Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Section 3 Pages 578-587 The War in the Pacific Chapter 17 Section 3 Pages 578-587."— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 17 Section 3 Pages 578-587 The War in the PacificChapter 17Section 3Pages
2Bataan, Philippines April 1942 General Douglas MacArthur, “I shall return”Surrender of 80,000 American and Filipino troopsDeath March of 100 milesApprox. 10,000 perish due to beatings, bayoneting, beheadings, and sun torture
4Doolittle’s Raid April 1942 Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle U.S.S. Hornet16 B-25s with 5 man crewsCrews fly to China3 of the 8 captured crew members are executedLeads Japanese to set their sights on MidwayBoosts America’s spirits
6The Battle of the Coral Sea May 1942The first of the Pacific War's six fights between opposing aircraft carrier forcesAlthough a Japanese victory on "points", it was an operational and strategic defeat
7The Battle of Midway June 4-7, 1942 Japanese Fleet commander Admiral YamamotoYamamoto's intended surprise was thwartedAdmiral Chester W. Nimitz, the U.S. Pacific Fleet commander, established an ambushCost Japan four irreplaceable fleet carriers, a cruiser and 250 airplanesOnly one U.S. carriers was lostWar’s turning point
8Admiral Yamamoto Naval War College and Harvard University Naval Attache to U.S.Planned attack on Pearl HarborKilled by aerial ambush in 1943
9Guadalcanal August 1942 – February 1943 Solomon Islands 24,000 Japanese casualties to 6,000 AmericanIsland of Death1st land defeat for JapaneseConsidered the turning point for the Japanese Army
10Battle of Leyte Gulf Philippine Islands in October 1944 This would be the last major naval action during the warKamikaze (divine wind) attacks sink 16 ships and damage 80Largest naval battle ever to take placeThe U.S. submarine blockade of JapanMacArthur fulfills his promise and returns to the PhilippinesFrees the Bataan POWs
12"Gen. Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines, October 20, 1944 "Gen. Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines, October 20, 1944."Wide World Photos, From: Buchanan, between pp , photo # 18
13Iwo Jima February – March 1945 "No other island received as much preliminary pounding as did Iwo Jima." Admiral Nimitz, CINPAC Incredibly, this ferocious bombardment had little effect22,000 defenders were burrowed in the volcanic rock 200 Japanese survived
14It was the largest armada invasion up to that time in the Pacific War It was the largest armada invasion up to that time in the Pacific War. 70,000 Marines; 7,000 died; and 19,000 casualties
15Mt. Suribachi, the 550-foot volcanic cone at the islands southern tip, dominates both possible landing beaches. From here, Japanese gunners zeroed in on every inch of the landing beach. Blockhouses and pillboxes flanked the landing areas.
16The original photograph by Joe Rosenthal. The pole weighed over 100 lbs.
17Four of the Flag Raisers (Bradley, Hayes, Sousley & Strank) appear with their jubilant buddies. Strank, Sousley and many of these boys would soon be dead. The battle for the island raged on for another four weeks.
18Battle for Okinawa April 1945 1,900 kamikaze attacks sinking 30 ships, damaging 300 more, and killing 5,000 seamen7,600 Americans die taking the island110,000 Japanese die150,000 Okinawans perish, 1/3 of the populationSecond only to Stalingrad in loss of lifeForeshadowed the cost of invading JapanChurchill predicted 1 million American and 500,00 British lives
19A Marine dashes across a draw nicknamed 'Death Valley‘ During heavy fighting in May; in 8 hrs the Marines took 125 Casualties here (National Archives Photo)
20The Manhattan Project"Little Boy" (uranium bomb) is seen on the left, and "Fat Man" (plutonium) is seen on the right.
21The Atomic Bomb Ends the War Robert Oppenheimer was lead scientist600,000 Americans worked on pieces of the projectVery few knew the projects intent1st test is on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM
22Truman’s DecisionWarns Japan that it faced “prompt and utter destruction” unless it surrendered at onceJapan refuses“Let there be no mistake about it. I regarded the bomb as a military weapon and never had any doubt that it should be used”
23Hiroshima Enola Gay takes off August 6, 1945 “Little Boy” kills 70,000 on impactAnother 70,000 will die from injuries within the next 5 years90% of the cities buildings are destroyed3 days later “Fat Man” is dropped
24HiroshimaThe hypocenter seen from the sky. With Aioi Bridge between them, the Hiroshima Chamber of Commerce and Industry (A-bomb Dome) and Honkawa Elementary school remain standing in ruin. (Photo by US Army)
25The A-Bomb Dome Today in Hiroshima at Peace Memorial Park
26Nagasaki August 9, 1945 Population 240,000 Only 40% of the city is destroyed thanks to its geography39,000 killed25,000 injuredRuins of a Roman Catholic Cathedral
27AftermathThe two bombings killed an estimated 110,000 Japanese citizens and injured another 130,000.By 1950, another 230,000 Japanese had died from injuries or radiation.Though the two cities were nominally military targets, the overwhelming majority of the casualties were civilian.Both cities have become centers for peace movements supporting the ban on nuclear weapons.
29Douglas MacArthur Prickly and arrogant Brilliant strategist 10 Japanese killed for every AmericanHe took more territory with less loss of lifeRebuilds Japan after the warAdapts Japanese traditions to western political and economic systemsFails to receive Republican nomination for president
30Rebuilding Begins The Yalta Conference, February 1945 Ailing FDR, Churchill and Stalin (Big Three) meet on the Black Sea in the Soviet Union to discuss the future of Germany and the postwar worldStalin wanted Germany divided into occupation zonesFDR makes concessions for two reasons:Wants the Soviets to enter the war against Japan (the atom bomb is still 5 months from completion)Wants Stalin to support and join the United Nations
31Rebuilding Begins Four zones of occupation Series of compromises between the Big ThreeFour zones of occupationFDR and Churchill assumed this was to be temporaryStalin promises “free and unfettered elections” in Poland and other Soviet-occupied Eastern European countriesStalin agrees to fight JapanLastly, Stalin agrees to participate in the April 1945 meeting in San Francisco
32The Nuremberg War Trials 24 surviving Nazis on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against peace, and war crimes (defined on page 586)12 of the 24 will be executedLesser trials to follow will convict 200 moreUnfortunately, many go unpunishedEstablished the principle that individuals are responsible for their actions is now firmly entrenched in international law
33The Occupation of Japan Gen. Douglas MacArthur1,100 Japanese will be tried including Prime Minister Hideki Tojo7 are sentenced to death7 year occupation MacArthur reshapes Japanese economy by introducing free-market practicesTransforms their government with a new constitution, still known today as the MacArthur Constitution