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An ATC Workshop.  Letters  Diaries  Newspaper articles  Books  Photographs  Scraps of clothing  Locks of hair.

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Presentation on theme: "An ATC Workshop.  Letters  Diaries  Newspaper articles  Books  Photographs  Scraps of clothing  Locks of hair."— Presentation transcript:

1 An ATC Workshop

2  Letters  Diaries  Newspaper articles  Books  Photographs  Scraps of clothing  Locks of hair

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4  What, exactly, is preservation? ◦ Done on site by archivist or records handler ◦ Inexpensive  What, then, is conservation? ◦ Done off site in a lab by someone with chemical background or knowledge ◦ Expensive

5  To make records useable  To lengthen the life of the document  To maintain your legacy  Digitization is not preservation!!!!!

6  Paper ◦ Newsprint ◦ Linen ◦ Cotton ◦ Hemp rags ◦ Lignin  Parchment and Vellum ◦ Parchment=sheepskin ◦ Vellum=calfskin  Leather

7  Changes in Manufacturing ◦ Processes resulting in  Acidic  Shorter fibers  Weaker paper  Durable Paper ◦ Developed during the 1980s ◦ 2% minimum alkaline reserve ◦ less than 1% lignin, ◦ good tear resistance ◦ pH of 7.5 to 10.0

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10  Adhesives ◦ Natural (e.g., wheat starch paste) ◦ Synthetic (e.g., polyvinyl acetate)  Binds  Characteristic Types of Deterioration ◦ Staining ◦ Swelling ◦ Brittleness ◦ Failure

11  Ink ◦ 2500 BC in Egypt and China  Pencil ◦ Developed and patented in France in 1795  Deterioration of Ink ◦ Iron gall ink  12th century well into the 20th century  Highly acidic  Corrosive that eats through paper

12  Pollutants ◦ Gases ◦ Particulates  Dust!  Climate ◦ Temperature  Cool and stable ◦ Relative Humidity  Dry and stable

13  Papers like the dark! ◦ Effects of light are cumulative and irreversible  Sources of Light ◦ Natural light ◦ Artificial light ◦ Incandescent bulbs  High IR (infrared), low UV (ultraviolet)  Discharge bulbs  High UV ◦ Fiber optic  Low IR, low UV

14 mold pics

15  What is Mold? And Where Does It Come From? ◦ Type of fungus ◦ Always present in the air and on objects  Optimum conditions development ◦ Commonly  Temperature is above 70° Fahrenheit  Relative humidity is above 70% ◦ Uncommonly but still possible  50° Fahrenheit and in  45% relative humidity

16  Paper ◦ mold and mildew eat library materials  People ◦ Exacerbates allergies, asthma, or other respiratory problems ◦ Some fungi can cause skin and eye irritation and infections ◦ Prolonged exposure to germinating molds in closed areas can damage the lungs, mucous membrane, cornea, respiratory tract, stomach, intestines, and skin

17  The ONLY way to permanently protect your collections from mold is to control the environment by keeping the temperature within 65º-70º Fahrenheit and the relative humidity within 45%-65%  Consistency of temperature and relative humidity, even if outside ideal range, is better than fluctuations in the environment

18  Temperature ◦ 65-70 degrees F +/- 5 degrees  Relative humidity ◦ 45%-65% +/- 2%  Light ◦ Let the sun shine in!  Air circulation ◦ HVAC

19  Don't shelve books directly against an outside wall  No plants indoors or near walls  Waterproof basements and walls below ground level  Check gutters and drains regularly  Regularly inspect your collection for mold or mildew  Install the best filters, preferably HEPA filters

20  Determine whether the mold is active or inactive ◦ Active mold can be colorful, damp, slimy, and web-like and has a musty odor ◦ Inactive, or dormant mold is dry and powdery  Isolate affected materials  Determine the source of the outbreak  Control the environment ◦ Psychrometer ◦ Hygrothermograph  Clean the collection

21  Mold does not die!  Fungistatic versus fungicidal treatments  Freezing or air-drying followed by cleaning  Any type of treatment must include some temporary modification of the environment  Inactivate the mold so it can be easily cleaned from the item

22  Freezing ◦ Fungistatic ◦ Stopgap  Air Drying ◦ Inactivate the mold ◦ Vented or isolated, to prevent the spreading of spores

