their LandWHEREA Tale of Two Cities: from Babylon to JerusalemWHENc. 425 B.C., recording events from B.C.WHYTo remind the people of what God had done and to encourage them to rededicate their lives to GodKEY PEOPLECyrus, Zerubbabel, Haggai, Zechariah, Darius I, Artaxerxes I, Ezra
55Return under Zerubbabel Spiritual Restoration FOCUSREBUILDING THE TEMPLE58-year InterludeThe Book of EstherREBUILDING THE PEOPLEDIVISIONS1-3Temple Commission4-6Temple Completion7-8 Priests & Pilgrims9-10 Pollution & PurgingTOPICSReturn under ZerubbabelReturn under EzraMaterial RestorationSpiritual RestorationPLACEPersia to JerusalemTIME23 Years ( B.C.)1 Year (457 B.C.)EZRA
57The returnees therefore found themselves in a hostile political environment in which their ethnic distinctiveness as a people uniquely dedicated to Yahweh was greatly compromised. The major post-exilic emphases, then, had to do with racial and ethnic purity (hence the genealogies), faithfulness in worship (hence the rebuilding of the Temple), and faithfulness in keeping God’s Law (so as not to come under God’s judgment yet again).
58EZRA: Key VersesEzra 3: When the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the LORD, the priests in their vestments and with trumpets, and the Levites (the sons of Asaph) with cymbals, took their places to praise the LORD, as prescribed by David king of Israel But many of the older priests and Levites and family heads, who had seen the former temple, wept aloud when they saw the foundation of this temple being laid, while many others shouted for joy.
59EZRA: Key VersesEzra 6: So the elders of the Jews continued to build and prosper under the preaching of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah, a descendant of Iddo. They finished building the temple according to the command of the God of Israel and the decrees of Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes, kings of Persia The temple was completed on the third day of the month Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of King Darius.
61OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther NEHEMIAHAUTHORTraditionally, EZRA, with Nehemiah and the ChroniclerWHATThe rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem and recommitment to obedienceWHEREA Tale of Two Cities: from Babylon/Susa to JerusalemWHENc. 440 B.C.WHYTo remind the people of what God had done and to encourage them to rededicate their lives to GodKEY PEOPLENehemiah, Ezra, Sanballat, Tobiah
62NEHEMIAH FOCUS PHYSICAL RECONSTRUCTION SPIRITUAL REFORMATION DIVISIONS 1-2 Nehemiah’s Plans for Rebuilding the Walls3-4 Early Opposition to Rebuilding5-7 Growing Opposition to Rebuilding8-10 Revival in the Rebuilt City11-13 Protecting & Purifying the Rebuilt CityTOPICSConstruction of the CityInstruction of the CitizensIsrael’s Restoration as a NationPLACEJerusalemTIMEAbout 25 Years ( B.C.)NEHEMIAH
64NEHEMIAH: Key VersesNehemiah 8:5, 8, Ezra opened the book. All the people could see him because he was standing above them; and as he opened it, the people all stood up They read from the Book of the Law of God, making it clear and giving the meaning so that the people understood what was being read Nehemiah said, “Go and enjoy choice food and sweet drinks, and send some to those who have nothing prepared. This day is holy to our Lord. Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength.”
66OT HISTORY Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah EstherESTHERAUTHORUnknown; possibly MORDECAI or the ChroniclerWHATDeliverance from GenocideWHEREThe Palace in Susa, PersiaWHENB.C.WHYTo demonstrate God’s sovereignty and loving care for His people; to explain the origin of the Feast of PurimKEY PEOPLEEsther, Mordecai, Xerxes I (Ahasuerus), Haman
67ESTHER FOCUS PLOTTING DESTRUCTION PREVENTING DESTRUCTION DIVISIONS 1-2 Esther Ascends to the Throne3-4 Haman Stoops to Vengeance5-7 Haman Receives His Just Reward8-10 The Jews Receive a ReprieveTOPICSConflictCunningCourageConquestVashti DeposedHaman DefeatedPurim DecreedPLACEPersiaTIMEAbout 10 Years ( B.C.)ESTHER
69ESTHER: Key VersesEsther 4: When Esther’s words were reported to Mordecai, 13 he sent back this answer: “Do not think that because you are in the king’s house you alone of all the Jews will escape. 14 For if you remain silent at this time, relief and deliverance for the Jews will arise from another place, but you and your father’s family will perish. And who knows but that you have come to your royal position for such a time as this?”
70ESTHER: Key VersesEsther 4: Then Esther sent this reply to Mordecai: 16 “Go, gather together all the Jews who are in Susa, and fast for me. Do not eat or drink for three days, night or day. I and my attendants will fast as you do. When this is done, I will go to the king, even though it is against the law. And if I perish, I perish.”
7114 “If my people, who are called by my name, will humble themselves and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and I will forgive their sin and will heal their land” (2 Chronicles 7:14). 15 The LORD, the God of their ancestors, sent word to them through his messengers again and again, because he had pity on his people and on his dwelling place. 16 But they mocked God’s messengers, despised his words and scoffed at his prophets until the wrath of the LORD was aroused against his people and there was no remedy (2 Chronicles 36:15-16).
721 The leaders came to me and said, “The people of Israel, including the priests and the Levites, have not kept themselves separate from the neighboring peoples with their detestable practices, like those of the Canaanites, Hittites, Perizzites, Jebusites, Ammonites, Moabites, Egyptians and Amorites. 2 They have taken some of their daughters as wives for themselves and their sons, and have mingled the holy race with the peoples around them. And the leaders and officials have led the way in this unfaithfulness” (Ezra 9:1-2).
733 When I heard this, I tore my tunic and cloak, pulled hair from my head and beard and sat down appalled. 4 Then everyone who trembled at the words of the God of Israel gathered around me because of this unfaithfulness of the exiles. And I sat there appalled until the evening sacrifice.
745 Then, at the evening sacrifice, I rose from my self-abasement, with my tunic and cloak torn, and fell on my knees with my hands spread out to the LORD my God 6 and prayed: “I am too ashamed and disgraced, my God, to lift up my face to you, because our sins are higher than our heads and our guilt has reached to the heavens” (Ezra 9:3-6).
751 While Ezra was praying and confessing, weeping and throwing himself down before the house of God, a large crowd of Israelites—men, women and children—gathered around him. They too wept bitterly (Ezra 10:1).
76“I looked for someone who might rebuild the wall of righteousness that guards the land. I searched for someone to stand in the gap in the wall so I wouldn’t have to destroy the land, but I found no one” (Ezekiel 22:30, NLT).
79If My people’s hearts are humbled, if they pray and seek My face; if they turn away from evil I will not withhold My grace. I will hear their prayers from heaven; I will pardon every sin. If My people’s hearts are humbled, I will surely heal their land.
80Then My eyes will see their sorrow, then My ears will hear their plea Then My eyes will see their sorrow, then My ears will hear their plea. If My people’s hearts are humbled I will set their nation free. If My people’s hearts are humbled, if they pray and seek My face; if they turn away from evil I will not withhold My grace.