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S7L4d Categorize relationships between organisms that are competitive or mutually beneficial.

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Presentation on theme: "S7L4d Categorize relationships between organisms that are competitive or mutually beneficial."— Presentation transcript:

1 S7L4d Categorize relationships between organisms that are competitive or mutually beneficial.

2 Each organism in an ecosystem interrelates with the other members. These relationships fall into one of three categories: 1. Symbiosis 2. Competition 3. Predation

3  A long-term association between two members of a community in which one or both parties benefit  Three types of symbiotic relationships: ◦ Commensalism ◦ Mutualism ◦ Parasitism

4  Beneficial to both organisms  Example: ◦ Protozoa living in termite intestine  Protozoa break down wood the termite eats, while the termite provides food and shelter for the protozoa

5  One member benefits and the other is unaffected ◦ Barnacles that live on a whale  Barnacles don’t harm or feed on whale. They hitch a ride on the slow moving whale in order to catch plankton and other food in the water  Whale is neither benefited nor harmed

6  Benefits one organism (parasite), but harms the other (host) ◦ Tapeworms in a human are parasites ◦ Tapeworm benefits by getting its nutrition from the intestines of its human host ◦ Host is harmed because there are not as many nutrients to absorb into its body.

7  When two or more organisms seek the same limited resource, they compete with each other.  A resource could be food, water, light, ground space or nesting space  Competion can be intraspecific or interspecific. ◦ Intraspecies competetion occurs between members of the same species ◦ Interspecies competition occurs between members of different species Competitive Relationship

8  Predator is an organism that feeds off of another organism  Prey is the organism it feeds on  Sea lions hunt down and kill herring ◦ They harry the edges of the school of fish and eat until they have killed all the weak and sick animals ◦ Sounds cruel, but without predation, competition and disease, there would be no natural limitations on population growth

9 May seem brutal that organisms feed off one another and awful that organisms perish from losing resources or getting disease, but the alternative is even more disastrous:  AN EVER-MORE-CROWDED WORLD IN WHICH EVERY POPULATION INCREASED UNTIL THERE WAS NO SPACE OR FOOD LEFT FOR ANYTHING OR ANYONE! Ecological balances are important!


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