Presentation on theme: "Main Criticisms of Qualitative Research Subjectivity leads to procedural problems Replicability is very difficult Unreliable Researcher bias is built in."— Presentation transcript:
Main Criticisms of Qualitative Research Subjectivity leads to procedural problems Replicability is very difficult Unreliable Researcher bias is built in and unavoidable In-depth, comprehensive approach to data gathering limits scope Labor intensive Time consuming Expensive Very unreliable (See Haralambos Methodology Chapter)
Changes in the Socio-Political System (GLOBAL) Marketization and global capitalism Problems of Gender identities Unjust social relations - class Problems of National identities Imposed knowledge The oppression of minorities organized violence The hegemonic ranslational institutions and the control of nation states and social actors Global surveillance, issues of privacy and the manipulation of identities and social practices through global information and communication technologies Incivility
Changes in the Socio-Political System (GLOBAL)/Intellectual and Academic 1980s Postmodernism Representations – it was understood that researchers/people created reality through their representational, textual and interpretive practices – the emergence of the discourse turn (text, action, sounds, images) associated with Foucault and Derrida How to (Re)present information The merging of social science and the humanities Politics of doing research Ethics and doing funded research Purpose – What is the purpose of the social sciences?
Changes in the Socio-Political System (GLOBAL) Need for deeper and rich understanding of social and political life Need for in-depth Examination of Phenomena (greater insights and depth) - Provide thick descriptions of a phenomena Extracts meaning from data Examine and answer complex questions that can be impossible with quantitative methods Need for a tool which explore new areas of social and political life Need for a holistic approach understanding/interpreting and explaining social life build new theories – new association between variables and deconstruct existing ones.
The emergence of new theories –Hermeneutics –Critical Inquiry –Feminism –Postmodernism Changes/Revolutions in the nature of Qualitative Research
The emergence of new methodologies –Grounded theory –Heuristic inquiry –Action research –Discourse analysis/Critical Discourse Analysis –Feminist/Critical/Postcolonial and Postmodern Ethnography
Changes in the nature of Qualitative Research The emergence of new data collection and data analysis tools – to verify and make possible the reproduction of a research project – trustworthiness Trustworthiness includes elements such as credibility, confirmability, transferability/Replicability (Lincoln and Guba, 1985). Reflexivity
Credibility Prolonged Engagement Persistent Observation Conduct peer consultations with colleagues – get their interpretations of the data Discuss issues such as the theoretical and accessible population, sampling frame and the actual sample, methodology, methods, the theoretical framework and the framing of the study Use data (methods) triangulation use of multiple methods Use different data sources to study a phenomena Member Checks
Transferability and Dependability Can the research be replicated else where (is it reliable)? Transferability or replicability is concerned with the readiness of both researchers and users of research findings to optimize the utilization of research elsewhere. Such an undertaking is dependent on "solid descriptive data," or "thick description" (See Gertz Photocopy - docuspot) which the interview procedure for this study provided. This was also facilitated through the use of the Audit Trail where the researcher thus establishes a trackable and documentable process (Lincoln and Guba, 1985). Replicability was enhanced through the use of a Case Study Protocol and the Case Study Database (Refer to docuspot photocopy).
Confirmability Are the findings a product of the focus of the inquiry and not the biases of the researcher ? Track data to their sources Audit Trail