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How to publish an article Saleem Saaed Qader MBChB, MD, MSc, MPH, PhD, SBGS Consultant General Surgeon and Lecturer General Director Medical Research Centre,

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Presentation on theme: "How to publish an article Saleem Saaed Qader MBChB, MD, MSc, MPH, PhD, SBGS Consultant General Surgeon and Lecturer General Director Medical Research Centre,"— Presentation transcript:

1 How to publish an article Saleem Saaed Qader MBChB, MD, MSc, MPH, PhD, SBGS Consultant General Surgeon and Lecturer General Director Medical Research Centre, Hawler Medical University, Erbil Department of Surgery, Medical College, Hawler Medical University Department of Surgery, Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil TMC Oct 2014

2 Scientific paper Is a written and published document A report describing original research results 1.To assess observations 2.To repeat experiments 3.Must have an impact 4.Available to scientific community without restriction 5.Available for regular screening by one or more of the major recognized secondary services (Pub Med etc…) Brilliant writing can NOT mask a poor experiment But poor writing can mask a brilliant experiment

3 Publish OR Perish? Publish AND Flourish!

4 Why should scientists publish?  To share COMMUNITY with something that advances (not repeats) knowledge in a certain field  To present a review/ summary of the field   Academic career depends on publication list   Getting employ easier (to get you short listed)   A scientific experiment is not complete until the results have been published & understood   The knowledge should be distributed to all others   Knowledge could not be circulated without publication PhD degree?

5 Stages of Publication?  Draft  Manuscript  Submitted  Under revision  In press  Published

6 Which journal? Where to look for the journal:  Personal experience  Colleagues’ experience  Library  Citations and published articles  Online PAUSE & PONDER

7 Questions to answer in choosing a journal 1. National or international audience? 2. Language? 3. Disciplinary? 4. The journal’s content area/culture? 5. Chances of acceptance? 6. Indexed journal (PubMed) 7. What about the impact factor? 8. Practical matters (time to publication, etc.)

8 Know your journal targets? a)Impact factor and prestige b)Content of one of the journal issues a)Which kind of manuscripts are published ? b)What are the preferred formats ? c)Style and recent trends in the journal d)Who is the editor-in-chief ? Can you contact him ? e)Who are the members of the editorial-board? They are very aware of the journal’s publication policy f)How much it costs? g)Citation index Nature around 20

9 On Publications  Authorship all authors must have scientific contribution How many authors? No matter how many are...  Review process getting a postive comments means that you are able to publish the paper  You need to convince editors that your topic is interested and significant: Letters to editros/ cover letter Approval copy Any conflict

10 Submission process  The average reviewing time (assistant of the editors)  Is there an online submission process?  Can you track your manuscript status online?

11 Citation rates Institute of Scientific Information(ISI)  The Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) records scientific citations/references  Citation Index: The number of times a publication has been cited within a certain period Published annually in the Journal Citation Reports

12 Impact factor The recorded number of citations within a certain year (eg 2003) to the items published in the journal during the preceding two years (e.g and 2002) Citation Half Life How long articles in a journal continue to be cited after publication

13 Calculating the BMJ’s impact factor for 2003

14 J Natl Cancer Institute J of Clinical Oncology Cancer Research Clinical Cancer Research Oncogene Gene Chromosome Cancer Int Jrnl Cancer Cancer Annals of Oncology Impact Factor: Oncology

15 Getting your paper accepted  Keep it simple (focus on one specific theme)  Announce that idea in abstract, intro & conclusion  Follow style and structure the journal you have in mind  If more ideas or themes come to mind: split it off for future publications Help Editors/ Referees (and yourself); Number all pages

16 Re-writing re-write and revise and revise  Be prepared to re-write and revise and revise  Go through revisions and feedback: colleagues, supervisors, native speakers, editors.  Follow suggestions from editors  Welcome useful suggestions but make sure you remain coherent & consistent  If you disagree with reviewer’s suggestions: make a case to the editor  Be self-critical, but not to the point of paralysis

17 What to do with rejected papers?  Read rejection letter, don’t send angry impulsive s  Return to it after a couple of days?  Take criticism into account, may be change angle of the paper, focus on strongest points, if necessary rework design & analysis  Submit to another journal  See it as new project  Aim for a slightly less prestigious journal

