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(c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre1 Localisation Reinhard Schäler www.gilc.info www.localisation.ie www.tilponline.ie Consortium for Training Translation.

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Presentation on theme: "(c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre1 Localisation Reinhard Schäler www.gilc.info www.localisation.ie www.tilponline.ie Consortium for Training Translation."— Presentation transcript:

1 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre1 Localisation Reinhard Schäler Consortium for Training Translation Teachers (CTTT) in cooperation with the Intercultural Studies Group and the Department of Translation and Interpreting Studies at Bogazici University Technology for Translation Teachers Istanbul, Turkey, July 2006

2 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre2 Is this code valid? char c; //Get user input If ((c>= ‘A’ && c = ‘a’ && c<= ‘z’)) { //accept the input } else { //handle error case } This is an English-specific way of checking for valid input. This code would not work correctly in many non-English languages, including Danish. In addition to 26 letters of English alphabet, Danish has three additional letters that appear after the letter z (æ ø, å).

3 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre3 Two internationalised and localised applicatoins Spreadsheet Organiser

4 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre4 Objectives  Clarify common localisation concepts and reflect on commonly held believes about localisation  Analyse and localise a small software application  Discuss the implications of a changing localisation world for teaching and training

5 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre5 Localisation Workshop SESSION I – Localisation SESSION II - Characteristics SESSION III – Tools and technologies SESSION IV - Outlook

6 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre6 I18N - L10N – G11N  Internationalisation  … the process of designing (or modifying) software so as to isolate the linguistically and culturally dependent parts of an application  … the development of a system that allows linguistic and cultural adaptation supporting users working in different languages and cultures.  Localisation  … the linguistic and cultural adaptation of a product to the requirements of a foreign market.  Globalisation  … a business strategy (not so much an activity) addressing the issues associated with taking a product to the global market.  Includes world-wide marketing, sales and support.

7 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre7 Linguistic adaptation  Translation of user interface and user assistance  Short turn-around time, often repetitive, always variety of digital formats  Translation of graphical user interface (GUI)  Dialogues, menus, strings  Includes appropriate formats for  Number, time, currency and measurements. These should work if the product has been properly internationalised, but localisers have to make sure that they work and are used as defaults  Rendering, sorting, spelling, hyphenation. Users should be able to use their own script and process information in other languages without the loss or corruption of data. Again this should work ‘out of the box’ if properly internationalised.

8 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre8 Cultural adaptation  Folklore and stories  El Dorado, Red Riding Hood, The Holy Grail  Songs and references  Songs that teach counting or the alphabet  References (yellow school bus or the Acropolis), maps, images  Religion  Images of Holy Mary and Jesus; references to gender in bible translations; feast days (‘Sun’-Day; Christmas)  History  The Diaries of Columbus, a distinctly European view of the New World  The second world war  Sales and marketing  Drinks (Coca-Cola, Guinness: Irish/Nigerian), food (Chinese restaurants; McDonalds), cars

9 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre9 Hofstedde

10 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre10 Localisation strategies Strategy Product Function or need satisfied Conditions of product use Ability to buy product Recommended communications strategy Rank order from least to most expensive Product examples 1Same YesExtension1Soft drinks 2DifferentSameYesExtension2Bicycles, motor scooters 3SameDifferentYesAdaptation3Gasoline, detergents 4Different YesAdaptation4Clothing, greeting cards 5Same-NoDevelop new communication 5 Hand-powered washing machines Extension – same approach as in home market Adaptation – requires some changes to fit the new market requirements Invention – an entirely new approach is required

11 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre11 South American European Egyptian Examples of early L10N?

12 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre12 German DutchFrench Examples of modern L10N?

13 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre13 Is McDonald’s localised?  USA  Beef burgers and freedom fries  Spain  Salads and outside chairs/tables  Greece  Lamb burgers and feta cheese  India  No beef; no animal fat

14 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre14 Why many definitions have to be refined  Localisation is not the adaptation of any service or product  Clearly differentiate localisation from  Mainstream translation  Global marketing  Graphic design, printing  Film / radio production  Take account of  Move from localisation of software applications to more general digital content as traditional publishing industries (film, printing, recording) converge in the digital world.  Applications  Websites  Games  Courseware  eGovernmet, eHealth

15 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre15 It is localisation  If  the material to be adapted is digital  because  this determines  the process (analysis, pre-processing, translation automation, testing, engineering)  the tools and technologies  the release and distribution  this determines the challenges specific to localisation, including  file formats (huge variety, ever growing number)  encoding, fonts, rendering (dependent on standards; sometimes difficult to implement; not always available)  user interface space restrictions  context (or lack thereof) and visual translation environment

16 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre16 Definition – refined … … the linguistic and cultural adaptation of digital content to the requirements of a foreign market. … the provision of services and technologies for the management of multilinguality across the digital, global information flow. [… the commoditisation of translation services.]

