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1 Academic Impact : What it means and how to calculate it Prof. Neal Ashkanasy.

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1 1 Academic Impact : What it means and how to calculate it Prof. Neal Ashkanasy

2 2 About the Presenter  Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Organizational Behavior (2007-2014)  Published by Wiley-Blackwell  First published in 1981  2012 2-year Impact Factor = 3.626  Top 5, Applied Psychology  Associate Editor, Academy of Management Review (2011-2014)  Published by the Academy of Management  2012 2-year Impact Factor = 7.895  #1 Journal in Management  Associate Editor, Emotion Review  Published by Sage on behalf of the International Society for Research on Emotions  2012 2-year Impact Factor = 1.894  First published 2009  Book Series Editor, Research on Emotion in Organizations  Published by Emerald, JAI Press Imprint  First published in 2005  Editorial boards (selection)  Academy of Management Journal (1996-2007)  Journal of Applied Psychology  Academy of Management Learning & Education  Journal of Management  Personality & Individual Differences

3 3 Outline Citation Indices Meaning of citations Boosting your citations Journal Impact factors Concluding Comments

4 4 Citation Indexing Developed in its modern form by Eugene Garfield of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) – Now published by Thomson Reuters Scientific The Web of Science (Thomson Reuter Scientific) – Sciences Citation Index (SCI) – Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) – Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI) – Conference Proceeding Citation Index – Book Citation Index (New) – Select “All Databases” (broadest) Click the little orange down arrow next to “Web of Science Core Collection” to see the full menu (see next slide).

5 5 WoS Start Page Click to see menu, including “All databases” Click to see menu, including “Cited Reference Search”

6 6 Alternatives to WoS SCOPUS –Elsevier –Broader then SSCI –New: SCOPUS “Journal Analyzer” Research Gate Academia Google Scholar –See http://www.harzing.com –“Publish or Perish” –Calculates ‘h’ and ‘g’ citation indices Authors Journals –Quick and easy to use

7 7 h- and g-indices Citations per publication Hirsch’s “h-index” – h = no. publications with at least h citations – e.g., h = 6 if six publications have been cited 6 or more times Egghe’s “g-index” – g = no. publications whose combined citation count is at least g 2 (or average citations for the top g pubs ≥ g) – e.g., g = 6 if the average no of citations for the top 6 publications is at least 6. – Gives more weight to highly cited articles than h.

8 8 Meaning of Citations Article is cited in WoS-Indexed journals – Citations in other journals and books do not count – But citations to non-WoS-Indexed journal articles, book chapters, and books are counted WoS is three databases! – (Source) “Search” – “Cited Reference Search” Click the little blue down arrow next to “Basic Search” (see Slide 5) – “Secret” data based used to calculate IF’s.

9 9 Why are articles cited? Genuine contribution to the literature – Ideas cited more than data – Books cited more than journal articles (??!!) Handy references – Review articles (e.g., AMR, JoM) – Snapshots (e.g., J. J. Ray in the 1980’s) ‘Bad’ citations? Fashion – Harzing’s study of mis-citations Harzing, A. W. 2002. Are our referencing errors undermining our scholarship and credibility? The case of expatriate failure rates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23: 127-148.

10 10 Boosting Your Citations Publish in the top-tier journals Write quality articles that attract attention and interest Advertise Self-cite (!!??) Contact Thomson Reuters re. errors Make publications available in the public domain – See SHERPA RoMEO database –

11 11 Journal Impact Factor Calculated as N citations in year y to articles published in y-1 and y-2 divided by N “citable” articles published in y-1 and y-”2. E.g. 2013 impact factor = Number of citations in 2013 to articles published in 2011 and 2012, divided by the number of “citable” articles published in 2011 and 2012. “Citable” articles = “Articles”, “Reviews”, and ( more recently) “Conference Proceedings”. E.g., AMR 2013 Impact Factor calculated as … – Total citations in 2013 to articles published in 2011 and 2012 = 469 Cites in 2013 to articles published in 2011 = 315; in 2012 = 154 – Total citable articles published in 2011 and 2012 = 60 Number of citable articles published in 2011 = 30; in 2012 = 30 – AMR’s 2013 Impact Factor = 469/60 = 7.817

12 12 5-Year Indices WoS recently introduced 5-year indices, more applicable to the social sciences where the review process is typically 18-30 months rather than 6-12 months typical in the sciences 5-Year Impact Factor – Same as 2-year, but calculated over 5 years Article Influence Score – Takes account of the quality of the citing journals

13 13 2013 Management Journals Ranked by 5-Year Impact Factor RankTitleNo. cites2-Year IF5-Year IFImmediacy Half-lifeEigenInfluence 1ACAD MANAG ANN7787.33310.1540.6154.40.007136.56 2ACAD MANAGE REV177077.8179.6981.41429>10.00.014415.317 3ACAD MANAGE J194264.9748.4430.54174>10.00.025335.239 4MIS QUART87055.4058.1571.10358>10.00.010392.785 5J MANAGE91106.8628.0270.65770>10.00.017984.134 6J OPER MANAG55964.4787.7180.525408.30.006972.062 7ADMIN SCI QUART118972.3947.0570.47117>10.00.007845.386 8J APPL PSYCHOL224404.3676.9520.47170>10.00.028533.538 9STRATEGIC MANAGE J172252.9935.9290.41986>10.00.01883.087 10PERS PSYCHOL45604.545.8450.46428>10.00.007463.459 11ORGAN RES METHODS27273.5255.7130.308267.90.008252.954 12J INT BUS STUD66763.5945.5340.87469.80.011361.991 13ORGAN SCI104993.8075.5120.31994>10.00.023033.595 14J MANAGE STUD54733.2775.1960.824518.60.011742.294 15J SUPPLY CHAIN MANAG10723.7174.9460.621295.80.0021.078 16J INF TECHNOL12823.7894.9170.476216.40.003761.872 17RES ORGAN BEHAV22361.254.8707>10.00.002723.538 18J ORGAN BEHAV59993.2624.7340.55169>10.00.010032.126 19INT J MANAG REV10662.6734.4680.52256.10.0031.615 20LONG RANGE PLANN15882.1114.3650.59122>10.00.002911.382

14 14 Closing Comments Citations count more than ever as an index of impact Already the primary criterion in the sciences – Already a key criterion in the social sciences – Now becoming a key criterion in the organization sciences

15 15 Thank You!

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