2The Life of the Plains Indians Eastern settlers changed the lives of N. A. on the Great PlainsIndians & French traded buffalo hides for guns, making hunting easierHorses made N. A. warfare much more intense and violentMany N. A. became nomads b/c of the horse. Became more mobile to follow food sourcesWarrior societies led to much more violence and instability
3Indian Wars and Government Policy N.A. lived on traditional lands W. of MississippiN. A. viewed settlers as invaders, Settlers took land from N. A.(Settlers vs. N.A. = invaders vs. owners)Gov’t treaties forced N. A. onto reservationsSettlers ignored treatiesActs of violence led to cycles of revenge. Both sides guilty.
4Brutality, Unfulfilled Promises, and Butchery Treaties:Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867Fort Laramie Treaty (1868)Most Indians angered by the treatiesBy 1868, war parties were raiding cities in Kansas and ColoradoIn response, army troops killed any Indians who refused to stay on reservations
5Key Events in the Indian Wars, 1861-1890 Native AmericanNations/HomelandsKey PlayersDescription/OutcomeApache and Navajo Wars ( )Apache in Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado territories; Navajo in New Mexico, Colorado territoriesGeronimoCol. Christopher “Kit” CarsonCarson kills or relocates many Apache to reservations in Clashes drag on until Geronmino’s surrender in Navajo told to surrender in 1863, but before they can, Carson attacks, killing hundreds, destroying homelands. Navajos moved to New Mexico reservation in 1865.Sand Creek Massacre (1864)Southern Cheyeene, Arapaho, in central plainsBlack KettleCol. John ChivingtonCheyenne massacres prompt Chivington to kill up to 500 surrendered Cheyenne and Arapaho led by Black Kettle.Red River War ( )Comanche and southern branches of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho, in southern plainsComanche war partiesGen. William T. ShermanLt. Gen. Philip H. SheridanSouthern plains Indians relocated to Oklahoma Indian Territory under 1867 Treaty of Medicin Lodge. After buffalo hunters destroy the Indians food supply, Comanche warriors race to buffalo grazing areas in Texas panhandle to kill hunters. Sherman and Sheridan defeat warriors and open panhandle to cattle ranching.Wars/Battles
6Key Events in the Indian Wars, 1861-1890 Wars/BattlesNative AmericanNations/HomelandsKey PlayersDescription/OutcomeBattle of Little Bighorn (1876)Northern plains Sioux in Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana territorriesSitting BullCrazy HorseRed CloudLt. Col. GeorgeA. CusterU.S. tries to buy gold-rich Black Hills from Sioux. Talks fail. Custer’s 7th Cavalry is sent to round up Sioux, but meets huge enemy force. Custer and some 200 men perish in “Custer’s Last Stand.”Nez Perce War (1877)Largest branch of Nez Perce, in Wallowa Valley of Idaho and Washington territories and OregonChief JosephGen. Oliver O. HowardCol. Nelson MilesHoward orders Nez Perce to Idaho reservation; violence erupts. Joseph leads some 700 men, women, and children on 1,400-mile flight. His 200 warriors hold off Miles’s 2,000 soldiers until halted 40 miles short of Canada. Sent to Indian Territory, many die of disease. In 1885, survivors moved to reservation in Washington Territory.Battle of Wounded Knee (1890)Sioux at Pine Ridge Reservation, South DakotaU.S. 7thCavalryGhost Dance raises fears of Sioux uprising; Sitting Bull killed in attempted arrest. His followers surrender and camp at Wounded Knee. Shots are fired; some 200 Sioux die.
8Warring SiouxSeveral Sioux tribes fought to stay on their land and protect their hunting groundsRaided settlements and harassed minersSitting BullLeader of non-treaty SiouxStrong fighting expertiseNon-treaty: had not signed any treaty with the u.s. gov to stay on reservations
10William Tecumseh Sherman “War is hell…”March through Georgia in Civil WarCommanding General of U.S. Army after 1869Colonel who sent Custer on his expedition into the Black Hills
11Sand Creek (1864) •US army massacred Cheyenne, Arapahoe Older men, women,And children.•Eastern Colorado
12General George Armstrong Custer General in the Civil WarInfamous Indian fighter during the Sioux WarsWanted to find gold in Black HillsDefeated in the Battle at Little Bighorn (1876)Black Hills expedition: pushed by the Northern Pacific Railroad
14Little Bighorn Army moved to assault roaming Sioux in 1876 600 troops marched on Little Bighorn RiverCuster separated his men and sent half of his forces straight into battleThis group and the rest were wiped out by Cheyenne and SiouxDefeat angered the army who became even more ruthlessArmy moved to assault roaming Sioux: after negotiations to buy the Black Hills broke down
15Battle of the Little Bighorn (Custer’s Last Stand)
18Wounded Knee Creek The Ghost Dance December 29, 1890 In honor of WovokaDecember 29, 1890Seventh cavalry was sent to round up a group of Indians at Wounded Knee when an ‘excited’ Indian fired a shotThe soldiers then open firedMore than 300 Indians killed in minutesShow movie clip
2119_9.jpgIssue Day: Native Americans Waiting for Government Supplies
22“Saving” the IndiansMore and more Americans disagreed with Government Indian policiesThe Women’s National Indian Rights AssociationCentury of Dishonor by Helen Hunt JacksonThey thought breaking up the reservations and assimilating the Indians into society was the best thingDawes Severalty ActGave individuals acreagesof land and made themcitizens of the U.S.Assimilating: they wanted to get rid of Indian culture to get rid of the “Indian Problem”Picture: the phoenix indian school
23Attempts to Change Native American Culture Many people believed that Native Americans needed to give up their traditions and culture, learn English, become Christians, adopt white dress and customs, and support themselves by farming and trades.This policy is called assimilation, the process by which one society becomes a part of another, more dominant society by adopting its culture.In 1887 the Dawes Act divided reservation land into individual plots. Each family headed by a man received 160 acres.Many Native Americans did not believe in the concept of individual property, nor did they want to farm the land. For some, the practices of farming went against their notion of ecology. Some had no experience in agriculture.Between 1887 and 1932, some two thirds of this land became white owned.
24Assimilation and the Indian Schools Carlisle, PA, other sites around the U.S.Genoa, NebraskaAttempted to ‘save the Indian’ by making them assimilate into American culture, manners and customsFormed by people who empathized with the plight of the Indians and wanted a “humanitarian” solution
27Dawes Act Indian Homestead Act - 1887 Another attempt to assimilate Indians
28The Opening of Indian Territory Fifty five Indian nations were forced into Indian Territory, the largest unsettled farmland in the United States.During the 1880s, squatters overran the land, and Congress agreed to buy out the Indian claims to the region.On April 22, 1889, tens of thousands of homesteaders lined up at the territory’s borders to stake claims on the land.By sundown, settlers called boomers had staked claims on almost 2 million acres.Many boomers discovered that some of the best lands had been grabbed by sooners, people who had sneaked past the government officials earlier to mark their claims.Under continued pressure from settlers, Congress created Oklahoma Territory in In the following years, the remainder of Indian Territory was open to settlement.
29Oklahoma Land Rush (1889)Oklahoma was “Indian Territory” given to the five civilized tribesThey sided with the Confederacy, the government took land as punishment2 million acres free for settlementFree land was considered instant prosperity, but droughts would make many farms fail