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Issues Related to Distance Learning Dr. Steve Broskoske Misericordia University EDU 568 Distance Education and Hybrid Technologies.

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Presentation on theme: "Issues Related to Distance Learning Dr. Steve Broskoske Misericordia University EDU 568 Distance Education and Hybrid Technologies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Issues Related to Distance Learning Dr. Steve Broskoske Misericordia University EDU 568 Distance Education and Hybrid Technologies

2 Outline Class Activity: – Copyright and fair use. – ADA and accessibility. – Universal design for learning (UDL). – Online plagiarism. – Use of web pages in distance learning.

3 Outline Hands-on activity: – Second Life. – Zip files. – PDF files.

4 Copyright and Fair Use

5 Which of the following items are copyrighted? A song you write. A lesson plan you write. A book report written by a student. A photo you take of your dog. A family home video. Any creative work anyone produces is automatically copyrighted, whether or not he/she registers the copyright officially. It is that person’s property. ©

6 Which of the following items are copyrighted? A map of Yellowstone on the National Park Service’s Web site. A map on Google maps. A map you draw of your neighborhood. Government-supplied information is normally in the public domain. ©

7 Which of the following items are copyrighted? Original musical scores written by Mozart. Peter Rabbit and friends books written by Beatrix Potter. Mickey Mouse materials. 75 years after the death of the author, the copyright expires on a work. It then moves to the public domain. Current performance of this work would still be copyrighted. ©

8 What About the Following? A video you create and publish on YouTube. When you publish your creative work on a social networking site, you place your work in the public domain.

9 What Is © Copyright? Copyright: A form of protection provided by U.S. law to authors of original works. – Gives author rights: Right to reproduce and distribute work. Right to display or perform work publicly. Right to prepare derivatives of original work. Recent alternatives to traditional copyright: – Creative Commons. – Copyleft.

10 What Is Copyrighted? Any creative work anyone produces (since 1978) is automatically copyrighted. You do not need a © or any other notation. To reserve the right to litigation, you can officially register your copyright with the U.S. Copyright Office (through the Library of Congress).

11 Can Anything Not Be Copyrighted? 1.Facts: You can retype facts from a copyrighted source. 2.Public domain: Government-provided information. Works for which copyright has expired.

12 Fair Use Guidelines Fair Use Guidelines are part of U.S. Copyright Act. – Allows teachers and students ability to use copyrighted materials for educational purposes. Don’t be fooled! Quantitative rules are not part of the law. The only true test of educational fair use is the U.S. court system. ©

13 Fair Use Guidelines 1.Purpose and character of work. Must be used for teaching/learning (not for recreation). 2.Nature of work. Creative work vs. listing of facts. 3.Amount of work used. Major factor! 4.Effect of use on marketplace. Major factor! Did use result in lower income for author?

14 What Can Teachers Do? You can… – make copies of copyrighted material… – show a legal copy of a DVD or video… …for instructional use only, as long as there is no significant loss of revenue to author.

15 What Can Teachers Do? Can I photocopy several chapters of a textbook that our school has not purchased? Can I purchase a PBS video and show it to my class as part of a lesson? Can I copy a work and change a few words? No! Yes! No!

16 What Can Teachers Do? Link to a video on YouTube or TeacherTube. Use resources from online databases (like Ebsco Host). Use Flickr and similar Web sites to find graphics with a Creative Commons License. For schools: – License digital video for entertainment through Movie Licensing USA. – License video from United Streaming or Safari Montage.

17 What about Music? Music is complex. Any or all of the following can be copyrighted: – Musical scores. – Words of a song. – Performances of music. Be careful! Many Web sites that tout “royalty-free” music are liars! Remember that anyone can publish a Web page on the Web. ©

18 What Can Teachers Do About Music? Download from royalty-free sites: – – friendly+music+and+sound – – – – – –

19 Remember Use of duplicated copyrighted materials must be an integral part of class. Movies shown as a reward do not qualify as fair use. Duplicating entire copyrighted materials for students instead of purchasing them is wrong. Just citing a work is not the same as having permission to use the work.