17 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre17 Facts and figures  The localisation industry emerged in the mid 1980s.  From packaged software to multimedia products and digital content (web-sites)  Ireland is one of the world-centres of localisation, was no.1 exporter of s/w  World-wide market for translation and software or web localisation is growing  95% of localised products originate in the USA  The overwhelming majority of publishers in the digital world now make more money from the sales of their localised products than they make from the sales of the original product. For example: Microsoft  More than 60% of revenues from international  Revenue from localised products exceeds US$5 billion  More than 1,000 localisation projects (product/language) per year  In 2001 and in Ireland alone, Microsoft had revenues of US$1.9 billion from its international sales. Source: IDC, Worldwidc Globalization and Localization Services Market Forecast and Analysis, , 2001,

18 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre18 The rationale Three underlying principles of current localisation efforts Motivation: Increase return on investment (ROI)  Adapt an already developed product superficially to the requirements of foreign markets - with a minimum effort  Then sell it into these new markets for a similar price as the original product: there is no easier way to make money Use globally acceptable content (LCD / I18N)  Develop products using the lowest common denominator (LCD); the out-of-the-box product should not offend anyone  Use recognisable colours, symbols, sound and signs  Less adaptation = higher potential earnings  Reduce the localisation effort to translation  Good for revenues, but bad for diversity and the information and entertainment value of the product and/or service Re-use (leverage) as much as possible (L10N)  Process as much as possible – translate as little as possible; reuse previous translations  Limit changes to an absolute minimum (eliminate snowball effect)  Recycling of translations is good for business, but bad for living languages (and the people using them) Localisation is a success if the people buying a product or paying for a service believe that it has been developed for them, in their country – although this was not the case.   TM

19 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre19 When is localisation successful?  When products and services have been linguistically and culturally adaptated to the point that…  users do not notice that the product or service they are using was developed in a different country for a different target group  Localisation…  is the linguistic and cultural adaptation with the aim to produce digital products and services for which the country of origin can no longer be traced  removes the last barrier to the equal and inclusive information society: linguistic and cultural diversity  Measure of success  I believe it’s mine, you believe it’s yours (and underneath it is all the same)

20 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre20 Stop a moment and reflect Do we want to preserve diversity (of languages and cultures) while at the same time removing the last barrier for the equal and inclusive information society (linguistic and cultural diversity)? Does the creation of products that use globally acceptable content preserve linguistic and cultural diversity? What is the effect of the use of Translation Memories on a language over time?

21 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre21 Alternative strategies Development localisation Social, political, cultural and long-term investment reasons to localise  Social reasons  Bridging the social divide  Political reasons  Access to information  Cultural reasons  Survival of languages and cultures  Long-term investment  market penetration, access to millions of potential users, competition

22 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre22 Exercise I Open Calendar application and familiarise yourself with it How should this calendar application be localised and what are the issues?

23 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre23 Localisation Workshop SESSION I - Localisation L10N, I18N & G11N Why localise? Development Localisation SESSION II - Characteristics SESSION III - Tools and technologies SESSION IV - Outlook

24 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre24 Characteristics SESSION I - Localisation SESSION II – Characteristics SESSION III – Tools and technologies SESSION IV - Outlook

25 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre25 Localisation How are products localised and how much does it cost? Project planning and analysis Vendor selection Translation kit preparation Translation and editing Software engineering and testing Release Post Mortem Financial project management Project schedule price/word (translation: doc., online, software) price/time (engineering, testing, screen dumps) price/item (graphics, DTP) percentage (project management) Cost Hierarchy Translation Testing Engineering Project Management Original Product

26 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre26 Localisation How are products localised and how much does it cost? Project planning and analysis Vendor selection Translation kit preparation Translation and editing Software engineering and testing Release Post Mortem Financial project management Project schedule price/word (translation: doc., online, software) price/time (engineering, testing, screen dumps) price/item (graphics, DTP) percentage (project management) Cost Hierarchy Translation Testing Engineering Project Management Original Product

27 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre27 Examples Websites: PeopleSoft Applications: Oracle Content: Bosch Frequent updates of online information 10 languages, 24 websites Thousands of pages in synch with English source content 4m wordcount software strings 30 languages simultaneous release 13k localisable files Localisation group: 5,000 people terms, 23 languages requests per month Simultaneous update and access

