Presentation on theme: "Consolidation of Russian conservatism What is special about the 19th century in Russia? It is a society so different from the west but its effect is still."— Presentation transcript:
Consolidation of Russian conservatism What is special about the 19th century in Russia? It is a society so different from the west but its effect is still felt in the failure of Russia to adapt to modernity. The chaos in Russia to day may be traced back to these times.
Nicholas I 1825-55 His principles of government –Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality –Orthodoxy: The church the most important supporter of the government. Only orthodox are reliable subjects
Autocracy Defender of the old paternalistic discipline against the influence of rotten pagan France Horror of the decembrists revolt The Tsar is the father The third section of the Chancery was in charge of state security –Shadowed 2000 persons annually
Nationality Slavophils thought russian institutions superior to institutions of the west. Extension of Russian influence over the neighboring countries, Balkan countries, countries to the south (Armenia), Vladivostok founded in the east. Suppression of the Polish revolt 1831
Where are the forces of change? Literature and papers were heavily censored –Alexander Pushkin - Gogol 1848 the Buturlin commission was established to regulate the work of existing censors University education increased until after the 1848 revolution – To educate officials – byproduct – some learned to think Enlightened bureaucrats had some interest in reform Reform were only allowed if government acted alone. – Tsar Nicholas afraid of change
Serfdom The primal social problem of Russia was the institution of Serfdom Size of the serf population How was the serf/owner relationship If Nicholas admitted the ills of this system, why didn’t he abolish it? What effect did serfdom have on the development of society in Russia?
Russia lost the Crimean War 54-56 Tsar Nicholas died during the war Russian strength proved to be an illusion Lack of communication hindered mobilisation Industry unable to provide weapons The autocratic government was forced to reform, otherwise Russia and Autarchy would perish
Alexander II Why did Alexander instigate reform? –Out of concern for his subjects? –Because of Russias backwardness –Because of rural unrest Reforms: –Emancipation –Zemstvos –Judical system –Educational reform –Military reform
Emancipation Emancipation of 40 million serfs 1861 –Peasant serfs received land but had to pay for it. The government compensated the landowners with government bonds but the peasants paid redemption to the state for 49 years The Mir, the peasant commune was responsible for these payments. The landowner kept one third of the land, usually the best? ? The mir could repartition land
Zemstvos Assemblies for local government that replaced landlord government Elected assemblies but still dominated by landlords. Responsible for administering –Schools, public health, poor relief, roads. Alexander turned down suggestions for national Zemstvo of Zemstvos
Judicial reforms The nobles lost their role as judges and a new judicial system was introduced with: –Proceedings in public –Same laws applying to all classes –Jury system –Judges independent of government But still we have political courts, censorship and strong police.
Military and educational reform Conscription reduced from 25 years to 6 Universal military service by draw Military service no longer punishment for crimes Education liberalized, increased number of university students and liberalization of curriculum, 2000 women in univ. 1881 Gymnasiums founded (history not allowed) Zemstvos allowed to open primary schools
Economic reform Railway building 700-14000 miles 1855 to 1881. Encouraged grain export with success Establishment of banks encouraged. Settlement limitation on Jews lifted, –They can trade and work as artisans everywhere in Russia
Finland - Polland Calling of diet in 1863 Constitution in 1867 Finnish recognized as official language in 1872 Polland enjoyed some liberties but polish nationalism and Tsarism could not be reconciled After the Polish revolt in 1863 liberal agrarian reform in Polland but russification continued.
The radical opposition Alexanders II reforms raised hopes but he was not ready to go further –Typical dilemma of the reformer, you can not satisfy both the liberals and the conservatives –The intelligentsia: a critically thinking minority Blended the ideas of slavophiles and westernisers Wanted some kind of a unique Russian freedom Tended to be absolutists, wanted to find the “truth” –No compromises – tended to be fanatical
Opposition taking form in the sixties Bakunin – anarchy of the simple peasant Herzen – Socialism based on the mir Chernyshevsky – –What is to be done? –Fundamental change necessary –Democracy means individual freedom, self- government and a federal system
Alexander and the intellig... The Zemstvos called for a central Zemstvo –Alexander rejected the idea then –The intelligentsia had no outlet for their ideas in practical politics – had no influence –Many of them would have supported the Tsar –Now they became underground fanatics –Attempts on Alexanders live 1866 and 1867 made him more reactionary
The opposition movement Populism (Narodnic) –go into the countryside 1874 and 1876 to teach the peasants but no contact Trial of the leaders gave great publicity –Form Land and liberty 1877 Vera Zasulich tried for the murder of general Trepov and acquitted. Both trials showed the government incompetent and impotent Public opinion changed in favor of radicals
Rise of terrorism The “Peoples Will” split out of Land and Liberty”. –Made repeated attempts on the Tsars life. –When PW killed him in March 1881 Alexander he had just given approval for a national assembly. –The new Tsar Alexander III was conservative and under influence of Pobedonostsev like his son Nicholas II.
