Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Culture. The basis of culture Knowledge, language, values customs and physical objects that are passed from generation to generation among members."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 Culture
The basis of culture Knowledge, language, values customs and physical objects that are passed from generation to generation among members and groups Material side: the physical makeup of the country Nonmaterial side: cultural diversity, beliefs, rules etc.
Culture and Society Both are linked together. One can not exist without the other but are not the same Society- a group of people who live in a defined territory and participate in a common culture Culture- is that societies way of life
Culture and Heredity Instincts- genetically inherited patterns of behavior –Nonhuman animals have the ability to live on instinct alone to survive If we as humans went on instinct alone we would all act the same –All women would want and have children at a specific time of year, eat the same food, live in the same place, etc.
Heredity and behavior Nature vs. nurture –Does your genetic make up make you who you are? –Does your environment make you who you are? Research show it is 50-50
Reflexes and drives Reflex- simple biological automatic reaction –Pupils contract in bright light, rooting Drives- impulses to reduce discomfort –Eating, sleeping etc –In some cultures people are taught to ignore their Drives
Sociobiology Study of biological basis of human behavior –Natural selection and modern genetics According to Darwin the best suited survive and adapt while the rest perish Human survival –Parental affection and care, friendship, sexual reproduction and education
Major criticism of Sociobiology Importance placed on genetics alone could be use to justify inferior or superior races To much variation of the study world wide However some believe that is can be used along with culture to get a better understanding of human nature and social life
Section 2 language and culture Symbols- things that stand or represent something else –Confederate flag represents oppression for African Americans but represents a proud sense of culture for white southerners –A strong hand shake in America represents confidence (positive). In many Asian countries it represents dominance and is taken as a negative
Language and culture Language can be used to explain and educate –a child does not need to be burned to know that fire is hot and should not be touched. –This can be explained using language.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Hypothesis of linguistic relativity –Our idea of reality depends largely upon language The more important something is the more words we have to describe it The less important there may be only one word or no words at all to describe it This will vary from culture to culture
Reality as we know it Ones perception of the world many change as they learn new language and experience different culture –Not common but is possible
Reality as we know it Cultural difference also play a huge role –Japan- very thin walls; therefore they have no issues with noise –American businessman staying in Japan often are bothered by the “noise pollution” because they are not trained to screen it out. –A person who grew up in the city and moved to the country will awake started because they are not used to the quiet
Section 3-Norms and Values Norms- rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior –In Africa a women might become engaged to a man she had never met –Binding a a baby girls foot in China so she may have tiny feet when she is older
norms Norms are learned in a society and are used to guide their social behavior We are often not aware of these norms until they are broken –In 1960s TV show a female wore Capri pants on TV and there was extreme uproar This behavior way against the norms for women on TV to be portrayed
Three types of Norms Folkways- rules that cover customary ways of thinking, feeling and behavior but lack moral overtones Mores- norms that have moral dimension and that should be followed by all members of society Laws-norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials
folkways Examples- expressing your self in a different manner that may seem odd –People who are covered in tattoos, have strange piercings, dye their hair crazy colors Folkways may change over time
Mores Morality related to right and wrong –Conformity leads to strong social approval –Violation of this type of norm brings strong disapproval Ex: not standing for the national anthem would be breaking with the social norms of society
Taboo Is a norm so strong that its violation demand punishment –Incest is the one taboo that crosses all societies
Laws Norms that are formally defines and enforced by officials –In some instances mores and even folkways will become laws with pressure from an evolving society –Ex: smoking was legal everywhere and eventually became outlawed in many public places across America
Sanctions Rewards and punishments used to encourage conformity to norms –Formal and informal Formal Sanctions- positive or negative –Given to specific people Ex: teachers, judges, parents Informal sanctions- positive or negative –Can be applied by most members of a group Ex: social etiquette: thanking someone who helped you
Values Ideas that most people in society consider to be desirable –These values can and will vary as society changes or even with in different groups of the same society –