2Functions Pump Blood transport system around body Carries O2 and nutrients to cells, carries away waste productsLymphatic system – returns excess tissue fluid to general circulation
3Structures Heart Arteries Veins Capillaries Blood and lymph are part of cardiovascular system
4Heart Hollow muscular organ Size of a closed fist Weighs 10-13 oz Location – thoracic cavityAPEX – conical tip, lies on diaphragm, points left
5Heart: StructurePERICARDIUM – double layer of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heartMYOCARDIUM – cardiac muscle tissueENDOCARDIUM – smooth inner lining of heart
6Heart Chambers SEPTUM divides into R and L halves Upper chambers – RIGHT ATRIUM and LEFT ATRIUMLower chambers – RIGHT VENTRICLE and LEFT VENTRICLE
7Heart Valves Four heart valves permit flow of blood in one direction: TRICUSPID VALVE – between right atrium and right ventricleBICUSPID (MITRAL) VALVE – between left atrium and left ventricleSemilunar valves -located where blood leaves the heartPULMONARY VALVEAORTIC VALVE
8Coronary ArteriesProvide blood supply to the heart muscle
10Control of Heart Contractions SA (sinoatrial) NODE = PACEMAKERLocated in right atriumSA node sends out electrical impulseImpulse spreads over atria, making them contractTravels to AV NodeAV (atrioventricular) NODEConducting cell group between atria and ventricleCarries impulse to bundle of HisBUNDLE OF HISConducting fibers in septumDivides into R and L branches to network of branches in ventricles (Purkinje fibers)PURKINJE FIBERSImpulse shoots along Purkinje fibers causing ventricles to contract
11Conduction SystemConduction system sets the basic rhythm of the beating heart by generating impulses which stimulate the heart to contract
12Major StructuresSuperior vena cava and inferior vena cava – bring deoxygenated blood to right atriumPulmonary artery – takes blood away from right ventricle to the lungs for O2Pulmonary vein – brings oxygenated blood from lungs to left atriumAorta – takes blood away from left ventricle to rest of the body
13Arteries vs Veins ARTERIES Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillariesElastic, muscular and thick-walledTransport blood under very high pressureVEINSCarry deoxygenated blood to the heartVeins contain a muscular layer, but less elastic and muscular than arteriesThin walled veins collapse easily when not filled with bloodVALVES – permit flow of blood only in direction of the heart
14Capillaries Capillaries Smallest blood vessels, can only be seen with a microscopeConnect arterioles with venulesWalls are one-cell thick– allow for selective permeability of nutrients, oxygen, CO2 and wastes
15Aorta Largest artery in the body First branch is coronary artery Aortic archMany arteries branch off the descending aorta
16Vena Cava Largest vein in the body Superior and Inferior portions Subclavian veinsJugular veins – located in the neckFemoral veins
18Major CircuitsPULMONARY CIRCULATION – heart and lungs (R side of heart)Molecular exchange occurs between blood vessels and alveoliSYSTEMIC CIRCULATION – from the heart to the tissues and cells, then back to the heart (L side of heart)Molecular exchange occurs between capillaries and cells
19Heart Physiology Right Heart Deoxygenated blood flows into heart from vena cava right atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle pulmonary valve pulmonary artery lungs (for oxygen)httpLeft HeartOxygenated blood flows from lungs via pulmonary veins left atrium mitral valve left ventricle aortic valve aorta general circulation (to deliver oxygen)
20Blood Composition: Plasma and Blood Cells straw colored liquidabout 55% of total bloodvolumeComponents of plasmaWater; about 92%Plasma proteinsNutrients (glucose, cholesterol)Electrolytes (potassium)Hormones (melatonin)Metabolic waste products
21Blood Cells Erythrocytes (Red blood cells) Thrombocytes (platelets) Contain hemoglobin which carries both O2 and CO2Thrombocytes (platelets)Cell fragmentsLack nucleiLive about 5-9 daysImportant for clotting
22Blood Cells: Leukocytes (white blood cells) Fight infectionNeutrophils: phagocyte bacteriaEosinophils: remove toxins and produce antihistamines in an allergic reactionBasophils: inflammatory functionMonocytes: phagocyte bacteriaLymphocytes: provide immunity by developing antibodies
23Diseases of the Heart CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE (CHF) Ventricles unable to contract effectively and blood pools in the heartEdema in lower extremitiesBlood backs up into lungsTx – drugs to strengthen heart beat (digoxin) and diuretics to reduce fluid
24Diseases of the Heart: Myocardial Infarction Blockage in coronary arteries cuts off blood supply to heart muscle causing that area of tissue to dieCauses - Smoking, obesity, stressful life style, hypertension, family history, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, agingSymptoms - Severe crushing pain that radiates to neck, jaw, and left arm; dyspnea; cold, clammy skin; pressure or heaviness in chest; nausea; change in blood pressureTx – “Clot-busting” drugs if in process of having MI; bedrest; pain medications; oxygen; anticoagulants;
28Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) The electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) is used extensively in the diagnosis of heart disease, from congenital heart disease in infants to myocardial infarction and myocarditis in adults. Several different types of electrocardiogram exist.
29Disorders of the Vessels ARTERIOSCLEROSIS – arterial walls thicken, lose elasticity; “hardening of the arteries”ATHEROSCLEROSIS – fatty deposits form on walls of arteriesANEURYSM – ballooning of an artery, thinning and weakeningPHLEBITIS – inflammation of lining of vein, accompanied by clotting of blood – symptoms are edema, pain and rednessEMBOLUS – traveling blood clotVARICOSE VEINS – swollen, distended veins – heredity or due to posture, prolonged periods of standing, physical exertion, age and pregnancy
30AngioplastyThe coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. The right coronary artery supplies both the left and the right heart; the left coronary artery supplies the left heart.
32Diagnostic Tests: Cardiac Catheterization Patient is awake and pain-free (local anesthesia), a catheter is inserted into an artery at the top of the leg (the femoral artery)
33Cardiac Catheterization A catheter is advanced over a guidewire, into the blood vessel. This catheter is then guided to the aorta and the guidewire is removed. Once the catheter is placed in the opening of the coronary arteries, the doctor injects dye and takes a series of X-rays.
34AngioplastyA guidewire is advanced across the blocked section of the coronary artery and a balloon -tipped tube is positioned so the balloon part of the tube is beside the blockage. The balloon is then inflated for a few seconds to compress the blockage against the artery wall. Then the balloon is deflated.
35AngioplastyA device called a stent may be placed. A stent is a latticed, metal scaffold that is placed within the coronary artery to keep the vessel open.
36Cardiac catheterization Once the catheter has been positioned at the coronary artery origin, contrast media is injected and a series of X-rays (film) are taken to check for any change in the arteries. Following this, the catheter is removed and the procedure is completed.
37Disorders of the Blood Anemia: Sickle Cell Anemia Inadequate number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, or bothSymptoms: pallor, fatigue, dyspnea, tachycardiaSickle Cell AnemiaChronic, inheritedErythrocytes are abnormally crescent shaped, carry less O2, break easily, and block blood vessels
38Disorders of the BloodHemophilia: inherited disease, seen almost exclusively in malesBlood unable to clot due to a lack of plasma proteinLeukemia: malignant disease of the bone marrow or lymph tissueHigh number of immature white blood cellsSymptoms: fever, pallor, swollen lymph glands, fatigue, anemiaTreatment: chemotherapy, radiation, bone marrow transplant
39Diagnostic Test: CBCA complete blood count is a test done on the blood to monitor or detect many different diseases or disorders.