28 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre28 Examples Websites: PeopleSoft Applications: Oracle Content: Bosch Frequent updates of online information 10 languages, 24 websites Thousands of pages in synch with English source content 4m wordcount software strings 30 languages simultaneous release 13k localisable files Localisation group: 5,000 people terms, 23 languages requests per month Simultaneous update and access Fundamental problems Identification of translatable strings (large variety of file formats) The invisible target ( editors) The screen as the medium of delivery (restrictions) Process and cascading value chain (cost, quality)

29 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre29 How to access the content  Content?  Clients do not always know where the translatables are  Clients do not necessarily tell you what has been updated  Clients do not always have appropriate editors for all types of files to access content (in a visual environment)  How does it all come together  Context, space, concatenation  File (menu)  File (dialog)  File (error message)

30 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre30 Question: What went wrong? One minute check

31 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre31 Identification of translatable strings (Win32) Working with resource files  Create resource source file (.RC)  text file, contains all the string resources  Specific syntax (Windows Software Development Kit, MSDN)  Associate identifier (ID) with each resource  Reference each ID in your code  Use resource compiler, e.g. Rc.exe, to convert resource source file into resource file (.RES)

32 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre32 Example: QSv21.RC - Menu IDR_MAINFRAME MENU BEGIN POPUP "&File" BEGIN MENUITEM SEPARATOR MENUITEM "Recent File", ID_FILE_MRU_FILE1, GRAYED MENUITEM SEPARATOR MENUITEM "E&xit", ID_APP_EXIT END POPUP "&View" BEGIN MENUITEM "&Toolbar", ID_VIEW_TOOLBAR MENUITEM "&Status Bar", ID_VIEW_STATUS_BAR MENUITEM "Op&tions", ID_VIEW_OPTIONS END POPUP "&Help" BEGIN MENUITEM "&Help Topics", ID_HELP_FINDER MENUITEM SEPARATOR MENUITEM "&About QSv21...", ID_APP_ABOUT END

33 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre33 The invisible target Different file formats.ini File [DAYS] 1="M" 2="T" 3="W" 4="T" 5="F" 6="S" 7="S" [MONTHS] 1="JANUARY" 2="FEBRUARY" 3="MARCH" 4="APRIL" 5="MAY" 6="JUNE" 7="JULY" 8="AUGUST" 9="SEPTEMBER" 10="OCTOBER" 11="NOVEMBER" 12="DECEMBER".txt file $^%interface%^$ &^%options%^* &^%STD3%^* (^%TXT4%^* *^%rows%^* *^%cols%^* $^%interface%^$ &^%options%^* &^%STD3%^* (^%TXT4%^* $^%interface2%^$ &^%options4%^* &^%STD3%^* (^%TXT7%^*.XML file The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Mark Twain mass market paperback 298 The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Mark Twain mass market paperback 205

34 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre34 The screen as medium  Type of devices and screens  PC screens  Mobile devices (phones, MP3/4 players, personal organisers)  Photocopy machines  Modes of display  Line moving (‘news ticker’)  Scrolling (windows-like scroll bars)  Fixed  Restrictions  Size and layout  Memory/Storage Capacity  Power  Processor  Screen Size & Orientation  Input Methods

35 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre35 First mobile

36 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre36 Today’s devices

37 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre37 Deae Minervae coh(ors) II Tungrorum mil(liaria) eq(uitata) c(ivium) L(atinorum) cui praeest C(aius) Sil(vinus) Auspex praefectus To the goddess Minerva, the second (partly) equestrian cohort of the Tungrians with one thousand men, citizens of Latin rights, Caius Silvius Auspex (dedicated this altar) when he was prefect of the same. Roman stones

38 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre38 In h(onorem) d(omus) d(ivinae) Genio [s]enturiae Satton[i]us Aeneas (centurio) po(suit). In honour of the divine house. To the genius of the company, the centurion Sattonius Aeneas erected (this statue). erased stone lapis deleticius (former inscription highlighted in red)

39 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre39 Iranian Museum of Ancient Art Different scripts and languages

40 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre40 Cascading supply chain promotes commoditisation and exchange-value system MLV SLV Broker Translator Client 170% 100% 30% 300% Project Mgmt Quality Assurance Procurement File Handling Exchange-value determined by market conditions could add additional percentage

41 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre41 Exercise II Insert source material into a GUI localisation tool.exe,.txt,.ini,.xml

42 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre42 Localisation Workshop SESSION I - Localisation SESSION II – Characteristics Identification of translatable strings (large variety of file formats) The invisible target ( editors) and the screen as the medium Complex, international process and cascading value chain SESSION III – Tools and technologies SESSION IV - Outlook

