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CSCE488 Professional Development Unintentional Plagiarism (And How to Avoid It) (Overheads by Roger Kieckhafer, used with permission) Rod96, Rod98.

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Presentation on theme: "CSCE488 Professional Development Unintentional Plagiarism (And How to Avoid It) (Overheads by Roger Kieckhafer, used with permission) Rod96, Rod98."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSCE488 Professional Development Unintentional Plagiarism (And How to Avoid It) (Overheads by Roger Kieckhafer, used with permission) Rod96, Rod98

2 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 2 Lecture Overview l Scope of Plagiarism l Types of Ownership l How Plagiarism Happens l Common Causes of Unintentional Plagiarism l Editing Tips l NOTE: Unless otherwise stated, material herein: F Is based on work by John Rodgers [Rod96, Rod98] F But, it includes interpretations and extensions by Kieckhafer, Seth, and me F So, check the refs for Rodgers’s real opinions

3 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 3 Scope of Plagiarism l DEF: The appropriation or use of someone else’s “intellectual property” without acknowledgement l Examples: F Whole papers F Actual text or figures (quotations) F Ideas, concepts, observations, approaches F “scholarship” (the effort of actually doing the research) l Gets into the problem of who “owns” an idea and what constitutes theft

4 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 4 Two Types of Ownership l Legal ownership F Reflects the right to profit from the idea F Protected by copyright (literally, the “right to copy”)  for a limited time F Can be bought and sold as a commodity l Original ownership F Reflects the identity of the originator F Independent of who holds the copyright  MetCalfe & Boggs will always be credited for writing the first paper on Ethernet MetCalfe & Boggs  Pythagorean Thrm. will always belong to Pythagoras

5 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 5 Motivations for Plagiarism l Intentional theft of Intellectual Property F Tends to be rare F Professionals cannot afford the risk F Students sometimes try (e.g. purchased term papers) F We will not discuss it further in this presentation l Inadvertent Plagiarism F Ignorance of the concept (a cultural phenomenon) F Ignorance of requirements for proper citation F Confusing legal with original ownership F Subtleties in scope of plagiarism

6 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 6 Common Causes of Plagiarism l Quotations l Paraphrasing l Common Knowledge l Cryptomnesia l Autoplagiarism l Referencing without Sweating

7 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 7 Quotations l Seems a rather obvious and easy case: F Use quotation marks & cite the source l But how many words constitute a quotation? F Rodgers’s rule of thumb: 3 or more words is a quote F “Fair Use” rule  typically up to 300 words may be quoted without copyright permission (check the pub) l Exceptions: F New terms, labels, names, or acronyms F In such a case, a single word may need to be cited F If you didn’t invent the term, tell who did

8 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 8 Paraphrasing l OK if done sparingly and without changing the meaning: F Do not confuse the reader about the originator’s ideas with your interpretation F State in the text that it is a paraphrase F Cite the source F Remember, it must be clear whose idea it is

9 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 9 Common Knowledge l Common Knowledge does not need to be cited l BUT: what constitutes “common” knowledge? F The sky is blue F Computers contain processors, memories, and I/O F Programs and data are both stored in memory F Superscalar processors are now quite popular l Suggestions: F Given the audience, will they consider it “common” F Is the origin lost in antiquity somewhere? F If you have a reference available, consider using it, especially if it’s a classic one (it rarely hurts to cite)

10 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 10 Cryptomnesia l Common failing, especially as one gets old! l You researched that topic a long time ago l You can’t remember where it came from F You may actually think the idea, figure, wording, etc. were originally yours F Result: you inadvertently present someone else’s idea as your own l Recommendations F Develop a simple scheme for labeling your sources F Photocopy all papers you use and file them together F Use copious source labels in your research notes

11 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 11 Autoplagiarism l DEF: re-using your own material from a previous pub. F Very common practice, especially in introductions F Very easy to do with “cut and paste” F So what’s wrong with that? l 1: Single Autoplagiarism F The publisher owns the copyright on the previous text F You are “original” owner, they are “legal” owner F Some publishers do return some rights to the authors F IEEE is pretty liberal, in general F Read the publisher’s “copyright agreement” to be sure

12 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 12 Autoplagiarism l 2: Group Autoplagiarism: F Scenario:  A group publishes a paper  Then someone leaves the group  Remaining members push on and publish more F Question: if you re-use text, should the person who left be listed as an author? F Recommendations:  Try to keep track of who wrote what (may be hard)  Upon breakup, copy all files to a read-only directory  If in doubt, list former member as final author

13 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 13 Autoplagiarism l 3: Corporate Autoplagiarism: F Scenario:  An employee publishes a paper  Another employee “borrows” the text for 2nd paper  1st employee gets upset F Original ownership may vest in the firm, not the author  Check your company’s policy  This policy would allow sharing of material F BUT: Copyright ownership vests in the publisher  1st publisher could sue if 2nd paper is published

14 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 14 Autoplagiarism l 4: Cultural Autoplagiarism: F Question: Who gets to be an author, and in what order? F Criteria:  A had the original idea  B did much of the development  C did most of the writing F These issues need to be discussed before you write! F Different disciplines (cultures) have different practices  List authors alphabetically (done in theoretical CS, not typically done in other CS or Eng.)  Lab director is always an author (even if ignorant)

15 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 15 Referencing without Sweating l Scenario: F The deadline is breathing down your neck F You can’t find the original reference (A) F But you know B cited A F So you lift the reference to A from B’s reference list l Why is this a problem? F You are stealing B’s “Scholarship”, (i.e. time & effort) F B may have a typo, error, or a bad reference F Textbooks are notoriously bad for detailed data l Solution: Read everything that you cite

16 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 16 Referencing without Sweating l Variation on the theme: F you want to cite a long list of references on one topic F B has already cited and listed them l Additional Problems: F B has cited them in his/her context F Some or all may be inappropriate in your context l Solution: F Don’t use a long list of references F Use a few prominent papers as examples (e.g. [1,4,9]) F Exception: may need list to convince hostile reviewer

17 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 17 General Editing Tips l Use copious citations in your notes l Try not to use the primary source while typing (Ben Franklin’s exercise – see van Leunen handout) l Read what you have written, and ask: F Is it clear whose idea (words, figure) this is? F How close is this to the original source? l If you can’t remember the source at that moment F leave a marker in the text (e.g. “@ref” or “\cite{???}”) F later search for and resolve all of your markers

18 9/5/2001 CSCE 488: Plagiarism 18 References l [Rod96] John Rodgers, Plagiary and the Art of Skillful Citation, /Micro-Immuno/courses/igr/homeric.html, Modified: unknown. l [Rod98] John Rodgers, How to Cite Skillfully and Avoid Plagiarizing, © John Rodgers 1998, Unpub, Available: /Micro-Immuno/courses/igr/homeric.html.

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