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Teaching VCE Australian History for the first time? Jo Leech Carey B G S

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1 Teaching VCE Australian History for the first time? Jo Leech Carey B G S

2 What is the key to student success in VCE History?  To know and understand the requirements of the end of year exam

3 How do you find out about exam expectations  HTAV VCE conference at beginning of each year – listen to examiner’s report  VCAA website – has examiner report  Talk to other more experienced teachers  Apply to be an examiner with VCAA  xamsassessreports.html#H2N40004B xamsassessreports.html#H2N40004B

4 Find an Australian History Mentor  Choose someone in the school who is currently or previously taught the subject  Choose someone from another school who has had success teaching the subject (check results in The Age – Dec)  Attend conferences – network  Attend network meetings held by HTAV  Contact HTAV for advice

5 The Study Design  Read the Study Design – check the requirements of the subject  Look carefully at the language being used – create glossary from here  Know and understand your Study Design (VCAA)  html html  The exam questions come from the (key knowledge) dot points listed in the Study Design for each Area of Study and Outcome

6 Areas of Study Area of Study 3 : Unit 1 :Imagining Australia  A New Land: Port Phillip District :1830 – 1860 Area of Study 3 : Unit 2 : Imagining Australia  Nation, Race and Citizen : Area of Study 4 : Unit 1  Testing the New Nation Area of Study 4 : Unit 2  Debating Australia’s future 1960 – 2000

7 Term Planner  BIG PICTURE - Work Backwards  Write in deadlines & extra days eg:athletics  Work out when SACs are to be done  Plan units of work which allow for some revision time  Vary lessons - eg: text based, creative  Student centred/ Teacher centred  Manage time – so that all relevant skills and content can be taught

8 Structuring the course  The time given to each Area of Study is important  In Australian – I allocate – 4 blocks of approx. 6 weeks – with 4 weeks at the end of the year (before the yr 12s leave) for revision  In the revision month – 1 week per topic and they sit a full exam in October

9 Organising Student Handouts  Keep in a spiral bound folder - a copy of each handout for any one unit of work  Always photocopy 5 or more spares as students will inevitably lose their sheet between classes - saves frustration  With multiple sheets - use varied colours, easier for identification -say red sheet for eg; instead of PPD settlement  The coding helps you at exam revision time

10 Teach to the Dot Points  Dot Points – Key Knowledge  This is where the exam questions are devised from  The exam panel may use exact words from the dot points or at least words that have the same meaning  Students need to be 100% familiar with these Dot Points

11 Teaching - structure  Teach one Dot Point at a time  Know the date points  Explain key terms (words)  Develop knowledge and source material for that dot point  Have a range of primary sources  Know the key historians and views  Show the students how this Dot Point translates into an exam question

12 The Assessment Guide  Read the assessment guide to work out the types of SACs which are suggested for each Area of Study  Take careful note of the structure suggested  Find out what style of question is on the exam for each area of study – match the SAC skills to it  Take careful note of the grade descriptors and clearly go through them prior to the SAC – try and match them with the exam grade descriptors

13 Notes and readings  It is good to have resources available for them  Colour code topics – helps them to organise notes and readings  Start with the standard middle of the range readings – then have some lower level ones and extension ones on hand to give to relevant students

14 Extending top students  Have extra reading and resources  Teach them how to write critically and what sophisticated writing in this exam context means  Teach them to write in a style which shows them thinking like an historian comparing a variety of sources to support their ideas

15 The class as a team!  Teaching history is not about the individual – you need to explain to the class the importance of them considering themselves as a team  They need to work to support each other and have their marks close together  You really don’t want your class grades spread too widely

16 SACs  Prepare the students for the SACs  Give them warning of time and dates prior  Teach them relevant skills – eg: interpreting a source [CCF]  Match SACs to their corresponding exam question  For eg: Australian History – Document is Section A or Section D – so do your Document Analysis SAC in this topic …  Allow them one page of hand written notes for the first one or two SACs – this is good for note taking – supports exam revision  Try and mark SACs with the class as a bunch with the top mark being 100% where possible – be very strict with the criteria as a model for the exam

17 SAC - Ranking  The rank order of your class is very important – you need to understand where you think they are going to end up in the final exam Indicative Grades  You want them to be no more than 2 grades away from what they end up getting (you need to know how they will perform in the exam)

18 SAC value vs Exam value  I would argue that the SACs are really only worth about 10%  They are important for the purpose of ranking the class however they don’t seem to hold a lot of weight towards the students’ final mark  The exam seems to be worth about 90% - it is the key to the students’ final mark

19 Making Links  Refer back to the exam throughout the year  While teaching the course – make reference and comments to what aspects will be useful or relevant to the exam  Make everything transparent – you are ultimately teaching towards an exam

20 Review previous exams  The course is in a 5 year cycle  Have a look at the previous exams for patterns in the asking of questions  VCAA - xamsassessreports.html xamsassessreports.html  You can download/print as a PDF file

