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Research Paper. Source Cards & Note Cards Source cards: Bibliographic information (author, title, publishing info., etc.) of resources you will use in.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Paper. Source Cards & Note Cards Source cards: Bibliographic information (author, title, publishing info., etc.) of resources you will use in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Paper

2 Source Cards & Note Cards Source cards: Bibliographic information (author, title, publishing info., etc.) of resources you will use in your paper.Source cards: Bibliographic information (author, title, publishing info., etc.) of resources you will use in your paper. Note cards: summaries, paraphrases and quotations of resources.Note cards: summaries, paraphrases and quotations of resources. Source card Note card

3 Gathering Information & Creating Source Cards Library resources:Library resources: –Reference books: Encyclopedias, non-fiction books. –Online databases: Student Resource Center (Gale), EBSCO, Facts on File, SIRS Researcher. –Internet websites:.edu,.org,.gov (reliable);.com (be careful which you choose). Sources should provide substantial amount of information.Sources should provide substantial amount of information. Print-out “printer-friendly” articles, take notes, photocopy, borrow books.Print-out “printer-friendly” articles, take notes, photocopy, borrow books. Create a MLA-formatted source card for each source.Create a MLA-formatted source card for each source.

4 Taking notes Types of note-taking:Types of note-taking: –Summarizing: shortened version of original text: expresses one or two main points of text. –Paraphrasing: expresses all of the ideas of the original text using different language and sentence structure. –Quoting: word for word copy of text; use quotation marks. Feminism origins 1 p. 83 -3 “waves” of feminism -18 th c. – Mary Wollstonecraft writes “Vindication of the Rights of Women” - education

5 Creating Note cards Format:Format: –Key word (Examples: “Origins of movement,” “Major events of movement,” “Key figures,” “Author’s education,” “Artist’s major works”) on top of index card –Source card number in upper right corner –Page number (for print sources) in lower right corner –Notes (summaries, paraphrases or quotes) Create a new note card for each new category of information.Create a new note card for each new category of information. Organize cards by source, not by topic.Organize cards by source, not by topic. Feminism origins 1 p. 83 -3 “waves” of feminism -18 th c. – Mary Wollstonecraft writes “Vindication of the Rights of Women” – education

6 To summarize, you need to… Re-read the text until you completely understand it.Re-read the text until you completely understand it. Highlight key ideas (topic sentences of paragraphs usually provide a clue).Highlight key ideas (topic sentences of paragraphs usually provide a clue). Delete minor supporting details and repeated information.Delete minor supporting details and repeated information. Collapse lists (“precious gems” instead of “diamonds, rubies, emeralds”).Collapse lists (“precious gems” instead of “diamonds, rubies, emeralds”). Write the key ideas in your own words (bullet pointed lists).Write the key ideas in your own words (bullet pointed lists). Cite your source in your paper.Cite your source in your paper.

7 Sample summary Original text (by Lynne Ford):Original text (by Lynne Ford): “ Cott identifies three characteristics that can be found in all feminist ideas: (1) a belief in equality, defined not as “sameness” but rather as opposition to ranking one’s sex superior or inferior to the other, or opposition to one sex’s categorical control of the rights and opportunities of the other; (2) a belief that women’s condition is socially constructed and historically shaped rather than preordained by God or nature; and (3) a belief that women’s socially constructed position situates then on shared ground, enabling a group identity or gender consciousness sufficient to mobilize women for change.” Create bullet points of information on note cards:Create bullet points of information on note cards: –3 feminist ideas (historian Nancy Cott) –One sex isn’t better than another and shouldn’t have more rights –Women’s second place status created by society; not natural or God-given –All women are affected, allowing them to fight together

8 In paper, combine your bullets into your own sentences:In paper, combine your bullets into your own sentences: The historian Nancy Cott recognized three basic ideas shared by feminists. First, males are not better than females and should not have more rights and vice versa. Second, women’s secondary status is created by society; it is not natural or God-given. Finally, all women are treated unequally, allowing them to share in a common fight (Ford). Sample summary (cont.)

9 To paraphrase, you need to… Re-read the text until you completely understand it.Re-read the text until you completely understand it. Highlight key ideas (topic sentences of paragraphs usually provide a clue).Highlight key ideas (topic sentences of paragraphs usually provide a clue). Write the material in your own words and sentence structure (use synonyms, change verbs, move parts of sentence around, combine sentences, change parts of speech, change voice).Write the material in your own words and sentence structure (use synonyms, change verbs, move parts of sentence around, combine sentences, change parts of speech, change voice). Cite your source in your paper.Cite your source in your paper.

10 Paraphrase Tools Replace some of the words with synonyms.Replace some of the words with synonyms. –“As a word and concept, feminism is a relatively recent addition to the lexicon.” –The term feminism began to be used a short time ago.

11 Paraphrase Tools Change a positive verb into a negative verb.Change a positive verb into a negative verb. –“Feminism is a complex and somewhat paradoxical ideology that defies a single definition.” –Feminism cannot be easily defined because it includes complicated and contradictory ideas.

