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4.1. CAD Output Devices Assoc.Prof.Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp Mechanical Engineering Department Gebze.

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Presentation on theme: "4.1. CAD Output Devices Assoc.Prof.Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp Mechanical Engineering Department Gebze."— Presentation transcript:

1 4.1. CAD Output Devices e-mail: Assoc.Prof.Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp e-mail: azsenalp@gmail.comazsenalp@gmail.com Mechanical Engineering Department Gebze Technical University ME 521 Computer Aided Design

2 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices CAD Output Devices  Plotter  Printer  CRT Display  Vector Display  Storage Tube  Raster Display  LCD Display  Plazma Ekranlar  Digital Light Processing-DLP  OLED  Virtual Reality  Rapid Prototyping Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 2 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU

3 Early pen plotters, e.g., the Calcomp 565 of 1959, worked by placing the paper over a roller that moved the paper back and forth for X motion, while the pen moved back and forth on a track for Y motion.Calcomp 565 Another approach, e.g. Computervision's Interact I, involved attaching ball-point pens to drafting pantographs and driving the machines with motors controlled by the computer. This had the disadvantage of being somewhat slow to move, as well as requiring floor space equal to the size of the paper, but could double as a digitizer. A later change was the addition of an electrically controlled clamp to hold the pens, which allowed them to be changed, and thus create multi- colored outputComputervision pantographsdigitizer Hewlett Packard and Tektronix produced small, desktop-sized flatbed plotters in the late 1960s and 1970s. The pens were mounted on a traveling bar, whereby the y-axis was represented by motion up and down the length of the bar and the x-axis was represented by motion of the bar back and forth across the plotting table. Due to the mass of the bar, these plotters operated relatively slowlyTektronix Plotters are mainly used in CAD applications and drafting. The advantages of using plotters: High resolution Usage of large scale paper Plotter Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 3 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

4 Plotter Plotter has either vector or raster graphics property and connected to the computer. Plotter control languages: HPGL, HPGL2 (Hewlett-Packard) DMPL (Houston Instruments), Postscript, ps, eps (Adobe) Ex: “pen up=PA”, “pendown=PD” Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 4 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

5 Plotter Plotters according to structure: Flatbed plotters D rum plotters Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 5 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

6 Plotter  Pen plotters By moving the pen along the surface of the paper, make drawings. Limited with 2D drawing commands. Cannot draw raster images. Can draw letters but they are slow due to the mechanical movement of the pen. Cannot draw color pictures. They are used for vector graphics. When the computers were slow they were the fastest drawing devices. Different thicknesss pens or color pens can be used. Has to change pens in case of using color pens or pens with different thickness. With the generation of speedy computers, pen plotters disappeared. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 6 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

7  Inkjet plotters Work with the same principle with inkject printers Can draw raster pictures. There are also models avilable that can draw photorealisitic pictures. Also used in advertisement sector.  Thermal plotters They draw on heat sensitive paper or film material by apllying heat. Plotter Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 7 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

8  Electrostatic plotters Draws a raster image to the paper by applying high voltage. This voltage attracts toner and melts on paper by the help of heat. It is fast but more expensive than inkject plotters. Plotter Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 8 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

9 Character printers: First printer type that is similar to typewriter. Characters are pressed similar to typewriter. First samples are in typewriter structure. Later there exists models that type a line at once. This type of printers are not used widely today due tı complex electromechanical structures, low speeds and limited printing capabilities. Printer Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 9 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

10 Line printers:  As the name implies, print an entire line of text at a time.  Generally used with mainframe computers.  Can print 600-1200 line at a minute.  Chain or drum types are available. In drum types charactes are placed on the drum. Printer chain type line printerDrum type line printers Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 10 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

