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Immigration to Minnesota: Then and Now A Classroom Lesson for Upper Elementary Copyright Minnesota Historical Society, 2007.

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1 Immigration to Minnesota: Then and Now A Classroom Lesson for Upper Elementary Copyright Minnesota Historical Society, 2007

2 The stories of Minnesota’s people pop up in all sorts of places. They’re carved into rock walls rising above northern lakes and on rocky ridges in the southwestern prairies. They pass from generation to generation through the mouths of storytellers. They jump from the pages of diaries, journals, and written histories. --Dave Kenney, Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past

3 In this session... We will examine stories of two immigrants who chose Minnesota as their home. Immigration to our state has come in two major waves—first, in the mid-1800s, and second, between the 1970s and today. This lesson explores both.

4 Point to Consider about Content A primary focus of this lesson is on the new settlers coming into Minnesota during the territorial period ( ) and years of early statehood. However, it is still important to assess the impact this had on Minnesota’s first populations, the Dakota and Ojibwe peoples. It is difficult to overestimate the fundamental way Dakota and Ojibwe life was altered by the influx of Americans and foreign immigrants into Minnesota during this era.

5 Lesson Goals To give students an understanding of challenges people face who are uprooted from their homeland and settle in a new place. To introduce students to the concepts of push and pull factors that lead to immigration. To give students experience using primary sources to gather information about a subject.

6 Social Studies Standards Minnesota History (Grades 4-8) This lesson addresses the following standards: C. Early Settlement and Statehood – The student will know and understand the factors that led to rapid settlement of Minnesota in the 19 th Century and the changes the new Minnesotans brought with them. 1. Students will explain why early settlers came to Minnesota and analyze their impact on political, cultural, and physical landscapes.

7 Social Studies Standards Historical Skills (Grades 4-8) This lesson addresses the following standards: B. Historical Resources – The student will begin to use historical resources. 1. Students will identify, describe, and extract information from various types of sources, both primary and secondary. C. Historical Inquiry – The student will analyze historical evidence and draw conclusions. 1. Students will understand that primary sources document first-hand accounts of historical events. 2. Students will compare perspectives in primary sources and determine how the different perspectives shaped the authors’ view of historical events.

8 Lesson Prep The following 10 slides are provided solely for your lesson prep. You will photocopy them—some for your use only, and some for student handouts. Teacher Use Only. Make one copy: You will read from these 3 sheets during the presentation. Abbreviated versions will show onscreen for the students – Immigration to Minnesota:Then – Transportation: Then – Slide 12. A Long Journey – Immigration to Minnesota: Now Student Handouts. Make one for each student:

9 Photocopies for Teacher Use Make one copy of each of the next few slides. These slides are for you. You will read from these 4 sheets during the presentation, as abbreviated versions show onscreen for the students. – Immigration to Minnesota:Then – Transportation: Then – A Long Journey – Immigration to Minnesota: Now

10 Immigration to Minnesota: Then Until about 1850, most of the people living in the place we call Minnesota were Indians—Dakota and Ojibwe. But in the next 10 years, things changed incredibly fast. Minnesota became the fastest-growing place in the United States. The speed with which white settlers took over Indian land was incredible. By 1860, white settlers were the majority. Some of these newcomers were immigrants from other countries, and many were people who traveled from other territories in the United States. As more and more people arrived, Minnesota itself changed in countless ways. from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

11 For as long as anyone could remember, there had been two ways to travel through the land we now call Minnesota—by foot or by canoe. But by the 1850’s, people had a few more choices. Transportation: Then In 1847, steamboats started making regular stops at the village of St. Paul.The boats carried people and supplies. Great numbers of immigrants took trains from the East Coast to Mississippi River towns such as Galena, Illinois, and then boarded steamboats bound for Minnesota.The boats could run only from April to November, when the river was clear of ice. from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

12 A Long Journey St. Paul People traveled far to get to their new home in Minnesota. Notice the section from Galena to St. Paul. That part alone took anywhere from 2 to 6 days. Now, think about how long it would have taken to get there from New York or Boston. Look at the water and land routes. For many, this was AFTER they’d already traveled from another country across the Atlantic Ocean. Sometimes, these trips took months to complete.