43 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre43 Localisation Workshop SESSION I - Localisation SESSION II – Characteristics SESSION III – Tools and technologies (GUI) SESSION IV - Outlook

44 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre44 GUI localisation technology  Main characteristics of tools  Easy access to strings (in a visual environmnet, with restrictions)  Edit executables (no need to recompile -> much less testing)  Different editors for different resources (menus, dialogs, messages), platforms (Win32,.NET, Java) and file types  Cover standard file formats  Supply standard editors, development of specific editors possible  Fixing problems: testing and engineering  File analysis, preparation and localisation (pre-translation, leveraging)  Identification of common localisation problems  Allow easy-fix without recompilation  Project management  Examples  Alchemy Catalyst, Passolo, Multilizer, RCWintrans, SDL - Suite

45 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre45 GUI localisation technology  Main characteristics of tools  Easy access to strings (in a visual environmnet, with restrictions)  Edit executables (no need to recompile -> much less testing)  Different editors for different resources (menus, dialogs, messages), platforms (Win32,.NET, Java) and file types  Cover standard file formats  Supply standard editors, development of specific editors possible  Fixing problems: testing and engineering  File analysis, preparation and localisation (pre-translation, leveraging)  Identification of common localisation problems  Allow easy-fix without recompilation  Project management  Examples  Alchemy Catalyst, Passolo, Multilizer, RCWintrans, SDL - Suite Why are these tools and technologies different from those used for the translation of help and documentation?

46 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre46 Directly edit compiled files  Dramatically reduces the need for (re-)testing  Ease of use, less technical  More accessible to translators  Large variety of in-built functionality  Translators (visual editor, translation memory, leveraging)  Engineers (text extraction and preparation)  Testers (duplicate/missing/inconsistent hotkeys, truncation)  Project Managers (scheduling, progress report)  (Partially) integrate the roles of translator, localisation engineer, tester and project manager

47 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre47 Workflow  Identity files to be translated  Insert into translation environment  Pseudo translate  Prepare  Parse  Pre-translate (leverage from previous versions, use glossaries/TMs)  Add comments, protect non-translatables, implement restrictions (e.g. on length)  Chunk – prepare and export translator-specific sections  Translate – check – fix  Import sections translated by individual translators  Extract

48 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre48 Insert resource into a L10N environment  GUI localisation platforms do not allow you to edit files directly  Files are first imported into a tool-specific file format  Specific editors handle different types of resources (menu, dialog, messages)  Visual editing support is generally only available for Win32 and.NET content  BUT – what you see is NOT what you get (WYSINWYG), it is only an approximation

49 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre49 Prepare source for L10N  Pre-translation  Restrictions?  Messages can have length restrictions  Untranslatables?  Certain strings should not be translated and can be marked as such  Company names, catch phrases  Strings which are not part of the visible interface  Strings which are expected by the programme  Creation of translation kits  Dealing with ‘unusual’ file formats  Many tools allow the creation of custom editors

50 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre50 Determine the size of the project  Evaluate the size of project  Number of words  Number and type of dialogs  Simple  Complex  Identify linguistic resources (TM)  Previously translated versions  Terminology / glossaries / translation memories

51 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre51 Pseudo translation  Estimate the effect ‘localisation’ will have on the interface  In the localisation environment  Layout  In the running application  Layout (dynamic resources)  Functionality  Character encoding issues  Non-translatables?  Hard-coded strings?

52 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre52 Detect and fix problems  Layout  Can be done within localisation environment  CAUTION: what the tool displays as the GUI is NOT the GUI users will see – it is an approximation!  Functionality  Duplicate, missing hotkeys  Links  Amend translation guidelines  Maximum length of strings  Untranslatables

53 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre53 Localise  Translate, check and fix common localisation problems  Create target file by extracting the material from the tool’s internal file  Report I18N problems  Graphic images  Character encoding  Hard-coded strings  Untranslatables (translation of strings causes performance problems)  DO NOT fix I18N problems

54 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre54 Exercise III Pseudo translate the application Identify and fix problems

55 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre55 Localisation Workshop SESSION I - Localisation SESSION II – Characteristics SESSION III – Tools and technologies Access translatable resources Check effects (expansion, char sets etc.) Fix problems SESSION IV – Outlook

56 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre56 Localisation Workshop SESSION I - Localisation SESSION II – Characteristics SESSION III - Tools and technologies SESSION IV - Outlook

57 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre57 Localisation Workshop 2 worlds of L10N The L10N factory Localisation Community Initiatives