11 Dot-matrix printers :  In the general sense many printers rely on a matrix of pixels, or dots, that together form the larger image. However, the term dot matrix printer is specifically used for impact printers that use a matrix of small pins to create precise dots. The advantage of dot-matrix over other impact printers is that they can produce graphical images in addition to text; however the text is generally of poorer quality than impact printers that use letterforms (type).matrixpixelsdotsdot matrix printerpinsgraphical  Print quality can be poor-especially for low-density dot-matrix printers. The quality of characters and graphic images often appears to be ragged or unfocused although some high-density dot- matrix printers rival those of letter-quality printers. But, for the most part, dot-matrix printers do not produce high-quality text and graphics. Often, dot-matrix units are used as draft printers. Then, final outputs of higher quality are prepared on letter-quality printers Printer Printing head: 5x7 type 36x24 type Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 11 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

12 Inkjet Printers: Ink-jet printers spray tiny drops of ink to form character shapes on paper. Since characters are formed as a pattern of dots, ink-jet printers are technically dot-matrix printers. However the quality of ink-jet output generally is much higher than that of most dot-matrix printers Today inkjet printers have the highest resolution. They are more silent and has small structures than others. According to spraying there are piezoelectric and thermal types available. Printer Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 12 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

13 Inkjet Printers:  Thermal inkjet printers  The ink droplet that is heated until nearly 300 ° C in the print head nozzles rooms evaporates and sprayed to the paper with a small explosion with high speed (100 km/hr).  Due to the need of heating water based inks are used in this type of printing.  Japon Canon’s inkjet, Bubblejet printers work with this principle.  This type of printing is widely used by those who is in need of printing small numbers.  Piezoelectric inkjet printers  In this type of printers, ink spray is made by piezoelectric crystal spray nozzles. Spraying is done in the form of process-induced crystal vibrated spray ink.  In this type as no heating is required, there is no limitation in the ink that should be used.  Epson’s printers use this principle. In commercial and industrial applications generally this kind of inkjet printers are used. Printer Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 13 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

14 Thermal printers:  Thermal printers work by selectively heating regions of special heat-sensitive paper.  Monochrome thermal printers are used in cash registers, ATMs, gasoline dispensers and some older inexpensive fax machines.ATMsgasoline dispensers  Colours can be achieved with special papers and different temperatures and heating rates for different colours; these coloured sheets are not required in black-and-white output. One example is the ZINK technology.  Before the invension of inkjet printers, thermals printers were used widely in CAD applications. Printer Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 14 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

15 Laser printers:  A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. As with digital photocopiers and multifunction printers (MFPs), laser printers employ a xerographic printing process but differ from analog photocopiers in that the image is produced by the direct scanning of a laser beam across the printer's photoreceptor.computer printerplain paper photocopiersmultifunction printers xerographiclaser  Latest invented printer type. Silent, high resolution print quality and fast compared to other printers. Basically, use a printing technique similar to photocopy machine. Main feature that differs in laser printers compared to photocopy machines is that: numeric codes from the computer is the source of printing.  Signals coming from the computer are drawn on ligth sensitive drum with the help of laser. This operation enables drawn parts on the drum to be charged with electricity. These regions are coated with toner. The coated toner is transfered to the paper. To fix the toner heat is applied between 100-150 °C.  Color types are slo available. Used widely as fast and economical. Laser printers are also page printers. Printer Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 15 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

16 Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. Three Electron guns (for red, green, and blue phosphor dots) 2. Elektron beams 3. Focusing coils 4. Deflection coils 5. Anode connection 6. Mask for separating beams for red, green, and blue part of displayed image 7. Phosphor layer with red, green, and blue zones 8. Close-up of the phosphor-coated inner side of the screen CRT Display CRT : Chatode Ray Tube Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 16 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

17 A cathode ray tube (CRT) is a specialized vacuum tube in which images are produced when an electron beam strikes a phosphorescent surface. Most desktop computer displays make use of CRTs. The CRT in a computer display is similar to the "picture tube" in a television receiver. A cathode ray tube consists of several basic components. The electron gun generates a narrow beam of electrons. The anodes accelerate the electrons. Deflecting coils produce an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field that allows for constant adjustment of the direction of the electron beam. There are two sets of deflecting coils: horizontal and vertical. The intensity of the beam can be varied. The electron beam produces a tiny, bright visible spot when it strikes the phosphor-coated screen.extremely low frequency To produce an image on the screen, complex signals are applied to the deflecting coils, and also to the apparatus that controls the intensity of the electron beam. This causes the spot to race across the screen from right to left, and from top to bottom, in a sequence of horizontal lines called the raster. As viewed from the front of the CRT, the spot moves in a pattern similar to the way your eyes move when you read a single-column page of text. But the scanning takes place at such a rapid rate that your eye sees a constant image over the entire screen. CRT Display Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 17 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