13 Immigration to Minnesota: Now From the late 1900s until now, new waves of immigrants have been making Minnesota their home. Russian Jews, Africans, Asians, and Latinos make up an increasing portion of the state’s population. Like earlier newcomers, they left their old homes for specific reasons, often to escape violence or poverty. And like all earlier newcomers, they came to Minnesota for specific reasons, often to join family and friends or to find new jobs. from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

14 Photocopies for Student Handouts Make enough copies of the following slides for your students. You may make one of each for every student, or enough for them to work on pairs— you make the call. Give handouts to students as you get to them in the slideshow: – An Immigrant from Scotland – Two Letters in Alexander Harkin’s Pockets – Alexander Harkin Chose Minnesota: Reasons Why – An Immigrant from Laos, p. 1 – An Immigrant from Laos, p. 2 – Kao Xiong Chose Minnesota: Reasons Why

15 An Immigrant from Scotland Alexander Harkin As a young boy in Scotland, Alexander Harkin had learned farming was hard work. Still, he had often dreamed of owning his own farm. But this wasn’t an option for him, like other Scottish people who weren’t wealthy enough to own land. Harkin wasn’t wealthy, but we was ambitious. He knew his chances of owning land in Scotland were very low. He made the decision to make the journey to a new land where he’d heard about opportunity—the United States. When he was just 20 years old, Harkin came to Massachusetts and got a job at a factory. Six days a week, he had to do the same dull task hour after hour. Six years later, he decided there would be no more listening to the crazy pounding of machines. No more worrying about losing his job whenever the factory’s business slowed down. From now on, Alex Harkin was going to be his own master—a Minnesota farmer. Alexander Harkin in 1874, nearly 20 years after his arrival in Minnesota. Adapted from Three Immigrant Stories, a component of The Immigrant Experience: A Minnesota History Resource. Copyright © 1977 by the Minnesota Historical Society.

16 Two Letters in Alexander Harkin’s Pockets Fort Ridgely Minnesota Territory September 26 th, 1855 Dear Brother,... I was happy to hear of your decision to become a farmer in Minnesota Territory. Here is large Territory inviting you to cultivate it. The land will yield you one hundred fold of all that is necessary for a good life... I hope to have some preparations for our farm on your arrival. I have alread begun to purchase stock. I am the owner of one fine milk cow, two calves, and one bull of the Durham breed, the best in the Territory. Hogs and chickens I will have no trouble obtaining when I hear of your arrival... With my best wishes for your future health and happines, I remain your affectionate brother, Barney Harkin Adapted from Three Immigrant Stories, a component of The Immigrant Experience: A Minnesota History Resource. Copyright © 1977 by the Minnesota Historical Society. Melrose, Scotland March 17, 1856 My Dear Brother, When you receive this letter, you will be ready to begin your long journey to the far west. I hope you have got everything comfortable for the voyage. I wish I had been with you to help you pack all your things and to have seen you once more... Father and I are afraid that you will not find Barney and things in Minnesota Territory as you expect. If this should be so, I trust you will be prepared for this trial and disappointment. Also, if you ever should get to see Barney, do tell him that Father and I are anxiously waiting to hear from him. Dearest brother, I know it will be a trial for you to leave all your dear friends in Massachusetts and to go away again among strangers. But I do hope that even in the far west, you will meet some good, heavenly minded people... Catherine Harkin

17 Pull factors: Why Did Harkin Choose Minnesota? Push Factors: Why Did Harkin Leave His Homeland? Alexander Harkin Chose Minnesota: Reasons Why Why did Alexander Harkin make his journey? Remember the push and pull factors for moving to a new homeland? Below is a list of common reasons. Look over the list and choose ONE push factor and ONE pull factor that applied to Harkin’s story. Circle your answer, then explain why you chose it. War Forced Him Out or Caused Him to Flee To escape religious or social oppression Making a Living is Difficult To seek a job or education To join family members Response to a letter or advertisement promoting Minnesota Only the Wealthy Can Own Land Opportunity to Own Land Explain your answer ______________________ _______________________________________- Explain your answer__________________________ __________________________________________- __________________________________________