23  Vacuuming most effective way to remove mold spores from books and paper ◦ doesn't spread the spores ◦ HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter ◦ Ordinary vacuums should be used outdoors ONLY ◦ Vacuum mold from flat paper documents through a screen to avoid damage

24  Clean mold with a soft bristled brush or clean rag ◦ Can cause increased staining  Wipe off books or papers outdoors or under a fume hood  Replace rags frequently ◦ Store used rags in sealed plastic bags ◦ Wash in bleach for re-use  For fragile and rare materials, or if you're unsure about how to treat an item, don't hesitate to consult a conservator

25 10:15-10:30

26 Surveying and Planning

27  Documents/Manuscripts/Ephemera  Newsprint  Framed materials  Scrapbooks  Photographs  Bound volumes  Damage pics Damage pics

28  Foxing (small brown spots probably caused by mold or by the presence of tiny metal particles)  Tears, folds, and creases; dog-eared corners; abrasions;  Staining from rusted paper clips, deteriorated rubber bands, or tape  Loss of parts of the paper

29  Distortion and staining from previous water damage.  Brittleness and fragility due to acidic deterioration and light exposure;  Discoloration or darkening due to acidity and light exposure;  Staining and weakening from mold growth  Holes from insect infestation  Acid migration

30  The hard decisions ◦ You cannot save everything  Even with cooperative projects ◦ Priorities must be set among collections  You must define your collection's strengths and concentrate on them ◦ Every item may not need to be preserved  Will a representative sample of certain materials be acceptable?

31  What groups of items are most deteriorated?  Which have most importance to your institutional mission?  What is the current and projected use for these materials?  What collections should be your highest priority for preservation within each category, and why?

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33  Storage and Handling ◦ Acid free containers ◦ Clean hands  Security ◦ Security systems ◦ Security procedures  Pest Management

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35  Housekeeping ◦ Housekeeping plan  Cleaning collections  Stack maintenance

36  Fire Protection ◦ Detection  Heat detectors  Smoke detectors ◦ Suppression  Sprinkler systems  Water mist systems  Gas suppression  Fire extinguisher  Water Damage ◦ Unholy harvest  Mold  Fungi  Mold  Mildew  Mushrooms—really!

37  Enclosures ◦ Paper  Acid-free  Lignin free  Buffered ◦ Plastic ◦ Custom ◦ Standard

38  Documents ◦ Acid-free folders ◦ Acid-free boxes ◦ No overstuffing! ◦ Complete encasement ◦ Interleaving ◦ Remove frames or mountings

39  Newsprint ◦ Characteristics  Acidic  Brittle  Oversized  Bound vs. unbound ◦ Preservation options  Photocopy  Microfilm  Digitization

40  Flat storage  Rolled storage  Mattes  Frames

41  Preservation Challenge!  Acidic pages  Adhesives  Newsprint  Photographs  Storage

42  Processing ◦ Maximum handling ◦ Preservation opportunities  Use/Reference ◦ Minimal handling ◦ Copies ◦ Supervised use ◦ Banned substances ◦ Education is key!

43  Quick Fix: ◦ Unfold Folded Papers ◦ Removing Fasteners ◦ Brushing off dust, rust, frass ◦ Re-housing

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45  Do I have a valid reason for picking this up?  What is its condition?  What is the safest way to hold it?  Is it too fragile to lift without a secondary support?  Do I need a second person to assist? Do I need a cart or trolley?  After I have lifted the object, where will I set it down again?  Are my hands clean? Should I wear gloves?

46 12:00-12:30

47  http://unfacilitated.preservation101.org/logg edin.asp http://unfacilitated.preservation101.org/logg edin.asp  http://www.lyrasis.org/Preservation/Resourc es-and-Publications/Invasion-of-the-Giant- Mold-Spore.aspx http://www.lyrasis.org/Preservation/Resourc es-and-Publications/Invasion-of-the-Giant- Mold-Spore.aspx  http://derangementanddescription.wordpress.com/ http://derangementanddescription.wordpress.com/

48 Michelle Riggs, MLIS, CA University Archivist & Head of Central Louisiana Collections James C. Bolton Library LSU Alexandria 8100 Hwy 71 South Alexandria LA 71302 318.619.2960 mriggs@lsua.edu


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