12 Paraphrase Tools (cont.) Move parts of sentences around.Move parts of sentences around. –“As a word and concept, ‘feminism’ is a relatively recent addition to the lexicon, emerging only in the 1910s to express a broader set of goals than the suffrage movement embraced.” –After the 1910s right to vote campaign, the term “feminism” came to include additional aims for women’s rights.

13 Paraphrase Tools (cont.) Combine sentences with connecting words.Combine sentences with connecting words. –“As a word and concept, ‘feminism’ is a relatively recent addition to the lexicon. It emerged only in the 1910s to express a broader set of goals than the suffrage movement embraced.” –The term “feminism” came to be used after the right to vote campaign in the 1910s, and it reflected additional aims for women’s rights.

14 Paraphrase Tools (cont.) Change active voice into passive voice and vice versa.Change active voice into passive voice and vice versa. –“The unity of the female sex was symbolized by nineteenth-century women’s consistent usage of the singular ‘woman.’” –Nineteenth-century women’s adopting the singular “woman” represented their standing together for one cause.

15 Paraphrase Tools (cont.) Change words into different parts of speech.Change words into different parts of speech. –“The unity of the female sex was symbolized by nineteenth-century women’s consistent usage of the singular ‘woman.’” –Nineteenth-century women used the singular term “woman” to show their solidarity.

16 Poem, Song Lyrics, Art Image & Short Story Note Cards In analysis, focus on answering the questions:In analysis, focus on answering the questions: –What message does the artist/writer present in his/her work? –How does he/she communicate that message? Use direct quotations from or descriptions of the works that illustrate what the artist/writer hoped to communicate to his/her audience.Use direct quotations from or descriptions of the works that illustrate what the artist/writer hoped to communicate to his/her audience. Poem analysis5 “Tomorrow,/ I’ll be at the table/ When company comes. Nobody’ll dare/ Say to me, ‘Eat in the kitchen.,’/ Then.” -Hughes is hopeful that he will be given his civil rights in the future, but makes it clear that it is not happening now. The words “tomorrow” and “then” show it is not yet happening. p. 802

17 Creating an Outline An outline presents the content and organization of your paper.An outline presents the content and organization of your paper. A thesis statement should appear at the top of your outline.A thesis statement should appear at the top of your outline.

18 Outline (cont.) Use standard number-letter format. Each category of information (topics and subtopics) receives a number or letter designation:Use standard number-letter format. Each category of information (topics and subtopics) receives a number or letter designation: –Roman numerals: I, II, III, IV… –Capital letters: A, B, C, D… –Arabic numerals: 1, 2, 3, 4… –Lowercase letters: a, b, c, d… Must have at least two subtopics (I & II, A & B).Must have at least two subtopics (I & II, A & B). Capitalize first words of each entry.Capitalize first words of each entry. Italicize or Underline book titles.Italicize or Underline book titles. Italicize or place short story, poem or song titles in Quotation Marks.Italicize or place short story, poem or song titles in Quotation Marks.

19 Writing a Thesis Statement A single sentence that appears in the introductory paragraph and that reveals the central idea of your paper.A single sentence that appears in the introductory paragraph and that reveals the central idea of your paper. Thesis statement may be revised as you continue your research.Thesis statement may be revised as you continue your research.

20 Sample Thesis Statements The work of poet, Langston Hughes was accepted into black artists’ communicates and presents a more hopeful outlook on civil rights than that of poet, Paul Lawrence Dunbar, whose work was not as well-received.The work of poet, Langston Hughes was accepted into black artists’ communicates and presents a more hopeful outlook on civil rights than that of poet, Paul Lawrence Dunbar, whose work was not as well-received. Although they enjoy more rights than earlier feminists, the songs of artists Pink and Colbie Caillat reveal, through their own personal struggles, new ways women are searching for equal rights.Although they enjoy more rights than earlier feminists, the songs of artists Pink and Colbie Caillat reveal, through their own personal struggles, new ways women are searching for equal rights.

21 Sample Thesis Statements (cont.) The work of anti-war writers Bob Dylan and Wilfred Owen, who wrote at different periods in history when people had different views on war, are effective because they appeal to readers’ emotions and show the meaninglessness of war.The work of anti-war writers Bob Dylan and Wilfred Owen, who wrote at different periods in history when people had different views on war, are effective because they appeal to readers’ emotions and show the meaninglessness of war. To communicate their messages about preserving nature, environmental artists Joni Mitchell and Alan Sonfist show how human beings have destroyed the beauty of nature in the urban settings in which they lived.To communicate their messages about preserving nature, environmental artists Joni Mitchell and Alan Sonfist show how human beings have destroyed the beauty of nature in the urban settings in which they lived.

22 Review Your Thesis Is my thesis written in a single sentence?Is my thesis written in a single sentence? Does my thesis reveal the subject (topic) of my paper?Does my thesis reveal the subject (topic) of my paper? Does my thesis reveal the argument I will make in my paper?Does my thesis reveal the argument I will make in my paper? Does my thesis avoid beginnings like… “I think” or “The purpose of my paper is…”?Does my thesis avoid beginnings like… “I think” or “The purpose of my paper is…”?


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