Presentation on theme: "Sharon Witt October 2009. To develop independence and responsibility for your own learning; To be able to identify students’ own approach to essay."— Presentation transcript:
To develop independence and responsibility for your own learning; To be able to identify students’ own approach to essay writing; To understand academic conventions.
It is acknowledging the sources you have used to inform your thinking in an assignment, whether they be journals, books electronic sources etc Referencing allows any reader the opportunity to go to a source and read the original material themselves
You must cite the original source and provide a full reference whenever you: Quote- use some- one’s exact words Copy – use figures or tables etc Paraphrase – convert some- one else’s ideas into your own words Summarise – use a brief account of someone’s work, opinions, theories or data
Avoid plagiarism – falsely claiming some- one else’s words or ideas as yours Show the breadth of your research Make it possible for the reader to locate sources independently Strengthen your argument by providing evidence for your opinions
Wilful attempt to cheat the publisher or examiner Copying without acknowledging the source Includes published and unpublished work: another student’s work material from the internet
bibliography not included or very limited, lack of referencing in the text, inaccurate referencing – multiple errors an incomplete assignment quoting from a text that is itself quoting from a further text, lack of clarity in identifying sources poor use of English – multiple errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation
Collect quotations and notes in a notebook or on paper designated to a particular assignment – or add to Word document on the computer! Take the full reference details – author, publication year, title, place of publication, publisher and page no. If you are photocopying an article, chapter or section, photocopy the title page also and staple it to the front of the text.
Avoid using the internet as your major source Coherent discussion is not achieved by cobbling together material that is largely the result of cutting and pasting
Tutors spend much of their working lives reading. They are sensitive to changes in writing styles and can discern dodgy text.
Structured and well organised The bibliography enables the reader to trace materials and read further. It proves that you have read around the subject and are aware of the key ideas. The bibliography includes a range of sources. Referencing is in evidence throughout the text. Both referencing and bibliography are accurate
Designate a notebook for the particular assignment Make full notes of sources as you read, author’s name and initials (Who?) year of publication (When?) Title of book/article/website etc. (What?) Place of publication (Where?)
Entries listed alphabetically in order of authors’ names List multiple documents by the same author chronologically List multiple documents by the same author within the same year using letters, e.g. MacGilchrist (2006a), MacGilchrist (2006b) Do not partition the bibliography Open this as a file at the start of the assignment preparation
Nothing should be in the bibliography that is not in the assignment text. All references in the assignment text are listed in the bibliography
The following slides show examples of bibliographical entries. Formats vary according to sources.
Author’s surname followed by initial (s) Year of publication in brackets Title italicised Place of publication Publisher’s name NB. Punctuation to be exact in all formats Spanos, W. (1993) End of Education Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.
Authors’ surname and initials presented as they appear on the title page of the publication. N.B use commas to separate the authors and an ampersand before the last author) Year of publication in brackets Title italicised Place of publication Publisher’s name Gerwitz, S., Ball, S. & Bowe, R. ( 1995) Markets, Choice and Equity in Education London: Oxford University Press.
Chapter author’s surname and initials Year of publication in brackets ‘Title of chapter ’ (not italicised) followed by in: Initials and last name of editor (ed) Title of book in italics Place of publication Publisher Gillborn, D. ( 1999) ‘Race, nation and Education: New Labour and the New Racism’ in: J. Demaine,(ed) Education Policy and Contemporary Politics Basingstoke: Macmillan
Author’s surname and initials Year of publication in brackets ‘Title of article’ ( not italicised) Title of journal italicised Volume number (Edition Number ) Page range Aitkin, D.( 1990) ‘How research came to dominate higher education’ Oxford Review of Education 17 (3) pp.235-248
Full url and access date in brackets www.summerhillschool.co.ukwww.summerhillschool.co.uk (7.11.08)
Author’s surname and initials Year of publication in brackets Title of article (italicised) Full url (date accessed) Byron, T.(2008) Safer Children in a Digital World: the report by the Byron Review, http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/byronreview/ (7.11.08) http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/byronreview/
Refer to Faculty of Education Guidance on Written assignments
Set up a word document page with the title Bibliography and have a go at referencing some of the books and articles here. Reusable learning tools may help : http://www.rlo-cetl.ac.uk/joomla/index.php
Whenever you use some- one else’s information in your assignment you must immediately acknowledge the source of the information by giving : 1. The author’s surname (do not include initials or Christian names – they use your word count!); 2. The year of publication; 3. The page numbers (only necessary if you make a direct quote or paraphrase an idea form a particular page).
The more sophisticated your incorporation of quotations into your prose the more fluent and authoritative your writing will be. Some examples of phrase structures for introducing quotations are: _________ comments that ‘ …….’ As _______ states ‘…….’ ______ illustrates this by stating ‘……..’
Place the citation at the point where you have included the information The location of the citation should make it easy for the reader to link the citation with the information you present. Smith ( 1999,p.79) states that Australians in general enjoy good health, although studies on rural populations ( Wesson 2003) indicate that there are significant pockets of disease in country towns
Direct: Short quotations or phrases are placed in inverted commas within the body of your text: According to Garbarino et al. (1992), “Satisfactorily interpreting and responding to questions in interviews is a complex process” (p.180).
Longer quotations (40 or more words) should be separated from the text by being indented from the margin, and single spaced. These DO NOT have inverted commas: Satisfactorily interpreting and responding to questions in interviews is a complex process. The respondent must interpret the language of the question. She must monitor the interviewer’s gestures, tone of voice, inflection, expression, and rate of speech to see whether they alter the sense of the question. She must understand what type of question is being asked and what type of response that question elicits (Garbarino et al., 1992, p.180). Only include long quotations if the whole text is crucial to your subsequent discussion
Multiple authors are referred to within the text fully for the first time and then: Singleton et al. (1998) They are listed fully in the bibliography: Singleton, J.L., Supalla, S., Litchfield, S. & Schley, S. (1998) ‘From sign to word: Considering Modality Constraints’ in: Topics in Language Disorders 18 pp. 16-29
Guidance on Harvard Referencing and bibliography is published in the course handbook. Keep a copy of referencing by you when you write Start to notice how other people reference when you read Use the first assignment as a formative assessment and make a note of tutor comments re referencing
1. Goodman, S, Lillis, T. Maybin, J. and Mercer, N. (2003) Language, Literacy and Education: A Reader, Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books in assoc. with the Open University. 2. Reusable learning tools Website - http://www.rlo- cetl.ac.uk/joomla/index.php;http://www.rlo- cetl.ac.uk/joomla/index.php 3. Southampton University - http://www.soton.ac.uk/library/subjects/referen ces/index.html http://www.soton.ac.uk/library/subjects/referen ces/index.html 4. Yates, M. (2008) Faculty of Education BA Honours in Primary Education Handbook for Students 2007-8, University of Winchester, 5. Year 1 Study Skills notes.