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by Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High School

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1 by Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High School
Wildlife Management by Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High School Objective: To determine the relationship between wildlife and the environment and approved practices in managing wildlife enterprises.

2 Competencies: define wildlife terms
identify characteristics of wildlife describe relationships between wildlife and humans understand relationships with humans describe classifications of wildlife identify approved practices discuss future of wildlife in the U.S.

3 Terms to Know Wildlife Habitat Vertebrate Predators Prey Parasitism

4 Terms to Know Warm-blooded animals Mutualism Predation Commensalism
Competition Wetlands

5 In the early years.... Wildlife provided the bulk of food available
Supplies seemed exhaustible Humans destroyed wildlife habitat Wildlife have been a part of life of humans since the beginning of time. Wildlife are animals that are adapted to live in a natural environment without the help of humans. Early humans followed herds of wild animals and killed what they needed in order to live and survive. They observed what the animals did and what they ate to determine what was safe for human consumption. Early humans also used wildlife as models for their artwork and in many of their ceremonial rites. As settlers came to the new world, wildlife often provided the bulk of the food available until food production systems could be developed.

6 Characteristics of Wildlife
All vertebrate animals are wildlife Vertebrates-animals with backbones Have many of the same characteristics as humans: growth processes laws of heredity general cell structure Even though wildlife have characteristics which are much the same as humans, the wildness of the animal itself is a characteristic that allows the animal to survive without interference or help from humans. The animals wildness is often a contributing factor to our interest in wildlife. These characteristics are what attracts hunters to hunting and fishermen to fishing. Bird watching and wildlife photography would be far less fascinating if wildlife were less wild and wary of humans.

7 Environment without control
Must adapt or perish Possess senses for protection from predators Avoid overpopulation The wildness of animals is fascinating to most people. Many animals possess senses that help them avoid predators (animals that feed on other animals). Prey (animals eaten by the predator). What are the prey of an owl?

8 Wildlife Relationships
Parasitism Mutualism Predation Commensalism Competition Every types of wildlife is part of a community of plants and animals where are individuals are dependent on others. Any attempt to manage wildlife must take into account the relationships that exist naturally. Because relationships within the wildlife community are constantly changing, it is very difficult to set standard procedures for their management. The balance of nature is actually a myth because wildlife communities are seldom in a state of equilibrium, The numbers of various species of wildlife are constantly increasing and decreasing in response to each other and to many external factors such as natural disasters. These include fires, droughts, and disease outbreaks. The interference of humans also often upsets the natural balance of nature.

9 Parasitism Relationship between two organisms, either plants or animals, in which one feeds on the other without killing it. Parasites can be internal or external An example of a parasitic relationship is the wood tick, which may live on almost any warm blooded animal. Warm blooded animals have the ability to regulate their body temperatures.

10 Mutualism Two types of animals that live together for mutual benefit
There are many examples of mutualism in the wildlife community One example of mutualism are tick pickers, birds that remove and eat ticks from many of the wild animals in Africa, to the mutual benefit of both. The wild animals have parasites removed from them, and the birds receive nourishment from the ticks. A moth that lives only on a certain plant is also the only pollinator of that plant in several relationships. Some plant seeds will germinate only after having passed through the digestive tract of a specific bird or animal.

11 Predation When one animal eats another animal
Is important in controlling populations of wildlife Foxes are necessary to keep populations of rodents and other small animals under control. Populations of predators and prey tend to fluctuate widely. When predators and in abundance, prey becomes scare because of overfeeding. When prey becomes scarce, predators may starve or move to other areas. This them permits increase in the population of prey.

12 Commensalism A Plant or animal that lives in, on, or with another, sharing its food, but not helping or harming it One species is helped, but the other is neither helped or harmed Vultures waiting to feed on the leftovers from a cougar’s kill is an example of commensalism. What are some other examples that we could use?

13 Competition When different species of wildlife compete for the same:
food supply nesting sites breeding sites One species may increase in numbers while the other declines Often the numbers of both species decrease as a result of competition. Owls and foxes both competing for the available supply of rodents and other small animals is an example of competition. The various relationships that exist between species of wildlife make it necessary to consider more than just one species any time that management is contemplated. Understanding the relationships that exist in the entire wildlife community is essential if wildlife management programs are to be successful.

14 Relationships Between Wildlife and Humans
Biological Ecological Economic food clothing shelter Biological relationships exist because humans are animals that are very similar to wildlife. Relationships may be ecological because humans are but one species among nearly 1 million species of animals that inhabit the planet Earth. Economic relationships that exist between humans and wildlife are important. Originally humans were dependent on wildlife for food, clothing, and shelter.