18 A Immigrant from Laos Kao Xiong The Story of Her Escape The year was 1979, and 17-year-old Kao Xiong (KOW SHAWNG) was swimming for her life. Crack! Crack! Kao knew what that sound was. Gunshots. Soldiers were firing at her, her father, and more than a dozen other people who were trying to swim across the Mekong (may-KHANG) River, which separates the Southeast Asian countries of Laos and Thailand. If Kao and her father could just make it to the other side, they’d be safe, too. They had made triangle-shaped life preservers out of strips of bamboo, but Kao’s father’s triangle kept breaking. “The current was very strong,” Kao later recalled, “but my father and I knew that if we didn’t make it this time, we would be shot... Our group finally made it to the Thai shore, where my mother and the rest of my family were waiting. We had all escaped Laos, and we were finally safe.” Kao Xiong holds a storycloth. from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

19 A Immigrant from Laos Kao is a member of an Asian group called the Hmong. The Hmong lived and farmed for many years in the mountains of Laos before they were forced to flee. Their problems started with the war in neighboring Vietnam during the 1960s and 1970s. The United States was fighting the communists in Vietnam, and the war spilled over into nearby Laos. The United States recruited Hmong men to fight the communists in Laos and had promised to protect the Hmong soldiers and their families. But when the communists won the war in 1975, the Americans left Vietnam. The communists in Laos killed many Hmong because they had helped U.S. soldiers. Some Hmong tried to hide in the mountains. Others, like Kao, decided to flee across the Mekong River into Thailand. For many years, Kao lived in Thailand, in a camp for people who had escaped dangerous conditions in Laos. She met her husband and had four children. “There was no future for our kids in the... camp,” Kao remembered. “We wanted our children to be free and have an an education and to have a good life.” In 1986, the U.S. government granted her family’s request to come to America. They lived in California for 8 years, then moved to Minnesota to join other family members. Kao Xiong’s family Churches and synagogues made special efforts to bring Hmong refugees to Minnesota. Word began to spread that Minnesota was a good place to live. Soon, thousands of Hmong were moving here. Still, adjustment was not easy. “We believe getting a good education in American schools is very important,” said Xiong’s husband, “but we also believe that our children should never forget where they came from.” from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

20 Pull factor: Why Did Xiong Choose Minnesota? Push Factor: Why Did Xiong Leave Her Homeland? Kao Xiong Chose Minnesota: Reasons Why War Forced Them Out or Caused Them to Flee To escape religious or social oppression Making a Living is Difficult To seek a job or education To join family members Response to a letter or advertisement promoting Minnesota Only the Wealthy Can Own Land Opportunity to Own Land Explain your answer ______________________ _______________________________________- Explain your answer__________________________ __________________________________________- __________________________________________ Why did Kao Xiong make her journey? Remember the push and pull factors for moving to a new homeland? Below is a list of common reasons. Look over the list and choose ONE push factor and ONE pull factor that applied to Harkin’s story. Circle your answer, then explain why you chose it.

21 Immigration to Minnesota A Lesson for Upper Elementary Grades

22 Key Terms Does anyone know what the word immigrant means? An immigrant comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there. You may also have heard a similar word. Does anyone know what emigrant means? An emigrant is a person who leaves one country to settle in another.

23 Key Terms A person who emigrates also immigrates. As he leaves his country of origin, he emigrates from his homeland, in order to immigrate to another country. Leaving his old country, he is an emigrant, but arriving in his new country, he is an immigrant.

24 and then becomes an immigrant who moves IN to another country. emigrant immigrant An emigrant EXITS one country,

25 immigrant = in emigrant immigrant emigrant = exit How to Remember the Words

26 WARM-UP: Photo Analysis Let’s learn more about immigrants. We are going to explore a photograph. We’ll look at the photo shown on next few slides, and then we’ll talk about it.

27 Immigrants on an Atlantic Liner, Edwin Levick,1906, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Warm-Up Photo Analysis Let your eyes wander over this photograph. Do not try to learn anything right away. Just let yourself become familiar with the picture.

28 Immigrants on an Atlantic Liner, Edwin Levick,1906, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Warm-Up Photo Analysis What do you see? What appears to be happening? Study the people. What do you notice about them? Does this look like a pleasant trip? If you were standing on this ship, what might you say to the person next to you? Now, let’s talk more about this photograph. Don’t worry about right or wrong answers. The purpose of this warm-up is to get used to exploring pictures and other pieces of the past.

29 Watch video (You’ll see a list. Click the one called “Belle of Louisville Whistle.” It lasts 30 seconds.) The photo was taken in It gives glimpse of what one boat trip looked like back then. What did a steamboat sound like? Now, we’ll listen to sounds from a quick video. It shows a steamboat that’s similar to ones used in early 1900s.

