Presentation on theme: "Talk in Life and Literature LO: to understand the basis of the question and the differences between crafted and ‘real’ talk."— Presentation transcript:
Talk in Life and Literature LO: to understand the basis of the question and the differences between crafted and ‘real’ talk.
Compare the two texts, showing how they reflect differences and similarities between talk in life and talk in literature. In your answer you must explore the relationship between context, purpose and audience, the use of narrative voice and the ways in which speakers’ attitudes and values are conveyed
Differences between crafted and real talk?? (photocopy Bev’s pages. Green divider and frameworks and approaches for the analysis of talk in life and literature.) Photocopy Spoken Lang- an overview.
Talking with a purpose Michael Halliday described language as ‘social semiotic.’ Why do we talk?? Who do we talk to?? Where do we talk and for what purpose? Are we good at talking? Photocopy purposes of talk
Features of speech LO: to understand the features of speech (real talk) and how they are used within real talk.
Features of Spontaneous Speech Discuss- photocopy page FOSS Lexis Grammar Non-fluency features Discourse structure
Phonological Aspects of Speech Prosodic Features?? Prosodic Features Intonationpitchvolume Sheet- title as above
Rules of Conversation LO: to understand the rules of a conversation and the theories used to support it.
Elements of a conversation Talk! What do you think are the rules of a conversation? Why? sheet
Conversational Interaction In pairs, act out the following scenarios of certain types of people talking to each other. Judge-accused Mother-son Flamboyant person-shy, discreet person King and subject Doctor-patient Teacher-student (well behaved) Teacher-student (poorly behaved) Photocopy sheet
Talk to each other for 1 minute. Make notes on how you interacted with each other, eg: did someone dominate? Why? Interruptions… why? What topics were discussed… why? Questions 1. Who is in control? Is it always the person with a higher status? 2. How do they interact with each other? Non-verbal features? 3. What attitudes do these pairing reveal? 4. Agenda setting? 5. Interruptions/asking questions?
Theories of Spoken Language- William Labov (Spoken Narratives) 6 part structure (a monologue being told by the reader, spontaneously) Abstract- briefly what is the story about Orientation- who, what, where, when Complicating Action- then what happened? Evaluation- how is this interesting? Result or Resolution- what finally happened? Coda – story is finished Example- theories for next year VITAL Anyone got an interesting story about something?
Analyse this and see if you can see the 6 parts to the conversation. Story of St Patrick Then analyse 3 transcripts for everything over the past few days.
Politeness Theory LO: to understand the ‘politeness theory’ and how we can use it within our analytical answers.
Pairs Get students to speak in pairs and give them a politeness principle to break.
Politeness Theories- Brown and Levinson 1978 Positive and Negative Face Brown characterized positive face by desires to be liked, admired, ratified, and related to positively, noting that one would threaten positive face by ignoring someone. At the same time, she characterized negative face by the desire not to be imposed upon, noting that negative face could be impinged upon by imposing on someone. What do you think positive and negative face is? Positive Face refers to one's self- esteem, while negative face refers to one's freedom to act.self- esteem The two aspects of face are the basic wants in any social interaction, and so during any social interaction, cooperation is needed amongst the participants to maintain each other's faces.social interactioncooperationparticipants
Face Threatening Acts Face threatening act is an act that inherently damages the face of the addressee, or the speaker, by acting in opposition to the wants and desires of the other.addressee Most of these acts are verbal; however, they can also be conveyed in the characteristics of speech (such as tone, inflection, etc.) or in non- verbal forms of communication.toneinflectioncommunication At minimum, there must be at least one of the face threatening acts associated with an utterance. It is also possible to have multiple acts working within a single utterance. utterance
Politeness Principle- Robyn Lakoff Lakoff’s 3 strategies: Don’t impose- avoid intruding on others’ lives Give Options- avoid making the listener feel obliged to do something. Make your Receiver feel good- make others feel appreciated. Give examples from vital for next year
Maxims for the Politeness Principle- Geoffrey Leech Leech developed Lakoff’s politeness principles and stipulated 6 maxims. Tact: minimises cost to listener and maximises cost to speaker, eg: ‘Could I interrupt you for a second?’ Generosity: minimises benefit to the speaker and maximises benefit to listener, eg: ‘You must come and have dinner with us.’ Approbation: minimises dispraise to the listener eg: ‘Yes, I’ve seen your dress. It’s so unusual.’ Modesty: minimises praise of the speaker eg: ‘I’m so stupid. I didn’t get that, did you?’ Agreement: minimises disagreement, eg: ‘Perhaps we should agree to go half way.’ Sympathy: minimises antipathy and maximises sympathy, ‘I’m sorry to hear you weren’t well.’
Politeness theories LO: to annotate three transcripts for examples of the politeness theories, and any other examples of spoken language features.
Grice’s Maxim’s- other ppt Talk! Photocopy green folder. Why is politeness important when we talk to each other.