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1 Wildlife Management by Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High School.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Wildlife Management by Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Wildlife Management by Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High School

2 2 Competencies:  define wildlife terms  identify characteristics of wildlife  describe relationships between wildlife and humans  understand relationships with humans  describe classifications of wildlife  identify approved practices  discuss future of wildlife in the U.S.

3 3 Terms to Know  Wildlife  Habitat  Vertebrate  Predators  Prey  Parasitism

4 4 Terms to Know  Warm-blooded animals  Mutualism  Predation  Commensalism  Competition  Wetlands

5 5 In the early years....  Wildlife provided the bulk of food available  Supplies seemed exhaustible  Humans destroyed wildlife habitat

6 6 Characteristics of Wildlife  All vertebrate animals are wildlife  Vertebrates-animals with backbones  Have many of the same characteristics as humans:  growth processes  laws of heredity  general cell structure

7 7 Environment without control  Must adapt or perish  Possess senses for protection from predators  Avoid overpopulation

8 8 Wildlife Relationships  Parasitism  Mutualism  Predation  Commensalism  Competition

9 9 Parasitism  Relationship between two organisms, either plants or animals, in which one feeds on the other without killing it.  Parasites can be internal or external

10 10 Mutualism  Two types of animals that live together for mutual benefit  There are many examples of mutualism in the wildlife community

11 11 Predation  When one animal eats another animal  Is important in controlling populations of wildlife

12 12 Commensalism  A Plant or animal that lives in, on, or with another, sharing its food, but not helping or harming it  One species is helped, but the other is neither helped or harmed

13 13 Competition  When different species of wildlife compete for the same:  food supply  nesting sites  breeding sites  One species may increase in numbers while the other declines

14 14 Relationships Between Wildlife and Humans  Biological  Ecological  Economic  food  clothing  shelter

15 15 Six Positive Values  Commercial  Recreational  Biological  Aesthetic  Scientific  Social

16 16 Commercial  Sale of wildlife or wildlife products  Raising of animals for:  hunting  fishing

17 17 Recreational  Hunting and Fishing  Watching  Photographing

18 18 Biological  Value of the biological relationship between humans and wildlife is difficult to measure  Examples  Pollination of crops  Soil Improvement  Water conservation  Control of parasites

19 19 Aesthetic  Refers to beauty  Is not measurable in economic terms  Can contribute to the mental well-being of the human race

20 20 Scientific  Often benefits humans  Has existed since the beginning of time  Early humans watched wild animals to determine which plants and berries were safe to eat

21 21 Social  Difficult to measure  Wildlife has the ability to enhance the value of their surroundings just by their presence  Provide humans the opportunity for variety in outdoor recreation, hobbies, and adventure

22 22 Classifications of Wildlife Management  Farm  Forest  Wetlands  Stream  Lakes and Ponds

23 23 Farm Wildlife  Probably the most visible wildlife management classification  Includes:  development of fence rows  minimum tillage  improvement of woodlots  controlled hunting

24 24 Forest Wildlife  More difficult to manage  Planned so that timber and wildlife can exist at desired populations and possibly be harvested  Includes population controls to prevent habitat destruction

25 25 Wetlands Wildlife  Most productive wildlife management area  Includes all areas between dry upland and open water  Includes  marshes  swamps  bogs

26 26 Stream Wildlife  Often a difficult task  Water pollution and the need for clean water for a growing human population continue to increase at a rapid pace

27 27 Lake and Pond Wildlife  Normally easier than in streams  Concerns include:  population levels  oxygen levels  pollutants  availability of food resources

28 28 Approved Practices - Farm Wildlife  Usually a by-product of farming  Little attention usually given by the farmer except when cause crop damage or financial loss  Management involves providing habitat  Timing of operations is important  Planting crops attractive to wildlife  Providing water during dry periods

29 29 Approved Practices - Forest Wildlife  Types and numbers of wildlife differs with:  type and age of the trees  natural forest openings  types of vegetation on the forest floor  presence of natural predators  Management is geared towards increases numbers of desired species of wildlife  If desired populations are present the goal is to maintain those populations

30 30 Approved Practices - Wetland Wildlife  No area of American land is more important  Are constantly changing  Provide food, nesting sites, and cover  Ducks and geese are the most economically important types of wildlife that need wetlands  Other types include woodcock, pheasants, deer, bears, milk, muskrats, and raccoons

31 31 Approved Practices - Stream Wildlife  Two general categories:  warm water  cold water  Based on water temperature at which the wildlife, primarily fish, can best grow and thrive  Little difference in managing the two types  In general, fish are the type of stream wildlife that is managed

32 32 Approved Practices - Stream Wildlife  Maintenance of population levels is important  Removal of unwanted species by:  netting  poisoning  electric shocking  Artificial rearing and stocking  Regulations of sport fishing

33 33 Approved Practices - Lake and Pond Wildlife  Very similar to managing stream wildlife  Pollution must be controlled  Populations must be monitored and harvesting controlled  Differences include:  oxygen levels are critical in the summer  water temperatures are more variable  may have to drain to remove unwanted species

34 34 Future of Wildlife in the U.S.  A bright future is not ensured for all species  Human population continues to compete  Outlook is not bleak, however  Humans have recognized the ability to coexist  Humans are working to clean-up the environment  Parks and wildlife refuges are increasing in numbers


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