Presentation on theme: "Blood and Cardiovascular System By Sierra Nagy and Aaron Jaber."— Presentation transcript:
Blood and Cardiovascular System By Sierra Nagy and Aaron Jaber
Function of the system The function of the system is to carry oxygen and nutrients to the body cells and pick up waste products to be degraded and to pump blood throughout the body.
Major Organs Bone Marrow Produces red blood cells and distributes blood. Red blood cells called erythrocytes are responsible for transporting oxygen to the tissues.
Major Organs continued Blood Vessels Carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body and their structure reflects their function. Arteries that carry blood from the heart must withstand high blood pressure or they could burst.
Major Organs Continued The Heart Receives blood from body cells and sends blood back to the lungs for oxygenation. Then it receives oxygenated blood back from the lungs then sends blood to the body cells once more.
Major Organs Continued The Spleen Used for blood storage and cleaning It is filled with cells of the immune system As blood passes through it, it is checked for pathogens and impurities. (Make sure it is prone to rupture during traumatic injuries by storing large amounts of blood).
Arteries and Veins Arteries- Blood vessels the carry blood away from the heart Veins- Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Capillaries Arterioles Venules Capillaries- Smallest of the blood vessels. Site of exchange between the tissue and the blood. Arterioles- Small muscular blood vessels that deliver blood to capillaries. Venules- Small veins collecting blood to leave capillaries.
Pathway of Blood Through the Heart
Pulmonary vs. Systemic Circulation Pulmonary Carries blood between the heart and lungs where the blood gets oxygen and then returns to the heart. Known as the shorter route Systemic Takes blood all around the body as it carries oxygen. Known as the longer route
Heart Sound The causes of heart sound- The sound of normal heart beats are described as “lubb- dubb” Blood flows from the atria into the ventricles causing the tricuspid and mitral valves to close- producing the ‘lubb-dubb’ sound. The ventricles contract and push the blood out of the ventricles into the pulmonary artery and aorta. The semi lunar valves close causing the “dub” sound. The atria refills with blood from the vena cavae and the pulmonary vein, and the process repeats.
Components of the Blood About half of the blood is a pale yellow color called plasma which contains nutrients that come from food. A little less than half of the blood is red blood cells which carry oxygen. 1/100 of the blood is white blood cells which fight germs and diseases. Red blood cells carrying oxygen make it a bright red color. It also takes away carbon dioxide when exchanging oxygen changing it to a reddish- blue color. The body gets energy from blood glucose which is a sugar that comes from broken down food. Parts of glucose pass to cells, the body's main energy source. Clotting can occur when cells in blood called platelets lumps and causes threads to form in the blood. Red blood cells get tangled in a net of sticky threads. The clot hardens to a scab to protect the wound as it heals.
Blood Type 8 different types: O+, O-, A+, A-, B+,B-,AB+,AB- A: Only has A antigen on red cells and B antibody in plasma. B: Only B antigen on red cells and A antibody in plasma. AB: Both A & B antigens on red cells, no A or B antibody in plasma. O: Neither A or B antigens on red cells with both A & B antibodies in plasma
Blood Types continued Antigens- Substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body. Can also attack transfused blood. Blood type is determined by the appearance or absence of 2 antigens (A&B) on the surface on red blood cells. Third antigen called Rh- factor which can +/- Rh blood Rh- Rh+ Rh+
Blood types continued A: Can only donate red blood cells to A & AB B: Can donate to B & AB AB: Donates to AB only O: Can donate to all WhitesBlacksHispanicAsian O+37%47%53%39% 0 -8%4% 1% A +33%24%29%27% A -7%2%.5% B +9%18%9%25% B -2%1%.4% AB +3%4%2%7% AB -1%.3%.2%.1% Mix of blood types in U.S. If the donor and recipient are from the same ethnicity, chances of a reaction can be reduced.
Lipoproteins There are three different types of lipoproteins Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)- Associated with coronary atherosclerosis (the bad one) which is a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol High Density Lipoproteins (HLD)- Protects against cardiovascular disease, the good one. Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)- Made by the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol and apolipoproteins which are proteins that bind lipids. Also particles range in size from 10 to 1000 nanometers.
Diseases There are two types of heart diseases: Acquired and Congenital Acquired Develops later in life Happens within 2 years of birth Congenital Exists at birth The most common is found in a new born in which they are born with a hole in their septum.
Diseases Continued The most common heart diseases in young people are Kawasaki Disease, cardiomyopathy, rheumatic, and myocarditis. Symptoms of Kawasaki Disease – inflammation of blood vessels, high fever, and skin rashes. You may even have permanent damage even after recovery.
Diseases Cardiomypathy- a disease that damages the heart muscles, causing them to tighten, thicken or become too large. Some symptoms are dizziness, swollen hands or feet, extreme tiredness, and feeling out of breath.
Diseases Myocarditis Disease- Caused by the body’s immune system. The immune system responds to a virus or other infection buy also attacks the heart. Symptoms: Cold hands and feet, decreased urine due to kidney damage, chest pain, fever, and swelling.
Diseases Rheumatic Heart Disease- The most common in children. Often occurs after a person had an illness due to an infection. This causes damage to valves, over all fatigue and extreme tiredness.
Thank you have a nice day! You look funny with your head tilted that way