2The basis of cultureKnowledge, language, values customs and physical objects that are passed from generation to generation among members and groupsMaterial side: the physical makeup of the countryNonmaterial side: cultural diversity, beliefs, rules etc.
3Culture and SocietyBoth are linked together. One can not exist without the other but are not the sameSociety- a group of people who live in a defined territory and participate in a common cultureCulture- is that societies way of life
4Culture and HeredityInstincts- genetically inherited patterns of behaviorNonhuman animals have the ability to live on instinct alone to surviveIf we as humans went on instinct alone we would all act the sameAll women would want and have children at a specific time of year, eat the same food, live in the same place, etc.
5Heredity and behavior Nature vs. nurture Research show it is 50-50 Does your genetic make up make you who you are?Does your environment make you who you are?Research show it is 50-50
6Reflexes and drives Reflex- simple biological automatic reaction Pupils contract in bright light, rootingDrives- impulses to reduce discomfortEating, sleeping etcIn some cultures people are taught to ignore their Drives
7Sociobiology Study of biological basis of human behavior Natural selection and modern geneticsAccording to Darwin the best suited survive and adapt while the rest perishHuman survivalParental affection and care, friendship, sexual reproduction and education
8Major criticism of Sociobiology Importance placed on genetics alone could be use to justify inferior or superior racesTo much variation of the study world wideHowever some believe that is can be used along with culture to get a better understanding of human nature and social life
9Section 2 language and culture Symbols- things that stand or represent something elseConfederate flag represents oppression for African Americans but represents a proud sense of culture for white southernersA strong hand shake in America represents confidence (positive). In many Asian countries it represents dominance and is taken as a negative
10Language and culture Language can be used to explain and educate a child does not need to be burned to know that fire is hot and should not be touched.This can be explained using language.
11Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Hypothesis of linguistic relativityOur idea of reality depends largely upon languageThe more important something is the more words we have to describe itThe less important there may be only one word or no words at all to describe itThis will vary from culture to culture
12Reality as we know itOnes perception of the world many change as they learn new language and experience different cultureNot common but is possible
13Reality as we know it Cultural difference also play a huge role Japan- very thin walls; therefore they have no issues with noiseAmerican businessman staying in Japan often are bothered by the “noise pollution” because they are not trained to screen it out.A person who grew up in the city and moved to the country will awake started because they are not used to the quiet
14Section 3-Norms and Values Norms- rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behaviorIn Africa a women might become engaged to a man she had never metBinding a a baby girls foot in China so she may have tiny feet when she is older
15normsNorms are learned in a society and are used to guide their social behaviorWe are often not aware of these norms until they are brokenIn 1960s TV show a female wore Capri pants on TV and there was extreme uproarThis behavior way against the norms for women on TV to be portrayed
16Three types of NormsFolkways- rules that cover customary ways of thinking, feeling and behavior but lack moral overtonesMores- norms that have moral dimension and that should be followed by all members of societyLaws-norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials
17folkwaysExamples- expressing your self in a different manner that may seem oddPeople who are covered in tattoos, have strange piercings, dye their hair crazy colorsFolkways may change over time
18Mores Morality related to right and wrong Conformity leads to strong social approvalViolation of this type of norm brings strong disapprovalEx: not standing for the national anthem would be breaking with the social norms of society
19Taboo Is a norm so strong that its violation demand punishment Incest is the one taboo that crosses all societies
20Laws Norms that are formally defines and enforced by officials In some instances mores and even folkways will become laws with pressure from an evolving societyEx: smoking was legal everywhere and eventually became outlawed in many public places across America
21SanctionsRewards and punishments used to encourage conformity to normsFormal and informalFormal Sanctions- positive or negativeGiven to specific peopleEx: teachers, judges, parentsInformal sanctions- positive or negativeCan be applied by most members of a groupEx: social etiquette: thanking someone who helped you
22Values Ideas that most people in society consider to be desirable These values can and will vary as society changes or even with in different groups of the same society