30 Why are we looking at pictures of a steamboat? Steamboats were one of the main ways immigrants traveled to Minnesota 150 years ago. Let’s learn more...

31 Immigration to Minnesota: Then Minnesota had a huge rush of immigration between 1850 and = most people in Minnesota were Indians 1860 = most people in Minnesota were white settlers who had come from other places As more and more people arrived, Minnesota changed in countless ways. from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

32 Before 1850, two modes of travel available: walking canoes By 1850, more options: steamboats Transportation for Immigrants In 1847, steamboats start to come to St. Paul. Many immigrants took trains from the East Coast, then took boats up Mississippi River to get to Minnesota. Boats can’t travel when river is icy. from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

33 If you were traveling in A trip from Galena, Illinois to St. Paul, Minnesota would take you: 2 days by steamboat 6 days by stagecoach Can you guess how long it would take to drive from Galena to St. Paul today? Transportation Then and Now Traveling by car today, this trip would take only 5 hours and 15 minutes! St. Paul

34 A Long Journey St. Paul People traveled far to get to Minnesota. Galena to St. Paul = 2 to 6 days Before that, many had come from Boston or New York. Before that, many had come from other countries. Entire trips could take 2 months.

35 An Example of Travel Conditions What a horrible morning! The wind is strong and the waves are high.The ship is rolling from side to side so much that it is impossible to stand up without getting dizzy. We are all terribly seasick. I would never have believed that a person could vomit as much as I have this morning. Conditions on the lower levels are beyond description. Since the toilets are so far away from these parts of the ship the passengers use chamber pots, which they leave on the floor. The rocking of the ship, however, has capsized many of these vessels, spreading filth in every direction. To make matters worse, people in the upper beds cannot help vomiting on their fellow suffers in the lower beds. --A German immigrant named Franz Joseph Ennemoser Excerpt from Three Immigrant Stories, Jeffrey A. Hess. A component of The Immigrant Experience: A Minnesota History Resource Unit. Copyright 1977 by the Minnesota Historical Society.

36 Before we go on, let’s stop for a minute and talk about what we’ve learned. Stop and Talk You know that in the mid-1800s, journeys from one country to another could be long, noisy, uncomfortable, and dangerous. But that didn’t stop people from coming. Can you think of some reasons WHY people might have made a journey such as this? TALK Let’s find out. We’ll discover the stories of some real people who have made the journey to Minnesota. Acting like detectives, we will explore pieces of these people’s pasts. These things—like photos and quotations — are called primary sources.

37 Those Who Chose Minnesota: Reasons Why There are countless reasons why people leave their homelands to move to a new country. Sometimes, people are forced to leave. Other times, they choose to look for new opportunities. In a minute, we’ll read two stories—one from the 1850s and one from modern times. In both, a person left another country and eventually moved to Minnesota. As you read these stories, think about two main things: Push factors: Why they left their homelands Pull factors: Why they chose Minnesota

38 A primary source is a piece of the past. To investigate stories from the past, historians examine primary sources. Primary sources are first-hand, original objects, such as letters, photos, diaries, and official documents like birth certificates. Historians use primary sources as evidence of past events, just as detectives use clues to solve a crime. We’ll study primary sources to find out why people chose to leave their homeland and settle in Minnesota. What is a primary source? from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

39 Historians keep in mind that primary sources reflect a certain point of view. For example, if your grandmother and her brother both wrote in their diaries about the same family event, the diary entries would be different. One person might say the event made them happy Point of View What People See and Understand Adapted from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003., while the other might say the same event made them sad. This is because each person has a unique point of view. Point of view—how you see and understand the world—is formed by education beliefs, and life experiences. Culture, time period, and the place you live also shape your point of view.

40 EVERYONE HAS A POINT OF VIEW

41 Stories of Real People Who Chose Minnesota New people have been coming to Minnesota for centuries. We’re going to explore a few stories. As we do, we’ll investigate primary sources and points of view. We’ll learn about someone who came to Minnesota around the time it became a state—150 years ago, in And we’ll also learn about someone who came to Minnesota in modern times. Let’s meet them...