15 Six Positive Values Commercial Recreational Biological Aesthetic
Scientific Social

16 Commercial Sale of wildlife or wildlife products
Raising of animals for: hunting fishing

17 Recreational Hunting and Fishing Watching Photographing
Although it is estimated that more than $2 billion is spent each year on hunting and fishing, and at least another $2 billion on other recreational uses of wildlife, many of the recreational values of wildlife are intangible.

18 Biological Value of the biological relationship between humans and wildlife is difficult to measure Examples Pollination of crops Soil Improvement Water conservation Control of parasites

19 Aesthetic Refers to beauty Is not measurable in economic terms
Can contribute to the mental well-being of the human race Watching a butterfly sipping nectar from a flower, a fawn grazing beside its mother, or a trout rising to a hatch of mayflies are all examples of aesthetic value of wildlife. Wildlife also provides the inspiration for much artwork.

20 Scientific Often benefits humans
Has existed since the beginning of time Early humans watched wild animals to determine which plants and berries were safe to eat

21 Social Difficult to measure
Wildlife has the ability to enhance the value of their surroundings just by their presence Provide humans the opportunity for variety in outdoor recreation, hobbies, and adventure In addition to providing humans the opportunity for variety in outdoor recreation, hobbies and adventure, they also make leisure time much more enjoyable for humans.

22 Classifications of Wildlife Management
Farm Forest Wetlands Stream Lakes and Ponds Wildlife management can be divided into several classifications for ease in developing management plans. Techniques for management vary tremendously according to classification.

23 Farm Wildlife Probably the most visible wildlife management classification Includes: development of fence rows minimum tillage improvement of woodlots controlled hunting Rabbits, quail, pheasants, doves, and deer are the types of wildlife most normally managed in this category.

24 Forest Wildlife More difficult to manage
Planned so that timber and wildlife can exist at desired populations and possibly be harvested Includes population controls to prevent habitat destruction Deer, grouse, squirrels, and rabbits are usually wildlife species included in forestry wildlife management programs.

25 Wetlands Wildlife Most productive wildlife management area
Includes all areas between dry upland and open water Includes marshes swamps bogs

26 Stream Wildlife Often a difficult task
Water pollution and the need for clean water for a growing human population continue to increase at a rapid pace Potential damage to the wildlife in streams from chemical pollution, the building of dams, roads, home construction, and the drainage of swampland are critical considerations for the stream wildlife manager.

27 Lake and Pond Wildlife Normally easier than in streams
Concerns include: population levels oxygen levels pollutants availability of food resources Easier than which streams because water is standing rather than running.

28 Approved Practices - Farm Wildlife
Usually a by-product of farming Little attention usually given by the farmer except when cause crop damage or financial loss Management involves providing habitat Timing of operations is important Planting crops attractive to wildlife Providing water during dry periods Much of the management of farm wildlife involves providing suitable habitat for their living, growth, and reproduction. This may involve leaving some unharvested areas in the corners of fields, planting fence rows with shrubs and grasses that provide winter feed and cover, and leaving brush piles when harvesting woodlots. When possible, mowing should be delayed until after pheasant eggs have hatched in the spring. Crop residues should be left standing over the winter to provide food and cover. Harvesting of farm wildlife by hunting has little impact on spring breeding populations. Even heavy hunting pressures seldom result in severe damage to wildlife populations. The sale of hunting rights to hunters is a way to increase the income of many farms. In addition, it often means the difference between profit and loss in the farming enterprise. Management of wildlife on game preserves or farms set up specifically for hunting often differs drastically from other wildlife management programs. Often species of animals and birds that are not native to the area are raised and released on the preserve. Native wildlife species may also be raised in pens and released to the farm or preserve expressly for harvest by hunters. Do you have any specific examples?