20 Copyright and Teachers in Distance Courses Who owns the course materials? Can another teacher teach the course you developed using your materials? Will you get compensated for developing a distance course? Will you be compensated more for teaching a distance course?

21 Use of Web Pages in Distance Learning

22 Web Page What is the purpose of a Web page for a distance course? What kinds of information should be included on a Web page for a distance learning course? discussion

23 Web Pages for Distance Courses  Explore the following Web sites for distance courses. What elements are present? What should be included on a course Web site? Univ. of South Florida San Jose State Univ.

24 Online Plagiarism

25 The Internet has taken the old term paper mills to a new level of convenience, tempting students from the low achievers to even the academically gifted. A teacher who is aware of the problem can help prevent this crime by making it more difficult for a student to commit.

26 How Large is the Problem? The online term paper industry has grown to an unthinkable size. A quick search on Google for “term papers” nets over 2,500,000 related Web pages. Many online services boast of offering over 30,000 term papers, book reports, and essays.

27 How Large is the Problem? The business of online term papers is so established that students can find meta sites, like, that direct students to the many paper mills and services available.

28 Free Term Papers Online? Bait and switch: – The sites that advertise free papers actually offer free essays or position papers of lower quality. – Once the student is duped into viewing the free essays, links navigate them to a pay site where they can purchase term papers. Membership fee: – Some sites don’t charge for papers. Instead, they charge a membership fee for the privilege of using the site for a specified period of time, usually 1 month.

29 Free Term Papers Online? The charge for term papers is anywhere from $10-20 per page for delivery in a week, to $50 per page for 24-hour delivery. Papers can be faxed, e-mailed, or delivered. Some sites can even provide copies of sources used for a price.

30 Customizing Papers Most sites offer options to help students make a plagiarized paper look like their original work. – Skill level: Some sites offer papers at various levels of writing skill, so that a student will not submit work that looks beyond his/her level. – Custom papers: Even more alarming, many sites offer custom written papers. Students simply supply: Specific topic to research. Number of sources to use. Citation and writing style. Any other particulars of the assignment.

31 Is This Practice Legal? To work around legal ramifications, term paper mills post legal disclaimers. – Membership vs. selling papers: Sites are not technically selling papers, but rather selling memberships to view the papers for “research purposes” (e.g., to gain additional insights or points of view on a particular topic). – Disclaimers: Students are warned that they should not submit these essays or papers as their own original work, but should cite them in the reference section of their paper.

32 Checking for Online Plagiarism After students have submitted their papers, you can have the papers checked for the probability of plagiarism. Students submit papers electronically through an online service where they are compared against a comprehensive digital repository of written material compiled from print and online sources.

33 Preventing Online Plagiarism Give specific requirements: – Give specific requirements in terms of how students should write the paper. Require students to use headings, or to include a discussion section. Require something that will not likely be found in the online paper mills. Require students to show progress over time: – Divide the paper into several stages, and require students to submit an assignment to show their progress at each stage. For example, have students submit a topic, a proposed outline, and a working bibliography. Broskoske, 2006

34 Preventing Online Plagiarism Require a draft: – Require students to submit a good-quality draft, and then submit a revised draft along with the original in order to obtain a grade. Require another writing sample: – Early during the course, require another writing sample with which you can compare the quality and style of each student’s work. Meet with students: – If you can, meet with students about their papers to assist them and monitor their progress. Broskoske, 2006

35 Preventing Online Plagiarism Show progress: – For online/blended courses, have students post progress online in some form. Topic. Outline. Themes identified after researching sources. – This process can also help the students to learn from each other’s work. Broskoske, 2006

36 Preventing Online Plagiarism Notice oddities: – Watch for formatting that is different from what you required. Be wary if no bibliography! – Be suspect of any paper that is submitted without a bibliography. Much of the online material lacks references. Search for uniquely stated phrases: – Search for the entire phrase (surround by quotation marks) online: may lead you to the source of the plagiarism. Broskoske, 2006

37 ADA and Accessibility

38 Visual Impairments A student who is blind may use: – PC equipped with text-to-speech software and a speech synthesizer. – Text-only browser to navigate the Web or simply turn off graphics-loading. Text alternatives are needed to interpret images. A speech system will simply say "image map" at the place where an image map would be displayed to someone using a multimedia Web browser. – Printed materials, videotapes, and other visual materials also create access challenges.

