2 Your Research Plan Successful speeches require supporting information. Supporting information requires specific research.To get the right information on your topic you need a Research Plan.
3 Playing the Research Game – Research Plan Analyze your audience – in picking a subject you must first consider the needs and expectations of those people who will be listening to you.-- Ask the following questionsWhat do my listeners already know about my topic?How do I capture their interest?How formal should my language be?What should I avoid saying that might alienate my audience?What can I say to change the minds of people who might disagree with my positions?
4 2. Gather information – there are two ways to begin gathering information Rough Outline – if you already have knowledge of your subject you may want to create a rough outline so that you can specify your research.Reading – if you know very little or nothing at all about your topic, start by gathering information first so you can get an understanding of your topic first
5 3. Analyze and Evaluate the source – you need to determine whether the material you find is reliable.How to determine reliabilityLook at who wrote and published the material.Determine if the write is known or unknown and what they say about him/her. (look at book reviews)Look at where the information is coming from. Is it a well known source of valid information?Do you find similar information in multiple sources?
6 4. Analyze and Evaluate your Material – determine whether the gathered information will contribute to your speech.Be sure that the information you gathered targets your audience appropriately.Be sure that the information connectMake sure it supports your main points
7 Thinking CriticallyWorld War III is about to take place. You are responsible for selecting and saving three books that you think would have a major impact on future generations. One must be a children’s book, one a book that significantly affected your life, and one a reference book. You have three minutes to explain why these three books would be an important contribution.
8 Using the Library Research is a crucial step in writing You need to supplement your personal knowledge with solid research.With all that libraries have to offer it can be difficult to know where to begin and how to conduct a successful search for supporting material.To make it easier use and employ four shortcuts:Ask questionsCall aheadUse the library systemPrint from home
9 Shortcuts for using research time effectively 1. Ask questions2. Call AheadMake certain to take advantage of a reference librarian’s knowledge.They can answer your questions and help you locate sources, which can save you hours of frustration.A public library’s reference department can usually answer your questions over the phone.They may even find facts for you
10 This could help you save time in seeing if you book is there. 3. Use the library system4. Print from HomeMost libraries have web sites that list all the books within their library systemThis could help you save time in seeing if you book is there.If it is not ask about interlibrary loanMost of the web sites you can access at the library to search for articles can also be accessed right from your home.Such sites not only allow you to search for journal and magazine articles, but they also allow you to print them.This can save you a trip to the library and give you access to library materials 24 hours a day
11 The internet and Research When you use the internet virtually any topic imaginable is at your fingertips.Because there is so much information finding what you needs is not always easy – so use a search engine.A search engine is a site that allows you to search for information based on key words, names of persons, or titles of works.(google, bing, ask,)
12 Search Engine tipsUse specific key words and try different combinationsUse Advanced Search or Search TipsSome engines list sites by popularity: the site at the top is the one viewed the mostWhen doing research it’s best to stick with news sitesEvaluate the web site
13 Criteria for evaluating Web Pages Evaluation of Web DocumentsHow to Interpret the BasicsAccuracy of Web DocumentsWho wrote the page and can you contact him or her?What is the purpose of the document and why was it produced?Is this person qualified to write this document?AccuracyMake sure author provides an address or a contact address/phone numberKnow the distinction between author and person who maintains t he website.2. Authority of Web DocumentsWho published the document and is it separate from the person who maintains the Web site?Check the domain of the document. What institution publishes this document?Does the publisher list his or her qualifications?AuthorityWhat credentials re listed for the author(s)?Where is the document published? Check URL domain.3. Objectivity of web DocumentsWhat goals/objectives does this page meet?How detailed is the information?What opinions (if any) are expressed by the author?ObjectivityDetermine if page is a mask for advertising; if so information might be biased.View any Web page as you would an infomercial on television. Ask yourself why this was written and for whom.4. Currency of Web DocumentsWhen was it produced?When was it updated?How up-to-date are the links (if any)?CurrencyHow many dead links are on the page?Are the links current or updated regularly?Is the information on the page outdated?5. Coverage of the Web DocumentsAre the links (if any) evaluated and do they complement the document’s theme?Is it all images or a balance of text and images?Is the information presented cited correctly?CoverageIf the page requires special software to view the information, how much are you missing if you don’t have the software?Is it free, or is there a fee to obtain the information?Is there an option for text only, or frames, or a suggested browser for better viewing?Putting it all togetherAccuracy. If your page lists the author and institution that published the page and provides a way of contacting him/her, and …Authority. I the page lists author credentials and its domain is preferred (edu, gov, org, net) and…Objectivity. If your page provides accurate information with limited advertising and it is objective in presenting the information, and…Currentness. If you page is current and updated regularly and the links are also up-to-date, and…Coverage. If you can view the information properly – not limited to fees, browser technology, or softer ware requirement, then:You may have a high-quality Web page that could be of value to your research!
14 Taking NotesWhenever you investigate a written source of information or interview an expert you should take notesA rule of thumb is to record more notes then you think you will need.However, select the information that is the most important, that supports your point or argument, and that will interest your audience.The best way to organize this information is to create source cards and note cards (just like in English Class)
15 How to create Source Cards 1.Get index cards As soon as you find a source that you may want to use for your paper make a Source Card immediately.The most common source cards for this type of paper are:• Books• Internet• Anthology• EncyclopediaHow to create Source Cards1.Get index cards2.In the upper right hand corner number your index cards 1-103.Determine what kind of source you have (encyclopedia, internet, book, etc)4.Follow the example cards below all the way down to the punctuation.Note: for internet sources you may not have an author or date,if you do not just move on to the next thing.
16 Create Note CardsIn order to get ready to create note cards you have to complete the following items.Print or copy all sources (print directly from internet sites do not copy and paste, photocopy pages from books)Have source cards already done and correctHow to create a Note CardGet new index cardsGet a piece of information you want to use for your paper from one of sourcesGet the source card that goes along with that sourceThen write you note card like the diagram below.