Presentation on theme: "Cohoratives and Jussives Volitional – to express a wish, command, or desire."— Presentation transcript:
Cohoratives and Jussives Volitional – to express a wish, command, or desire
Cohortative PNGImperfectCohortative 1cs אֶכְתּׁב I shall write. אֶכְתְבָה Let me write. (or) May I write. 1cp נִכְתּׁב We shall write. נִכְתְבָה Let us write. (or) May we write. The cohortative is the first-person counterpart to the imperative verb form. The cohortative verb, like the imperative, expresses a command or wish.
Jussive יִכְתּׁב He will write. (or) let him write. (Imperfect or Jussive) יִכְתּׁב־נָא Let him write. (Jussive only) Context is the best way to determine if the third-person verb should be translated as an imperfect or a jussive. If the verb is followed by the particle נָא, you should translate it as a jussive. III- ה Jussives: 3ms/3fs Jussives drop the ֶה ending of the 3ms/3fs Imperfect יִבְנֶה he will build יִבֶן let him build יַעֲלֶה he will go up יַעַל let him go up The third-person counterpart to the imperative verb form is the jussive. The jussive verb expresses a command or wish, such as “Let him send,” or “May he send?” The jussive verb form is usually identical to the third-person imperfect verb forms.
Negation of Cohortative & Jussive אַל – Generally, used with or without the maqqef. For example : אַל-נָא נֹאבְדָה Do not let us perish (Johah 1:14) Also : וְאַל-יִחַר אַפְּךָ בְּעַבְדֶּךָ Do not let your anger burn against your servant (Gen 44:18)
Sequences with Volitionals שְׁמַע וּכְּתׁב Hear and write! שְׁמַע וְכָתַבְתָּ Hear and (then) write! The imperative, cohortative, and jussive are grouped together into one paradigm and share the same sequence characteristics. There are three main sequence types: Imperative followed by imperative. A list of imperative verbs joined by a vav conjunction. For example: Imperative followed by perfect. Similar to the narrative sequences we learned in chapter 24, the imperative is followed by the perfect verb attached to a vav-conversive. Remember that the vav-conversive changes the meaning of the perfect to the meaning of the previous verb, in this case an imperative. For example: Imperative, cohortative, or jussive followed by imperfect or cohortative. For this sequence, use the translation value of “so that” to express a result or purpose. Note the use of a vav conjunction instead of a vav-conversive. שְׁמַע וְאֶכְתּׁב Hear so that I may write!
Easily Confused Words כָתְבָה Qal Perfect 3fs “she wrote” כָתְבָה Qal Imperative 2ms (you) write! כָּתְבוּ Qal Perfect 3cp “they wrote” כִּתְבוּ Qal Imperative 2mp (you) write! בְּנוּ Qal Perfect 3cp “they built” בָּנוּ Qal Imperative 2mp (you) build! עָלוּ Qal Perfect 3cp “they went up” עֲלוּ Qal Imperative 2mp “(you) go up!”