18 Who is going to deal with your paper? Editors and reviewers: 1.The most precious resource of a journal! 2. Practicing scientists, even leaders in their fields 3. Busy people doing their own research, writing and teaching, and working for journals in their spare time, to contribute to science Editors may receive a small payment, but reviewers are UNPAID

19 QUALITY The heart of scientific communication Do not publish: 1. Reports of no scientific interest 2. Duplication of previously published work 3. Incorrect/unacceptable conclusions 4.“ salami-sliced” papers: datasets too small to be meaningful

20 Deadly sins- Unethical behavior “ can earn rejection and even a ban from publishing in the journal” — Terry M Phillips, Editor, Journal of Chromatography B  Multiple submissions  Redundant publications  Plagiarism  Data fabrication and falsification  Improper use of human subjects and animals in research  Improper author contribution

21 Why is revision important and necessary? Which procedure do you prefer? Send out a sloppily prepared manuscript get rejected after 4-6 months send out again only a few days later get rejected again…. Take 3-4 months to prepare the manuscript get the first decision after 4 months revise carefully within time limitation….accepted Please protect your own achievements!

22 Before submitting your article 1. Check the originality of your idea  Have you done something new and interesting?  Is there anything challenging in your work?  Have you provided solutions to any problems? 2. Decide the type of your manuscript   Full articles/Original articles;   Letters/Rapid Communications/Short communications;   Review papers   Ask your colleagues for advice: Sometimes outsiders see things more clearly than you

23 3. Who is your audience?  Do you want to reach specialists, multidisciplinary researchers, a general audience?  Journals reach readers with different background  Is readership worldwide or local? 4. Choose the right journal   Investigate all candidate journals to find out: Aims and scope and types of articles   You can get help from your colleagues   Articles in your references will lead you to the right journal   DO NOT scatter your manuscript to many journals Only submit once!

24 The Process of publishing an article  Writing the manuscript: Moral and ethical standards Obtaining data, analyzing results and writing IMRAD Revision and revision and revision  Getting feedback (supervisor and coauthors)  Finding journals (instruction to the author)  Submitting (confirmation letter)  Revisions (changes and comments) or rejection

25 2. Revision after submittion: Carefully read the comments and prepare a detailed letter of response

26 Reasons for rejection  Did not address important scientific issue  Not original  Did not test authors hypothesis  Different study should have been performed  Sample size too small  Uncontrolled or inadequately controlled  Analyze incorrect or inappropriate  Unjustified conlcusion reched from data  Significant conflict of interest  Badly prepared regarding submittion requirements or poor English

27 Rejection: not the end of the world  Everyone has papers rejected-do not take it personally.  Try to understand why the paper was rejected.  Note that you have received the benefit of the editors and reviewers’ time; take their advice seriously!  Re-evaluate your work and decide whether it is appropriate to submit the paper elsewhere If so, begin as if you are going to write a new article Read the guide for authors of the new journal again & again

28 Don’t resubmit a rejected manuscript to another journal without significant revision! It won’t work

29 What to avoid in the paper  Superficial literature search, Wikipedia-based  Don’t claim that “very little” research has been done in an area if you’re not 100% sure! => reviewers may react negatively  Sloppiness in presentation of text: respect style sheet, make sure references are in right format, double-check list of references, make sure spelling of surnames is correct  Style that does not match that of journal  Taking a side in a debate & ignoring the counter-arguments

30 Moral standards  Establish a reputation of a reliable & honest researcher (always acknowledge your sources)  Be prepared to give advice to those who seek your advice  Accept to review papers (journals)/ chapters  Stick to deadlines  Don’t be pretentious, don’t take your work too seriously  Be optimistic and friendly with colleagues   If you guessed who reviewed your paper and you meet that person: don’t start talking about the paper unless the reviewer starts about it

31 Ethical standards As a reviewer in an international journal  Make sure you give constructive criticism together with your honest opinion  Never be nasty or dogmatic  Don’t cite/use data of a paper you revised  If you wish to contact the author/s, ask the editor to pass on the message

32 Final recommendations  Research is fun!  Publish and flourish! (it’s a game really)  Writing up requires patience & perseverance: it is worth the effort!  Nobody is perfect: everybody sweats!  Be thankful of the reviewer who sends you a 10 page report with criticism & comments: that person has spent a lot of time and effort on your work (and it may be a major name, who might start referring to your work)

33 What mark have you thought to leave after?

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