39 ADA and Accessibility The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires that people with disabilities have equal access to public programs and services. According to this law, no otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities shall, solely by reason of their disabilities, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in these programs.

40 Visual Impairments A student who has limited vision can use: – Special software to enlarge screen images. Allows viewing only a small portion of a web page at a time. – Causes confusion when Web pages are cluttered.

41 Visual Impairments What to do: – Make text large enough to be read comfortably by all users. – Provide text alternatives (descriptions) to images. – Do not overload Web pages with content.

42 Hearing Impairments A student who is hearing impaired my experience difficulty: – Understanding audio content (such as with a podcast). – Understanding course videotapes that are not captioned. – Deaf students cannot participate in teleconferencing sessions.

43 Hearing Impairments What to do: – Provide text captioning for any audio content. – Alternatively, provide transcription of audio content.

44 Speech Impairments Students with speech impairments may not be able to effectively participate in teleconferencing (Skype, Elluminate). What to do: – Utilize text-based activities in your course.

45 Mobility Impairments Students with mobility impairments may: – Use alternative keyboards, speech input, and other input devices. – Some options use keyboard commands to replace mouse functions and thus cannot fully operate software that requires the use of the mouse. – Some students with mobility impairments may not have fine motor skills required to select small buttons on the screen. – Students whose input method is slow cannot effectively participate in real-time "chat" communications.

46 Mobility Impairments What to do: – Be aware that some students may require more time to participate in synchronous text-based activities than others due to mobility issues.

47 ADA and Accessibility The design of a distance learning class can impact the participation of students and instructors with visual, hearing, speech, mobility, and learning disabilities. Planning for access as the course is being developed is much easier than creating accommodation strategies once a person with a disability enrolls in a distance course.

48 Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

49 Where did Universal Design Come From? Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504 Architectural practice of Universal Design. Architecture

50 Universal Design Universal Design has it's basis in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act which mandated that public buildings be accessible to all. LAW

51 “Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” Center for Universal Design at North Carolina State University

52 Universal Design Don’t retrofit or “fix” the building to accommodate people with special needs. Construct the building to meet the needs of all users of a space. Universal design will become a way of life, and benefit all people. ramp

53 Universal Design Closed captions Curb cuts in sidewalks Automatic opening doors Text messaging on cell phones

54 Universal Design in Education Universal Design for Learning (UDL): – Physical access to school buildings. – Access to the curriculum: teaching, learning, and assessment.

55 What does “universal” mean? The “universal” in universal design does not imply one optimal solution for everyone. Rather, it reflects an awareness of the unique nature of each learner and the need to accommodate differences, creating learning experiences that suit the learner and maximize his or her ability to progress. (CAST website)

56 UDL Paradigm Shift Pre-UDL Students with disabilities are considered in a separate category. UDL Students with disabilities fall along a continuum of learner differences within the classroom.

57 UDL Paradigm Shift Pre-UDL Learners with disabilities are viewed as having a “problem” that needs to be fixed. UDL All students learn differently. Teachers “fix” teaching to accommodate learner differences.

58 UDL Paradigm Shift Pre-UDL Teacher adjusts instruction for students with disabilities. UDL Teacher designs the curriculum in advance to accommodate all learners.

59 UDL Paradigm Shift Pre-UDL The major curricular vehicle is a textbook. UDL Curriculum materials are varied and diverse to accommodate various learning styles.

60 Who benefits from UDL? Learning differences. Cultural differences. Language differences. Physical differences. Sensory differences. Cognitive differences. Students with IEP’s.