21 On-going revision  Have revision activities at the end of each dot point and Area of Study  This way the students are constantly revising the content needed for the exam  Give student practice essays using the source material taught for each dot point at the end of each Area of Study

22 Practice Exams  Have practice exams throughout the year  In a practice exam model the timing for each question and the relevant skill  Have the criteria as the exam would  You may just practice one area of study randomly in a lesson in the relevant time – so that students can get used to the exam format

23 What NOT to do in the Exam  Don’t give a narrative (eg: don’t tell a story)  Don’t give a general account of participation in the period in general  Don’t use evidence that doesn’t relate  Don’t write in point form

24 What the exam wants  The exam is designed for students to show their knowledge from the year  The aim is to utilise sources to support their argument  Most questions require a direct response – which shows 2 sides of the argument

25 Exam questions  The majority of the questions are going to ask the students, either:  How far do you agree …  To what extent do you agree …  It’s forcing students to show all sides of the argument – using sources to do this  Students should NEVER agree or disagree

26 Exam Questions  Where a question asks a student to; refer to their study or what they have studied this year – then – it is asking them to focus on the dot points (key ideas) and support the answer with sources.  At NO time is a narrative required – and in almost EVERY question sources are required to support their answer.

27 Direct Preparation  Leading up to the exam students should have prepared their summary sheets.  They then need to practice writing and answering questions in allocated times.  For example by the start of Term 4 they should be able to complete one section in 30 minutes (this is for Australian)  Note – adapt the timing practice to your exam’s requirements – Australian is 4 sections of half an hour each

28 Keeping Spirits High  Keep students positive – and believing in themselves  Be realistic – but know that if they can site sources and answer questions then they will get more than a C+  The examiners aim to reward students for what they know

29 Motivating Students  Read the students – ebbs and flows  Be flexible – firm but realistic  Have rewards and vary activities – teacher centred, student centred – group, pair, individual work  Reading, videos, songs, Power Points, quizzes, spot tests, guest speakers and lectures  Positive reinforcement  Incentives for eg; food  Stamps, stickers

30 Underperforming students  Ask them…”What do you want to see on the piece of paper when you open the envelope in December?”  Then work with them based on their response to that question  Be available – have one on one sessions

31 VCAA - website  Refer to the website for examiners comments from the previous years (even though the exam has change in 2005)  Try and use her suggestions to help you refine your teaching  The website should have previous exams on it and other advice for both teachers and students  Pauline Rule – Australian History Representative at VCAA

32 HTAV  Ring the HTAV for advice  They can help you with resource material  They can put you in contact with experienced teachers  They run PD and lectures for teachers  They run lectures for students – 3x a year

33 Unit 3 – Area of Study One  A New Land – Port Phillip District  1830 – 1860  3 Dot points  Settlement – push /pull  Contact with Aborigines  Gold – change in society  Aim for approx. 2 weeks on each topic

34 Dot Point 1 Reasons for Migration Who Came?PUSHPULL Van Dieman’s Land (VDL) NSW English Irish Scottish Welsh Other

35 Who came and why? Push Factors  Rural poverty  Population explosion  Despair at factory  Working class shift – new view of colonies  Working class press Pull Factors  Labour shortage  A ‘bellyful’ place  Letters home  Gold discovery  Headlong rush

36 Charles Never by William Strutt Charles Never – is an example of someone who assimilated. He became a tailor in Collingwood. Other examples of those who assimilated included Gellibrand, Derrimut and the Native Police.

37 Web search – Dot Point 2:- The Impact of Settlement on Aboriginal People  KEY IDEA: The impact of European contact and colonisation on Aboriginal communities  Internet Search Activity   →This website provides primary source material on the impact of the British invasion and colonisation of Australia on Aboriginal people in Victoria.  Journeys - online/encounters/Journeys/index.htm online/encounters/Journeys/index.htm  The focus here is on two individuals, Gellibrand and Robinson.  Trace their journeys throughout Victoria.  online/encounters/Journeys/Gellibrand/index.htm online/encounters/Journeys/Gellibrand/index.htm  online/encounters/Journeys/Robinson/index.htm online/encounters/Journeys/Robinson/index.htm  For each man – write a brief summary of where they went, what they saw, their impressions and the aims of their missions.