42 An Immigrant from Scotland Alexander Harkin As a young boy in Scotland, Alexander Harkin had learned farming was hard work. Still, he had often dreamed of owning his own farm. But this wasn’t an option for him, like other Scottish people who weren’t wealthy enough to own land. Harkin wasn’t wealthy, but we was ambitious. He knew his chances of owning land in Scotland were very low. He made the decision to make the journey to a new land where he’d heard about opportunity—the United States. When he was just 20 years old, Harkin came to Massachusetts and got a job at a factory. Six days a week, he had to do the same dull task hour after hour. Six years later, he decided there would be no more listening to the crazy pounding of machines. No more worrying about losing his job whenever the factory’s business slowed down. From now on, Alex Harkin was going to be his own master—a Minnesota farmer. Alexander Harkin in 1874, nearly 20 years after his arrival in Minnesota. Adapted from Three Immigrant Stories, a component of The Immigrant Experience: A Minnesota History Resource. Copyright © 1977 by the Minnesota Historical Society.

43 Two Letters in His Pockets Text adapted from Three Immigrant Stories, a component of The Immigrant Experience: A Minnesota History Resource. Copyright © 1977 by the Minnesota Historical Society. On May 5, 1856, Alexander Harkin stood in the train station in Andover, Massachussets, waiting for the train that would take him to Minnesota. He and his new wife, Janet Harkin, did not know what to expect. A St. Paul and Pacific Railroad train, In Alex’ pockets, he held two letters written about the place soon to be his home— One from his brother, Barney One from his sister, Catherine. Read the letters.

44 Two Letters in Alexander Harkin’s Pockets Fort Ridgely Minnesota Territory September 26 th, 1855 Dear Brother,... I was happy to hear of your decision to become a farmer in Minnesota Territory. Here is large Territory inviting you to cultivate it. The land will yield you one hundred fold of all that is necessary for a good life... I hope to have some preparations for our farm on your arrival. I have alread begun to purchase stock. I am the owner of one fine milk cow, two calves, and one bull of the Durham breed, the best in the Territory. Hogs and chickens I will have no trouble obtaining when I hear of your arrival... With my best wishes for your future health and happines, I remain your affectionate brother, Barney Harkin Adapted from Three Immigrant Stories, a component of The Immigrant Experience: A Minnesota History Resource. Copyright © 1977 by the Minnesota Historical Society. Melrose, Scotland March 17, 1856 My Dear Brother, When you receive this letter, you will be ready to begin your long journey to the far west. I hope you have got everything comfortable for the voyage. I wish I had been with you to help you pack all your things and to have seen you once more... Father and I are afraid that you will not find Barney and things in Minnesota Territory as you expect. If this should be so, I trust you will be prepared for this trial and disappointment. Also, if you ever should get to see Barney, do tell him that Father and I are anxiously waiting to hear from him. Dearest brother, I know it will be a trial for you to leave all your dear friends in Massachusetts and to go away again among strangers. But I do hope that even in the far west, you will meet some good, heavenly minded people... Catherine Harkin

45 What Happened... Alexander Harkin Alexander Harkin remained in Minnesota. In 1870, he established Harkin’s General Store, eight miles north of New Ulm. It became a place for neighbors to connect. There, they checked their mail, bought needed items, played games, and watched steamboats from the porch. Though the store eventually shut down, when the railroad bypassed the town, Harkin’s store is a historical site today. You can visit this place, which is run by the Nicollet County Historical Society, and get a feel for what it was like. Alexander Harkin in 1874, nearly 20 years after his arrival in Minnesota.

46 You’ve read two letters written to Alexander Harkin—one from his brother and one from his sister. Stop and Talk What did Barney’s letter say about Minnesota? TALK What did Catherine’s letter say about Minnesota? Each had a different perspective about what Alex’s new life in Minnesota might be like. To find out, Alexander had to go there himself.

47 Pull factors: Why Did Harkin Choose Minnesota? Push Factors: Why Did Harkin Leave His Homeland? Alexander Harkin Chose Minnesota: Reasons Why Why did Alexander Harkin make his journey? Remember the push and pull factors for moving to a new homeland? Below is a list of common reasons. Look over the list and choose ONE push factor and ONE pull factor that applied to Harkin’s story. Circle your answer, then explain why you chose it. War Forced Him Out or Caused Him to Flee To escape religious or social oppression Making a Living is Difficult To seek a job or education To join family members Response to a letter or advertisement promoting Minnesota Only the Wealthy Can Own Land Opportunity to Own Land Explain your answer ______________________ _______________________________________- Explain your answer__________________________ __________________________________________- __________________________________________

48 Immigration: Now We’re going to read a story about a modern immigrant. As you read her story, be thinking about reasons why she to come to Minnesota from her homeland of Laos. Read the story silently to yourself. It will take a few minutes. Laos is in southeast Asia.