18 Virtually all CRTs today render color images. These devices have three electron guns, one for the primary color red, one for the primary color green, and one for the primary color blue. The CRT thus produces three overlapping images: one in red (R), one in green (G), and one in blue (B). This is the so-called RGB color model.RGB In computer systems, there are several display modes, or sets of specifications according to which the CRT operates. The most common specification for CRT displays is known as SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array). Notebook computers typically use liquid crystal display. The technology for these displays is much different than that for CRTs.display modesliquid crystal display CRT Display Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 18 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices Every pixel on a display is composed of 3 color phosphor droplets. The distance of nearest pixels is called “dot pitch”. Today CRT monitors have dot pitch values between 0.24 mm and 0.28 mm. When this value is smaller display quality is better.

19 A vector monitor or vector display is a display device used for early computers. It is a type of CRT, similar to the oscilloscope, but typically uses magnetic, rather than electrostatic, deflection. Here, the beam traces straight lines between arbitrary points, repeatedly refreshing the display as quickly as possible. CRToscilloscope Vector displays for computers did not noticeably suffer from the display artifacts of Aliasing and pixelation, but were limited in that they could display only a shape's outline (advanced vector systems could provide a limited amount of shading), and only a limited amount of crudely-drawn text (the number of shapes and/or textual characters drawn was severely limited, because the speed of refresh was roughly inversely proportional to how many vectors needed to be drawn).Aliasingpixelation Vector displays were used for head-up displays in fighter aircraft, because of the brighter displays that can be achieved by moving the electron beam more slowly across the phosphors. Brightness is critical in this application because the display must be clearly visible to the pilot in direct sunlight.head-up displays phosphors Vector monitors were also used by some late-1970s to mid-1980s arcade games such as Asteroids. Atari used the term Quadrascan to describe the technology when used in their video game arcades. AsteroidsAtari video game arcades Vector Display Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 19 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

20 Hewlett-PackardHewlett-Packard made a large-screen fast vector monitor, which they called an X-Y display. It used a wide-angle electrostatically-deflected CRT that was about as compact as a magnetic-deflection CRT. Instead of the deflection plates of a typical CRT, it had a unique structure they called an electrostatic deflection yoke, with metallized electrodes inside a glass cylinder. Vector Display Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 20 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

21 Mostly obsolete, a storage tube is a special monochromatic CRT whose screen has a kind of 'memory‘. When a portion of the screen is illuminated by the CRT's electron gun, it stays lit until a screen erase command is given. Thus, screen update commands need only be sent once and this allows the use of a slower data connection, The two main advantages were:CRT electron gun Very low bandwidth needs compared to vector graphics displays, thus allowing much longer cable distances between computer and terminalbandwidthvector graphics No need for display-local RAM (as in modern terminals), which was prohibitively expensive at the time.RAM Storage Tube Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 21 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

22 Generally speaking, storage tubes could be divided into two categories. In the more common category, they were only capable of storing "binary" images; any given point on the screen was either illuminated or dark. The Tektronix Direct-View Bistable Storage Tube was perhaps the most-famous example in this category. Other storage tubes were able to store greyscale/halftoned images; the tradeoff was usually a much-reduced storage time.binary TektronixDirect-View Bistable Storage Tubegreyscalehalftoned Some pioneering storage tube displays were MIT Project MAC's ARDS (Advanced Remote Display Station), the Computek 400 Series Display terminals (a commercial derivative), which both used a Tektronix type 611 storage display unit, and Tektronix's 4014 terminal, the latter becoming a de facto computer terminal standard some time after its introduction (later being emulated by other systems due to this status).MITProject MAC4014de facto Storage Tube "DVBST" storage tube Tektronix 4014 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 22 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