38 Web search – Dot Point 2:- The Impact of Settlement on Aboriginal People  If possible include a brief quote which sums up their opinion of the Aboriginal people they encountered. (Explain how it does.)  Were their experiences different? Explain your answer using examples from the site.  Robinson’s journal extracts provide information (from the time) about the relationships developed between the settlers and the Aboriginals.  From reading these various encounters, (using specific examples) list the Aboriginal views of the settlers  and the settlers’ views of the Aboriginals.  online/encounters/Journeys/Robinson/index.htm online/encounters/Journeys/Robinson/index.htm  Aboriginal views of the settlers  Positive / Negative Specific example from text…  Settlers’ views of the Aboriginals  Positive / Negative Specific example from text

39 A New Land – Port Phillip District 1830 – 1860  Texts and resource material  Need primary sources  Newspapers, diary entries,  S.T. Gill – visuals on the National Library website  Talk to the HTAV

40 Port Phillip District - Books  G. Blainey – The Triumph of the Nomads : a History of Australia  R. Broome – The Victorians: Arriving  R. Broome and A. Frost – Colonial Society  M. Cannon – Old Melbourne Town – before the Gold Rush  T. Flannery – The Birth of Melbourne  B. Nance – Level of Violence -Europeans and Aborigines in the Port Phillip District – (1981)  A.G.L. Shaw – The Port Phillip District – Victoria before Separation  State Library Victoria – Social Conditions and Political Life The Colonial Experience, The Port Phillip District, Education Centre, 1999

41 Analysing Visual Representations CCF  Content  Argument?  Literal and Symbolic elements?  Who or what is omitted?

42 Analysing Visual Representations CCF  Context  Date produced? – significance?  Whose view? Who is it for?  Representing what?  What’s going on?

43 Analysing Visual Representations CCF  Function  Eg: Middle class “white” Australia _________________________________  Link and write paragraphs using key terms  Move from the general to the specific  Develop – linking visual to broader issues

44 Gold – Books  M. G. Blanden – Australia – All our Yesterdays  M. Cannon – Melbourne after the Gold Rush  Grant and Searle – The Melbourne Scene 1803 – 1956  J.R.J. Grigsby – The Turbulent Years  T. Gurry – The European Occupation  G. Weller & J. Clarke – Gold  G. Searle – The Golden Age  G. Searle – The Gold Generation

45 Unit 3 – Area of Study Two - Books  R. Darlington – Unity & Diversity Australia since 1850  Hirst, J – The Sentimental Nation. The Making of the Australian Commonwealth, Oxford Uni Press, Australia, 2000  Kingston, B – The Oxford History of Australia,Vol. 3, 1860 – 1900, Oxford Uni. Press, 1988  White, R - Inventing Australia Images and Identity 1688 – 1980, Allen and Unwin, Australia, 1984

46 Unit 3 – Area of Study Two - Books  Ward, Russel – The Australian Legend – Oxford Press 1958  Hoban, Mary – Exploring Asian Histories – HTAV 1993  Tudball, Libby – Australian Perspectives  Gibb, D.M. – National Identity and Consciousness – Thomas Nelson Australia 1983  Cantwell, John & Sinclair, Kathryn (Eds) – Readings: Images of a Nation – HTAV 1997  Gurry, Tim – An Emerging Identity – Heinemann Educational Australia 1988

47 Unit 4 – Area of Study One  Choose one of WWI, Depression, WWII  Need to be able to resource it  Need to have student interest in the topic  This is best done as the research – therefore need to have access to resources

48 Debating Australia’s Future Attitudes to the Vietnam War 1965 and  Australian advisers increased to 100  1 st American combat troops  Menzies announced 29 th April service 1970 April – Prime Minister Gorton – reduction of Australian troops 1970 & 1971  Australia reached peak with large moratorium rallies

49 Unit 4 – Area of Study Two  Choose one of the issues;  Need to be able to resource it  You need to have an interest – need to be able to teach it quickly  Need to have student interest in the topic

50 Source Analysis  Overall Aim: Respond to a primary source image, document, song, newspaper, cartoon, painting, diary entry etc…  (Something that can photocopy well in black and white)  Response  Evidence  Conclusion  Spend 5 minutes looking at it  Written, in 30 minutes as a mini-essay  Begin: Generic statement re: actual things  For eg:  Main Body: Don’t miss a thing – squeeze the visual for everything, literal and symbolic.  What it tells you about the time period  Values  Principles  Ideals

51 Source Analysis  Comments on things about:  The source  Who?  When?  Significance of this?  BUT  Other – sources which show your wider understanding  Eg: similar to  Compliment one another  THEN  Bring it all together  What does the SOURCE tell you about the time?  At the end include other things you know about the period to support your discussion.

52 Using Evidence  Use other evidence to compare and contrast with the document/visual presented, for eg;  Quotes – from the time or historians  Figures or statistics  Experiences – letter, diary entries  Paintings, drawings, photographs  Cartoons, comics  Newspaper articles

53 Historiography  Read documents from the texts and think of them in terms of the 4 broad questions listed below.  When Reading History you need to ask yourself 4 broad questions:-  Who wrote it?  Why did they write it?  What style of history is it?  In what context did they write?

54 Satisfying the Criteria  Have accurate knowledge – dates, names, spelling etc.,  Understand the issues – link to the visual  Use words and terms from the Study Design  Refer to the context and date in the first sentence  Use specific evidence to support & answer  Analyse evidence & arrive at a conclusion

55 Create a table from Study Design & make summary Notes at the end of each unit. Keep for revision period.

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