Presentation on theme: "HOW TO WRITE RESEARCH PAPERS FOR ACADEMIC JOURNALS"— Presentation transcript:
1HOW TO WRITE RESEARCH PAPERS FOR ACADEMIC JOURNALS Dr. Abdelaziz TERCHI
2Definition of Research Hunting for facts or truth about a subjectOrganized scientific investigation to solve problems, test hypotheses, develop or invent new products
3What is research? Identify a problem Find out what others have done Develop a solutionShow your solution:WorksBetterSound & complete
4What is Research?Research must be systematic - It follows certain steps that are logical in order. These steps are:Understanding the nature of problem to be studied and identifying the related area of knowledge.Reviewing literature to understand how others have approached or dealt with the problem.Collecting data in an organized and controlled manner so as to arrive at valid decisions.Analyzing data appropriate to the problem.Drawing conclusions and making generalizations.
5High Quality Research! It is based on the work of others. It can be replicated (duplicated).It is generalizable to other settings.It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.It is doable!It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.It is incremental.It is apolitical activity that should be undertaken for the betterment of society.
6What is bad research? The opposites of what have been discussed. Looking for something when it simply is not to be found.Plagiarizing other people’s work.Falsifying data to prove a point.Misrepresenting information and misleading participants.
7Why do we need research? To get PhDs, Masters and Bachelors?? To provide solutions to complex problemsTo investigate laws of natureTo make new discoveriesTo develop new productsTo save costsTo improve our lifeHuman desires
8Why publish research papers? Ideallyto share research findings and discoveries with the hope of improving healthcarePracticallyTo get fundingto get promotedto get a jobto keep your job!
9Why write research papers? Every research needs good and proper documentation.To attend conferences.To share research results with other researchers.To get views for improvement of your research.To obtain some form of degree.To get recognition and promotion (“Publish or Perish” Dilemma)
10Types of Publications Theses: MSc. MPhil /PhD Conference Publications Focus on a piece of work with limited discussionJournal PublicationsMore complete (extensive) discussionMonographs / Book chapters / Text booksLiterature reviewBook reviewResearch note (work in progress)Working paperBook
11Where to publish your work JournalsRankingReview processPublication cycleConferencesN.B. A good journal / conference usually to have rigorous review process and long review time
12Where to send? Conference: Workshop Journal 3 kinds Quick PASTE IWPC Accept “everything?”IEEE (accept less than 50%)Accept less than 20%QuickWorkshopPASTEIWPCICSE WorkshopsJournalArchivalRespectableExperienceMagazine
13Select an outlet Level Subject: Narrow, Medium,Broad Workshop: 30 – 50 submissions with 50% acceptance rateConference: 100 – 500 submissions with a 10-25% acceptance rateJournal: 30% acceptance rate with long lead timesSubject: Narrow, Medium,BroadRegion: National,European, Americas, Asia, Australia, Nordic, WorldwideThe higher the level the more competitiveFor students it is most successful to focus on a narrow focused workshop
14Conferences Fast publication Usually need a smaller idea Smaller trick can be acceptableDepends on conferenceJust accept or reject; no rewriteIt may be incompleteIt may lack key referencesGood for networking and Q&A
15Journal publication Academic reputation Gives a “quality stamp” Journals have ~4x more status than conferencesGives a “quality stamp”Reviewers demand corrections & clarificationsArchive your workWider scopeMore theory and technical informationMore referencesHighly competitiveAccept 36%Reject 58%Refer to other Journal 3%Withdrawn 3%
16What makes a good research paper? Good scienceGood writingPublication in good journals
17What constitutes good science? Novel: new and not resembling something formerly known or usedMechanistic: testing a hypothesis - determining the fundamental processes involved in or responsible for an action, reaction, or other natural phenomenonDescriptive: describes how things are but does not test how things work – hypotheses are not tested.What is a descriptive study?
18What constitutes a good journal? Impact factor: average number of times published papers are cited up to two years after publication.Immediacy Index : average number of times published papers are cited during year of publication.Immediacy Index – number of times articles published in 2003 (by a journal) that were cited in 2003 divided by number of articles that were published in 2003 (by the journal)
19Journal Citation Report, 2003 Journal Impact Factor Immediacy IndexNatureScienceHypertensAJ P HeartPhysiol RevAm J MathAnn MathPublished by Thomas Scientific (formally Institute for Scientific Information)Lots of debate on impact factor –Review journals have very high impact factor because they are often quoted instead of original paperNumber of citations to a journal does not necessarily reflect the quality of the journal. Journals with low circulation will never have high impact factor regardless of the quality of its publications.Window for citation is too short. Many classic papers are cited frequently several decades after publicationMore researchers in a particular field lead to high impact journals in the field.Example, medical journals have higher impact factors compared to mathematical journals and engineering journals5907 journals
20Things to consider before writing 1. Time to write the paper?- has a significant advancement been made?- is the hypothesis straightforward?- did the experiments test the hypothesis?- are the controls appropriate and sufficient?- can you describe the study in 1 or 2 minutes?- can the key message be written in 1 or 2 sentences?2. Tables and figures- must be clear and concise- should be self-explanatory3. Read references- will help in choosing journal- better insight into possible reviewers
21Things to consider before writing 4. Choose journal- study “instructions to authors”- think about possible reviewers- quality of journal “impact factor”5. Tentative title and summary6. Choose authors
22Getting a paper published Competition for space in journals is intenseCost of publication is high, $360/page for APSRejection rates varyAJP = 50%JBC = 65%Nature = 90%
23Reasons for rejection Confirmatory (not novel) Poor experimental design- Poor controls- Hypothesis not adequately testedInappropriate for journalPoorly written
24Reasons for rejection The topic does not relate to the journal’s aims The paper does not appear to have engaged with the work of others in the same area and may therefore be repetitiousThe paper’s purpose is unclearThe argument in the paper is under-developedThe claims made by the paper are not justifiedThe style/length/format is not what’s requested by the journalThe paper is poorly presented with missing references, typos, poor grammar etc.
25Publication Process Completion of research Preparation of manuscript Submission of manuscriptAssignment and reviewDecisionRejectionRevisionResubmissionRe-reviewAcceptanceRejectionPublication