61 Technology and UDL Digital multimedia learning tools: – Making UDL a reachable goal. – Making attainment of UDL within reach of individual educators and students.

62 How can I design my materials to be accessible to ALL learners? Utilize readable fonts and font sizes. Use plenty of white space. Provide sufficient visual contrast between text and backgrounds. Minimize distractions: – Background sounds and effects. – Animated graphics. – Visual crowding.

63 Hands-on Activities Second Life PDF Files Zip Files

64 Second Life

65 What is Second Life? Virtual World, where members can: – Socialize. – Have fun. – Conduct business. – Learn.

66 Cost of Second Life Participation? Basic Account: Free – Avatar. – L$250 sign-up bonus. – Can only build in a temporary “sandbox” area. Premium Account: $6-10 (depending on monthly, quarterly, or annual payment) – Avatar. – L$1,000 sign-up bonus. – Ability to own land and build on the land. – L$300 per week stipend. Other Pricing

67 Exploring Second Life What is Second Life? (Dell on YouTube) What is Second Life? (Linden Lab on YouTube)

68 Second Life for Educators Second Life has hundreds of K-12 and higher education members. – The Open University, Harvard, Texas State, and Stanford are just a few of the many universities that have set up virtual campuses where students can meet, attend classes, and create content together.

69 Second Life for Educators ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education) runs orientations for educators: – Live "Docent" assistance during regularly scheduled hours. – Scheduled tours, speaker series, and special events. – Showcased destinations and educational uses of SL. – Socials to learn from other educators about how they are using SL. – Tools to enable your educational uses of SL. – Additional tutorials for educators.

70 Educational Possibilities What are the possible uses of Second Life in education? Let’s watch the following video together to get an introduction. Introduction: Educational Uses of Second Life

71 Watch One of the Following Videos  Watch one of the following videos. Determine how might Second Life be used in education? Exploring Educational Possibilities of SL (YouTube) Education in SL Vanderbilt Center for Science (TeacherTube)

72 Exploring Educational Possibilities  At, search for second life and a subject area. Search for Videos at YouTube Answer: How can this virtual environment potentially be used practically in education?

73 Let’s Explore Second Life Second

74 Zip and PDF Files

75 Zip and PDF files are commonly used online file types. – Zip files are single files (archives) that contain many files, and are compressed in size. Can be opened by a Windows unzipping utility. – PDF files are like scanned documents, are not able to be edited, and are perfect copies of the original. Can be opened by downloading Adobe Acrobat Reader free software.

76 What are Zip Files? To go on a trip, how do you prepare your clothes?

77 What are Zip Files? To go on a trip, how do you prepare your clothes? A suitcase is a single, compact container that holds much material.

78 What are Zip Files?  document.doc x 57 Kb  photo.gif 96  photo.jpg 256  document.doc x 92  spreadsheet.xlsx 396  database.mdbx 2359 Total Size: 3256 Kb Total Size: 1456 Kb document.docx photo.gif photo.jpg document.docx spreadsheet.xlsx database.mdbx zip

79 Open Source Zipping Utility Find PeaZip at

80 Let’s Try It Let’s try: – Unzipping a zip archive. – Creating a zip archive.

81 What are PDF Files? PDF file is perfect copy of original. PDF’s are accepted by government for official forms. User downloads free Adobe Acrobat reader.

82 Exploring PDF Files PDF Files at ETS PDF Files at PDE

83 Open Source PDF Creator If you do not already own Adobe Acrobat PDF creator: – Let’s download and experiment with open source PDF creator software.

84 Assignments/Activities 1.Start creating a Web page for your blended course. Use this page to introduce yourself to learners, and to provide structure for the course. List assignments, readings, and link to the resources that you created. 2.Create a PDF file and a zip archive for use on your course Web page. 3.Continue: – Post your blog address to our discussion board. – Maintain online discussions. – Post new experiences to your blog.

85 Next Week Good teaching practice in distance learning. Hands-on experience with a Promethean Board.

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