49 Immigration to Minnesota: Now From late 1900s till now, many new immigrants have been coming to Minnesota: Russian Jews, Africans, Asians, and Latinos, just to name a few. They left homelands for certain reasons AND They chose Minnesota for certain reasons. from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

50 An Immigrant from Laos Kao Xiong The Story of Her Escape The year was 1979, and 17-year-old Kao Xiong (KOW SHAWNG) was swimming for her life. Crack! Crack! Kao knew what that sound was. Gunshots. Soldiers were firing at her, her father, and more than a dozen other people who were trying to swim across the Mekong (may-KHANG) River, which separates the Southeast Asian countries of Laos and Thailand. If Kao and her father could just make it to the other side, they’d be safe, too. They had made triangle-shaped life preservers out of strips of bamboo, but Kao’s father’s triangle kept breaking. “The current was very strong,” Kao later recalled, “but my father and I knew that if we didn’t make it this time, we would be shot... Our group finally made it to the Thai shore, where my mother and the rest of my family were waiting. We had all escaped Laos, and we were finally safe.” Kao Xiong holds a storycloth. from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

51 An Immigrant from Laos Kao is a member of an Asian group called the Hmong. The Hmong lived and farmed for many years in the mountains of Laos before they were forced to flee. Their problems started with the war in neighboring Vietnam during the 1960s and 1970s. The United States was fighting the communists in Vietnam, and the war spilled over into nearby Laos. The United States recruited Hmong men to fight the communists in Laos and had promised to protect the Hmong soldiers and their families. But when the communists won the war in 1975, the Americans left Vietnam. The communists in Laos killed many Hmong because they had helped U.S. soldiers. Some Hmong tried to hide in the mountains. Others, like Kao, decided to flee across the Mekong River into Thailand. For many years, Kao lived in Thailand, in a camp for people who had escaped dangerous conditions in Laos. She met her husband and had four children. “There was no future for our kids in the... camp,” Kao remembered. “We wanted our children to be free and have an an education and to have a good life.” In 1986, the U.S. government granted her family’s request to come to America. They lived in California for 8 years, then moved to Minnesota to join other family members. Kao Xiong’s family Churches and synagogues made special efforts to bring Hmong refugees to Minnesota. Word began to spread that Minnesota was a good place to live. Soon, thousands of Hmong were moving here. Still, adjustment was not easy. “We believe getting a good education in American schools is very important,” said Xiong’s husband, “but we also believe that our children should never forget where they came from.” from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, 2003.

52 Storytelling Through Art Storycloths are a popular traditional art form in Southeast Asia. Many storycloths describe the journey the Hmong made to escape from Laos after the Vietnam War. from Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota’s Past, Minnesota Historical Society, Let your eyes wander over this image. Study it one piece at a time. Describe a person or object. What is happening? In some ways, this story is similar to Kao Xiong’s. Can you name a way this story is similar to Xiong’s?

53 You’ve read Kao Xiong’s story. Let’s talk a little about her journey. Stop and Talk Why did Kao Xiong leave her home? TALK What reasons did she give for coming to Minnesota? Can you think of any similaries between Kao Xiong’s story and Alexander Harkin’s? Can you think ways that Kao Xiong’s story is different from Alexander Harkin’s?

54 Pull factor: Why Did Xiong Choose Minnesota? Push Factor: Why Did Xiong Leave Her Homeland? Kao Xiong Chose Minnesota: Reasons Why War Forced Them Out or Caused Them to Flee To escape religious or social oppression Making a Living is Difficult To seek a job or education To join family members Response to a letter or advertisement promoting Minnesota Only the Wealthy Can Own Land Opportunity to Own Land Explain your answer ______________________ _______________________________________- Explain your answer__________________________ __________________________________________- __________________________________________ Why did Kao Xiong make her journey? Remember the push and pull factors for moving to a new homeland? Below is a list of common reasons. Look over the list and choose ONE push factor and ONE pull factor that applied to Harkin’s story. Circle your answer, then explain why you chose it.


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