23 A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat electronic visual display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). LCs do not emit light directly.electronic visual displayliquid crystals They are used in a wide range of applications including: computer monitors, television, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, signage, etc. They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones. LCDs have displaced cathode ray tube(CRT) displays in most applications. They are usually more compact, lightweight, portable, less expensive, more reliable, and easier on the eyes. They are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, and since they do not use phosphors, they cannot suffer image burn-in.computer monitorstelevisionaircraft cockpit displayssignageclockscalculatorstelephonescathode ray tube LCDs are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. It is an electronically-modulated optical device made up of any number of pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in colour or monochrome. The earliest discovery leading to the development of LCD technology, the discovery of liquid crystals, dates from 1888. [1] By 2008, worldwide sales of televisions with LCD screens had surpassed the sale of CRT units.batteryelectronic electronically-modulated optical devicepixelsliquid crystalslight sourcebacklightreflectormonochrome [1] LCD Display LCD’s have half life of approximately 50000-70000 hours. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 23 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

24 1. Polarizing filter film with a vertical axis to polarize light as it enters.Polarizing filter 2. Glass substrate with ITO electrodes. The shapes of these electrodes will determine the shapes that will appear when the LCD is turned ON. Vertical ridges etched on the surface are smooth.ITOelectrodes 3. Twisted nematic liquid crystal. 4. Glass substrate with common electrode film (ITO) with horizontal ridges to line up with the horizontal filter. 5. Polarizing filter film with a horizontal axis to block/pass light. 6. Reflective surface to send light back to viewer. (In a backlit LCD, this layer is replaced with a light source.) LCD Display şematik sıvı kristal ekran Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 24 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

25 LCD Advantages/Disadvantages LCD Advantages: Good in stagnant images such as computer display. Quality products have good brightness. Because of dimensions require less space. Has less energy consumption. Has long life. (Approximately 50000- 70000 hr) LCD Disadvantages:  Delay problem. Unnatural view formation when viewing high speed motion.  Black levels: In most of the LCD’s black cannot be displayed properly. Black is displayed as dark gray.  Viewing angle: Perfect display cannot be attained at 170 0 viewing angle.  Less of the LCD’s found in the market have good motion (video) capabilities.  Cheap products use cheap panels which do not cause quality displays.  In poor quality LCD’s dead pixel formation can occur. When dead pixel ratio exceeds 10 % LCD cannot be watched properly.  In most of the LCD’s unnatural display takes place like digital display. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 25 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

26 LCD Display Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 26 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

27 A plasma display panel is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays (80 cm/30 in or larger). They are called "plasma" displays because the pixels rely on plasma cells, or what are in essence chambers more commonly known as fluorescent lamps. A panel typically has millions of tiny cells in compartmentalized space between two panels of glass. These compartments, or "bulbs" or "cells", hold a mixture of noble gases and a minuscule amount of mercury. Just as in the fluorescent lamps over an office desk, when the mercury is vaporized and a voltage is applied across the cell, the gas in the cells form a plasma. (A plasma is a collection of particles that respond strongly and collectively to electromagnetic fields or electrical charges, taking the form of gas-like clouds or ion beams.) With flow of electricity (electrons), some of the electrons strike mercury particles as the electrons move through the plasma, momentarily increasing the energy level of the molecule until the excess energy is shed. Mercury sheds the energy as ultraviolet (UV) photons. The UV photons then strike phosphor that is painted on the inside of the cell. When the UV photon strikes a phosphor molecule, it momentarily raises the energy level of an outer orbit electron in the phosphor molecule, moving the electron from a stable to an unstable state; the electron then sheds the excess energy as a photon at a lower energy level than UV light; the lower energy photons are mostly in the infrared range but about 40% are in the visible light range. Thus the input energy is shed as mostly heat (infrared) but also as visible light.flat panel displayTVplasmaglassnoble gasesultraviolet Plasma Display şematik plazma ekran Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 27 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