58 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre58 Localisation is processing Large scale – high end  Scenarios  Large amount of data  Highly repetitive content  Large number of updates  Pre-processing  Automatic testing  Constant release (no traditional release cycles  Large number of (small) files  Complex supply chain  Requires  Standard tools and processes  Sophisticated tools and technologies  Leveraging  Testing  Project management  Distribution and workflow control 1

59 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre59 Localisation is translation Small scale – low end  Working with sections that could not be pre-processed  Translation  Editing  Re-sizing  Testing  Requires translation tools and technologies for individual translators  Terminology databases  Shared Translation Memories  Visual editors  Automated testing  Basic project management functions 2

60 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre60 Implications for teaching and research  Specialised translation  Translation schools  Working with existing tools and technologies  Training  Evaluation  Specialised engineering  Computing schools  Standards and interoperability of tools, technologies and resources  Process automation  Development of tools and technologies  Integrated development environment with plug-ins  Design and development guidelines for international digital content

61 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre61 Case study  Current throughput: 100,000 language check-ins per month  2 million files per month  98% of words leverage  Average time to process a file: 45 seconds  Fully scalable “add-a-box model”  Simship of all 30 languages  International version testing before US release  Reduced no. of release engineers (20->2) resulting in US$20m saving per year  Positive ROI within 1 year Project constraints 4m wordcount software strings 30 languages simultaneous release 13k localisable files Localisation group in Dublin; 5,000 people world-wide distributed development team Objectives 24/7, 100% automated process – no exceptions Translation in parallel with development Translation begins at code check-in Translation “on demand” – no more “big project” model The Setting

62 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre62 Standards: the automated localisation process using standard automation procedures and tools not much different from those used in a manufacturing environment Development Team Original Language Version Store ¦--- store contents ¦--- maintain contents ¦--- LSP Localised Language Version Store Development Translation Localisation Kit Prep. Testing and Engineering Content Markup Content Transfer Publishing Platform Product Design Team LSP Translation Localisation Kit Prep. Testing and Engineering LSP Translation Localisation Kit Prep. Testing and Engineering Translation Localisation Kit Prep. Testing and Engineering Translation Localisation Kit Prep. Testing and Engineering Translation Development {Passolo, Catalyst, Multilizer, RCWinTrans} {TRADOS, SDLX, TRANSIT} Two dimensional interoperability vector Objective: achieve interoperability in (1) content markup/capture of localisable data and (2) content transfer between and within different stages of the localisation process without loss and (almost) no human intervention.

63 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre63 IGNITE Linguistic Resources Language dataToolsStandard Digital content source/target Terminologies Translation memories Terminology DBs TM systems UI editors OASIS ISO Unicode Examples Performance analysis IGNITE Consortium IGNITE Contact Group Phase I Phase II Phase III Linguistic Resources Language dataToolsStandard Digital content source/target Terminologies Translation memories Terminology DBs TM systems UI editors OASIS ISO Unicode Examples Linguistic Resources Language dataToolsStandards Digital content source/target Terminologies Translation memories Terminology DBs TM systems UI editors OASIS ISO Unicode W3C Examples Localisation Process Environment State-of-the-art technologies and process environent IGNITE Consortium IGNITE Contact Group Phase I Phase II Phase III L i n g u i s t i c R e s o u r c e s S u p p o r t N e t w o r k Performance analysis Standard verification and enhancement

64 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre64 Kofi Annan The new information and communications technologies are among the driving forces of globalisation. They are bringing people together, and bringing decision makers unprecedented new tools for development. At the same time, however, the gap between information "haves" and "have-nots" is widening, and there is a real danger that the world's poor will be excluded from the emerging knowledge-based global economy.

65 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre65 GILC 2005 – the year of… Supporting local computing across geographical, political, social and economic divides Building, on existing frameworks, the infrastructure for regional initiatives to coordinate, pool resources, raise awareness, and communicate on a global level Removing myths around localisation, dealing with real needs and requirements in an imaginative, inspired and creative way Creating a framework for just and balanced localisation activities Localisation is not an option – it is a fundamental right Launch date: September 2005 Creating the accessible framework for localisation

66 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre66 The Institute of Localisation Professionals (TILP)  Certified Localisation Professional (CLP) Programme  Accreditation of course providers  Certification of individuals  Localisation Teaching, Training and Research Network (LttN)  Join and help to develop  The Localisation Technology Laboratory and Showcase (LOTS)  Satellites  Ask the Expert Sessions  Offer  Host

67 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre67 Localisation Workshop SESSION I - Localisation SESSION II – Characteristics SESSION III – Tools and technologies SESSION IV – Outlook 2 worlds of L10N The L10N factory Localisation Community Initiatives

68 (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre68 Thank you!


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