Death of Alexander After assassination attempts Alexander appointed Loris-Melikov minister of interiror –Some attempt to liberalize the government –When Alexander was killed on 13 th of March 1881 he had approved the calling of a national assembly –His son Alexander III recalled this measure
Alexander III Influenced by the conservative Pobedonostsev –Autocracy agains democracy –Orthodox against other sects –Russian against other nationalities Attempted to reinstate the influnce of the nobility and attack the Zemstvos –Limited franchise – 21 000 to 7000 in St. Petersburg –Raising tuition fees for universities –Illiteracy rate 79 % 1897!! Pan-slavism becoming influential
Russification Russian 45% of the population of the empire in 1897 (total pop. 125 mill.) Confiscation of church property in Poland University in Warsaw closed 1869 Russian as an administrative language Similar attacks on Ukrainians, Tartars, Georgians. Alexander III also attacked nations that had been loyal to the Tsar like the Finns, Baltics and Armenians. Alexander also limited rights of Jews and pogroms were supported. Jews become socialists and Zionists
Foreign policy before Crimea Holy Alliance with Prussia and Austria 1815 –Peace, concorde and love Nicholas 1 the policeman of Europe to 1848 Agreed to Belgian independence 1831 Still nationalism and democracy is a threat Gained Caucasus and part of Armenia Winning Turkey in a war 1828 – establishing protectorate in Moldavia and Wallachia and gaining free access through the straits –The eastern question –Nicholas sought agreement between Russia, Austria and Britain –If Turkey crumbled the pieces should be divided in accord
1848 Economic crisis in Russia Revolts in Europe Supressed the Hungarian revolt on demand from Austria Suspicious towards the regime of Louis Napoleon in France Napoleon demanded the keys to the temple of Betlehem taken from tho Orthodox priests and given to the catholics – Nicholas outraged!
Foreign Policy: The Crimean war. The Crimean war is a part of the “Eastern question”. “The Eastern question” was the question: How are the European powers going to respond to the crumbling of the Turkish empire in Europe. Russia wanted to gain free access to the Mediterrainian from the Black Sea. –This included influence in the states along the Black Sea Coast west of Russia.
The war started 1854 In 1853 Russia moved army to Moldavia and Wallachia. Turkey attacked Russia but lost its fleet at Sinope and to avoid the danger of russian domination: –France and Britain attacked Sebastopol in the Crimea. Piedmont took also part. –Austria stayed neutral but threatened Russia Russia gave up in 1856. Russian influence in the Balkan and the straits was reduced.
Effect of Crimean war Internationally –Austria isolated from Russia and the west. Opening up for Italian unification France becomes dominant power Prussia gains prestige among German states –Russia becomes isolated and the unification of Germany becomes more likely. In Russia –Reforms from above 1855-1874
Russian foreign policy after the Crimean war From 1856-1870 Russia passive –Bitterness towards Austria because Austria had not supported Russia in the war –Russian aim to revise the Black Sea clauses of the treaty of Paris –1856-63 friendship with France the strongest power in Europe –Renounced this friendship after French adventures in Italy and the sympathy for the Polish revolt 1863 in France
Leaning towards Prussia Prussia offered aid against the Polish rebels Russia remained neutral during Prussian wars of unification During the Franco-Prussian war 1870 Russia renounced the Black Sea clauses The other powers opposed this in principle but notin action
Alignment with Germany 1870-90 Bismarck alignes Prussia with Austria and Russia in the Dreikeiserbund. –A dubious friendship because of conflicting interest in the Balkans 1877-78 Russia declares war on Turkey after the brutal Turkish suppression of the Bulgarian uprising Treaty of San Stefano (march 78) created a big Bulgaria –However in –The Congress of Berlin in June 1878 Bulgaria was reduced and so also Russian influence in the Balkans
The end of German friendship After the Congress in Berlin Germany became suspicious of Bismarck The alliance lasted to 1890 when the new German emperor Wilhelm II refused to renew the Reinsurance treaty with Russia Russia turns to France for alliance (entente 1894) –After Crimean war Russia had limited scope for influence in Europe and focused on expansion in Asia. Alaska sold 1867 Foundation af Vladivostok 1861