28 Depending on the phosphors used, different colors of visible light can be achieved. Each pixel in a plasma display is made up of three cells comprising the primary colors of visible light. Varying the voltage of the signals to the cells thus allows different perceived colors. Plasma Display First plasma computer display(1981) şematik plazma ekran Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 28 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

29 Plasma Display Working Principle Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 29 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

30 Plasma Display Advantages/Disadvantages Plasma Display Advantages: Long life (aproximately 40000-60000 hr of half life) Viewing angle: Has 180 0 viewing angle. Plasma’s are 4-5 times brillent than CRT’s. Has very good contrast. There is no delay or artificial display as in LCD’s. Colours are verry close to natural colors. Needs less space. Plazma Display Disadvantages:  There is no size less than 37 inch.  Dead pixel formation in less quıality products.  Consumes more energy than LCD’s. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 30 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

31 CRT-LCD-Plasma Comparison CRTs are slightly better than LCDs because: cost less. displaying more colors. reacting faster and displaying moving images without smearing or artifacts. using emissive technology (generate their own light) boarder viewing angle. LCDs are better than CRTs because: smaller and lighter. consuming less energy. crisper image because each pixel is displayed by a specific set of LCD cells. reduced eyestrain and fatigue (no flicker) emitting much fewer low-frequency electromagnetic emissions than CRTs. pivoting in landscape or portrait mode. less prone to interference from other devices always perfect image geometry reflecting less glare than most CRTs. Plasma vs. LCDs Plasma will outperform LCD by providing lots of dark and better contrast, but LCD outperforms plasma in brightness and color. (larger screen sizes, burn-in) Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 31 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

32 Digital Light Processing-DLP A semiconductor-based display, from Texas Instruments (1993) A panel of micromirrors are mounted on tiny hinges that enable them to tilt either toward or away from the light source in a DLP™ projection system (ON/OFF)-creating a light or dark pixel on the projection surface. The white light generated by the lamp in a DLP™ projection system passes through a color wheel as it travels to the surface of the DMD panel. DLP™ projection system 1-chip and 3-chip systems Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 32 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

33 DLP Advantages: Brighter: DLP™ projectors are among the brightest available because DLP™ technology brings more light from lamp to screen, resulting in more effective presentations-even when ambient light is difficult to control. Sharper: DLP™ projection's unique reflective technology comes closest to producing the exact mirror image of an incoming video or graphic signal, resulting in projection that's seamless at any resolution. More Reliable: Display systems using DLP™ technology are able to recreate their incoming source material with each projection, ensuring a full-impact projection experience that will not fade over time. DLP Disadvantages:  In some 1-chip DLP’s rainbow effect can be disturbing.  They are not slim as LCD’s and plasma’s.  Lamp life is limited (6000-8000 hr).  Lamp replacement is expensive (200$-500$).  In 5 -6 years usage can cost 2 times the cost of plasma.  Has less viewing angle compared to plasma. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 33 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

34  Invented by Kodak  An organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compounds which emit light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor material is situated between two electrodes. Generally, at least one of these electrodes is transparent.light-emitting diodeemissive electroluminescentorganic compoundsorganic semiconductor  OLEDs are used in television screens, computer monitors, small, portable system screens such as mobile phones and PDAs, watches, advertising, information and indication. OLEDs are also used in light sources for general space illumination and in large-area light-emitting elements. Due to their comparatively early stage of development, they typically emit less light per unit area than inorganic solid-state based LED point-light sources.televisioncomputer monitorsmobile phonesPDAs  An OLED display functions without a backlight. Thus, it can display deep black levels and can also be thinner and lighter than established liquid crystal displays. Similarly, in low ambient light conditions such as dark rooms, an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio than an LCD screen using either cold cathode fluorescent lamps or the more recently developed LED backlight.backlightblack levelsliquid crystal displayscontrast ratiocold cathode fluorescent lamps LED backlight  There are two main families of OLEDs: those based upon small molecules and those employing polymers. Adding mobile ions to an OLED creates a Light-emitting Electrochemical Cell or LEC, which has a slightly different mode of operation.small moleculespolymersLight-emitting Electrochemical Cell Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 34 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

