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Presentation on theme: "HOW TO WRITE RESEARCH PAPERS FOR ACADEMIC JOURNALS"— Presentation transcript:

Dr. Abdelaziz TERCHI

2 Definition of Research
Hunting for facts or truth about a subject Organized scientific investigation to solve problems, test hypotheses, develop or invent new products

3 What is research? Identify a problem Find out what others have done
Develop a solution Show your solution: Works Better Sound & complete

4 What is Research? Research must be systematic - It follows certain steps that are logical in order. These steps are: Understanding the nature of problem to be studied and identifying the related area of knowledge. Reviewing literature to understand how others have approached or dealt with the problem. Collecting data in an organized and controlled manner so as to arrive at valid decisions. Analyzing data appropriate to the problem. Drawing conclusions and making generalizations.

5 High Quality Research! It is based on the work of others.
It can be replicated (duplicated). It is generalizable to other settings. It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory. It is doable! It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature. It is incremental. It is apolitical activity that should be undertaken for the betterment of society.

6 What is bad research? The opposites of what have been discussed.
Looking for something when it simply is not to be found. Plagiarizing other people’s work. Falsifying data to prove a point. Misrepresenting information and misleading participants.

7 Why do we need research? To get PhDs, Masters and Bachelors??
To provide solutions to complex problems To investigate laws of nature To make new discoveries To develop new products To save costs To improve our life Human desires

8 Why publish research papers?
Ideally to share research findings and discoveries with the hope of improving healthcare Practically To get funding to get promoted to get a job to keep your job!

9 Why write research papers?
Every research needs good and proper documentation. To attend conferences. To share research results with other researchers. To get views for improvement of your research. To obtain some form of degree. To get recognition and promotion (“Publish or Perish” Dilemma)

10 Types of Publications Theses: MSc. MPhil /PhD Conference Publications
Focus on a piece of work with limited discussion Journal Publications More complete (extensive) discussion Monographs / Book chapters / Text books Literature review Book review Research note (work in progress) Working paper Book

11 Where to publish your work
Journals Ranking Review process Publication cycle Conferences N.B. A good journal / conference usually to have rigorous review process and long review time

12 Where to send? Conference: Workshop Journal 3 kinds Quick PASTE IWPC
Accept “everything?” IEEE (accept less than 50%) Accept less than 20% Quick Workshop PASTE IWPC ICSE Workshops Journal Archival Respectable Experience Magazine

13 Select an outlet Level Subject: Narrow, Medium,Broad
Workshop: 30 – 50 submissions with 50% acceptance rate Conference: 100 – 500 submissions with a 10-25% acceptance rate Journal: 30% acceptance rate with long lead times Subject: Narrow, Medium,Broad Region: National,European, Americas, Asia, Australia, Nordic, Worldwide The higher the level the more competitive For students it is most successful to focus on a narrow focused workshop

14 Conferences Fast publication Usually need a smaller idea
Smaller trick can be acceptable Depends on conference Just accept or reject; no rewrite It may be incomplete It may lack key references Good for networking and Q&A

15 Journal publication Academic reputation Gives a “quality stamp”
Journals have ~4x more status than conferences Gives a “quality stamp” Reviewers demand corrections & clarifications Archive your work Wider scope More theory and technical information More references Highly competitive Accept 36% Reject 58% Refer to other Journal 3% Withdrawn 3%

16 What makes a good research paper?
Good science Good writing Publication in good journals

17 What constitutes good science?
Novel: new and not resembling something formerly known or used Mechanistic: testing a hypothesis - determining the fundamental processes involved in or responsible for an action, reaction, or other natural phenomenon Descriptive: describes how things are but does not test how things work – hypotheses are not tested. What is a descriptive study?

18 What constitutes a good journal?
Impact factor: average number of times published papers are cited up to two years after publication. Immediacy Index : average number of times published papers are cited during year of publication. Immediacy Index – number of times articles published in 2003 (by a journal) that were cited in 2003 divided by number of articles that were published in 2003 (by the journal)

19 Journal Citation Report, 2003
Journal Impact Factor Immediacy Index Nature Science Hypertens AJ P Heart Physiol Rev Am J Math Ann Math Published by Thomas Scientific (formally Institute for Scientific Information) Lots of debate on impact factor – Review journals have very high impact factor because they are often quoted instead of original paper Number of citations to a journal does not necessarily reflect the quality of the journal. Journals with low circulation will never have high impact factor regardless of the quality of its publications. Window for citation is too short. Many classic papers are cited frequently several decades after publication More researchers in a particular field lead to high impact journals in the field. Example, medical journals have higher impact factors compared to mathematical journals and engineering journals 5907 journals

20 Things to consider before writing
1. Time to write the paper? - has a significant advancement been made? - is the hypothesis straightforward? - did the experiments test the hypothesis? - are the controls appropriate and sufficient? - can you describe the study in 1 or 2 minutes? - can the key message be written in 1 or 2 sentences? 2. Tables and figures - must be clear and concise - should be self-explanatory 3. Read references - will help in choosing journal - better insight into possible reviewers

21 Things to consider before writing
4. Choose journal - study “instructions to authors” - think about possible reviewers - quality of journal “impact factor” 5. Tentative title and summary 6. Choose authors

22 Getting a paper published
Competition for space in journals is intense Cost of publication is high, $360/page for APS Rejection rates vary AJP = 50% JBC = 65% Nature = 90%

23 Reasons for rejection Confirmatory (not novel)
Poor experimental design - Poor controls - Hypothesis not adequately tested Inappropriate for journal Poorly written

24 Reasons for rejection The topic does not relate to the journal’s aims
The paper does not appear to have engaged with the work of others in the same area and may therefore be repetitious The paper’s purpose is unclear The argument in the paper is under-developed The claims made by the paper are not justified The style/length/format is not what’s requested by the journal The paper is poorly presented with missing references, typos, poor grammar etc.

25 Publication Process Completion of research Preparation of manuscript
Submission of manuscript Assignment and review Decision Rejection Revision Resubmission Re-review Acceptance Rejection Publication



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