29 Approved Practices - Forest Wildlife
Types and numbers of wildlife differs with: type and age of the trees natural forest openings types of vegetation on the forest floor presence of natural predators Management is geared towards increases numbers of desired species of wildlife If desired populations are present the goal is to maintain those populations The steps in developing a forest wildlife management plan should include taking an inventory of the types of numbers of wildlife living in the forest area to be managed. Goals for the use of the forest and the wildlife living in it need to be developed. The third step in the development of a forest wildlife management plan is determining the types and populations of wildlife that the forest area can support and how best to manage the forest so that required habitat is provided. The requires for forest wildlife include food, water, and cover. These necessities must be readily available to the desired species of forest wildlife at all times. Management practices that meet these requirements include making clearings in the forest so that new growth will make twigs available for deer to feed on. Another practice is selective harvesting so that trees of various ages exist in the forest to make a more suitable habitat for squirrels and many other species of forest wildlife. Leaving piles of brush for food and cover is also a management practice that leads to increased production of forest wildlife. Care in managing harvests of forest products so that existing supplies of water are not contaminated is also important in good wildlife management. Deer, grouse, squirrels, and rabbits are the forest wildlife species that are usually targeted for management because they are valuable for recreational purposes, especially hunting.

30 Approved Practices - Wetland Wildlife
No area of American land is more important Are constantly changing Provide food, nesting sites, and cover Ducks and geese are the most economically important types of wildlife that need wetlands Other types include woodcock, pheasants, deer, bears, milk, muskrats, and raccoons Wetlands eventually become dry land that contains forests. Management of wetlands for wildlife may include impounding water. Open water areas should occupy about one-third of the wetlands for optimum use by wildlife. The depth of the standing water should not be more than about 18 inches. The management of plant life in the wetlands is also important. This may include cutting trees to open up the wetland area. Many species of wildlife require large open areas in order to thrive. Care must be taken not to remove hollow trees that are used as nesting sites for some species of wildlife. Wetland areas can also be open up by killing excess trees rather than cutting them. This provides resting areas for many types of wetlands wildlife. Establishing open, grassy areas around wetlands also helps to attract many types of wildlife to the area. Planting millet, wild rice, and other aquatic plants in the wetlands also helps to attract wildlife. A serious hazard to wetlands wildlife is pollution. Pollution of water flowing into the wetlands area may come from agriculture, industry, or the disposal of domestic wastes. Because pollutants are trapped in the mud and silt of the wetlands, the effects of pollutants are often long-lasting. Artificial nesting sites can be made if necessary.

31 Approved Practices - Stream Wildlife
Two general categories: warm water cold water Based on water temperature at which the wildlife, primarily fish, can best grow and thrive Little difference in managing the two types In general, fish are the type of stream wildlife that is managed As land is developed, forests harvested, and civilization is expanded, streams and their wildlife populations come under increasing pressure. Because we cannot build new streams, it is essential that existing ones be managed properly. Management practices for streams include preventing stream banks from being overgrazed by livestock. Fencing the stream to limit access by livestock is also wise to reduce pollution and the destruction of stream banks. Good erosion control practices on lands surrounding streams is important to help maintain clear, clean water. It is important to prevention chemical pollutants for entering streams. Maintaining stream-side forestation is important in regulating stream temperatures during the warm summer months. Some species of fish stop feeding and may even die when stream temperatures become too high. The amount of dissolved oxygen in warm water is also much lower than it is in cold water. Without adequate oxygen, aquatic wildlife dies. Anything that impedes the flow of the stream also serves to change it, to the detriment of many species of stream wildlife and the benefit of some others. Trout must have swiftly moving, cool water in which to thrive, while catfish are perfectly happy in sluggish streams.

32 Approved Practices - Stream Wildlife
Maintenance of population levels is important Removal of unwanted species by: netting poisoning electric shocking Artificial rearing and stocking Regulations of sport fishing Overfishing of predatory species of fish, such as bass or northern pike, may allow perch or sunfish to overpopulate the stream and become stunted. Netting, poisoning and electric shocking are techniques generally legal only for authorized and specially trained personnel. Typically, game species of fish are stocked in streams for fishermen to catch and remove. Often few or no fish survive to reproduce, and stocking must take place each year. The regulations of sport fishing may include closed seasons, minimum size limits, creel limits, and restricted methods of catching fish.

33 Approved Practices - Lake and Pond Wildlife
Very similar to managing stream wildlife Pollution must be controlled Populations must be monitored and harvesting controlled Differences include: oxygen levels are critical in the summer water temperatures are more variable may have to drain to remove unwanted species In small ponds artificial means of incorporating oxygen into the water may be used to prevent fish kills. Because of temperature variations, different species of fish are dominant in ponds and lakes. This means species are predominately largemouth bass and sunfish.

34 Future of Wildlife in the U.S.
A bright future is not ensured for all species Human population continues to compete Outlook is not bleak, however Humans have recognized the ability to coexist Humans are working to clean-up the environment Parks and wildlife refuges are increasing in numbers

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