35  OLED displays can use either passive-matrix or active-matrix addressing schemes. Active- matrix OLEDs (AMOLED) require a thin-film transistor backplane to switch each individual pixel on or off, and can make higher resolution and larger size displays possible.passive-matrixactive-matrixAMOLEDthin-film transistor  Low energy consumtion, thin structure and light weight are the advantages.  By time brithness may decrease.  Also called as "Organic Electroluminescent Device" (OEL).  Generally manufactured on glass but can also be applied to plastics or flexible materials. Universal Display’s "FOLED“ is an example to the application of flexible materials.  Has high viewing angles. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 35 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

36 Schematic of a bilayer OLED  The emissive and conductive layers are made of special organic molecules that conduct electricity. The anode and cathode connect the OLED to the source of electicity.conductivemoleculeselectricity anodecathodesource  When electricity is applied to an OLED, the emissive layer becomes negatively charged and the conductive layer becomes positively charged. Electrostatic forces cause electrons to move from the positive conductive layer toward the negative emissive layer. This causes a change in the electrical levels and makes radiation that has a frequency in the range of visible light.Electrostaticelectronsradiationfrequency  OLED, as with all diodes, can only work if electricity flows through them in the correct direction. The Anode, connected to the emmisive layer must be at a higher electrical potential (more volts, more positive) than the cathode, connected to the conductive layer, for the OLED to work.diodeselectricitydirectionpotentialvolts 1.Cathode (−) 2.Emissive Layer 3.Emission of radiation 4.Conductive Layer 5.Anode (+) Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 36 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

37 Advantages OLEDs can make more different colors at different levels of brightness than LEDs. Unlike LCDs their colors do not change when viewed at an angle.brightnessangle They are also much cheaper to make. Most LCDs have to have an LED or Cold Cathode Fluorescent Light(CCFL) used as a backlight to be visible. LCDs also need to use filters to work properly. These filters block much of the light created by the LED/CCFL. Because of backlighting and filtering, OLEDs use far less power than LCDs for the amount of light made.Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lightbacklightfilters light OLEDs also react faster (0.01ms) to changes in electricity. They turn on and off much faster than LCDs (2-8 ms).electricity  Can be applied to flexible or various material types. Disadvantages  LEDs will last longer than OLEDs. This is the biggest problem with OLEDs. Organic materials have a life limit of 14000 hours (daily 8 hours makes 5 years)  The organic compounds that make up OLEDs are also more easily damaged by water.water Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 37 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU

38 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 38 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

39 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 39 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

40 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 40 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

41 Key Technical Terms Refresh Rate of CRTs is refers to how often the screen is redrawn per second. With low refresh rates you can get screen flicker and eye strain. Aim for a rate of 75 Hz for a monitor up to 17 inches in size and 85 Hz for any larger monitor. LCDs are basically flicker free so refresh rates aren't important. Dot Pitch is the distance in millimeters between phosphors of the same color. The smaller the dot pitch, the sharper the image. Opt for a dot pitch of 0.26 mm or smaller (usually quote horizontal dot pitch). Brightness: LCD monitors have several backlights that provide illumination. Brightness is measured in units called nits. The majority of LCDs produce 150-200 nits which is fine for most users. The backlights in a LCD are good for 10 to 50 thousand hours of operation. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 41 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

42 Virtual Reality Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 42 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices

43 Virtual Reality Stereopsis : Stereopsis is from the Greek word for "solid sight", and thus refers to perception of three-dimensional shape from any source of depth information.  Personal usage  Usage may be disturbing  Narrow viewing angle (like a tunnel)  Maximum resolution:1280x1024  Tracking is possible  Display types: CRT, LCD, OLED, LCOS, FLCOS Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 43 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 4.1. CAD Output Devices 4.1. CAD Output Devices


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