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C. Sequestration zones & relative costs. Lake Nyos, Cameroon CO 2 “burp” formed 400 yr ago in volcanic field formed 400 yr ago in volcanic field CO 2.

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Presentation on theme: "C. Sequestration zones & relative costs. Lake Nyos, Cameroon CO 2 “burp” formed 400 yr ago in volcanic field formed 400 yr ago in volcanic field CO 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 C. Sequestration zones & relative costs

2 Lake Nyos, Cameroon CO 2 “burp” formed 400 yr ago in volcanic field formed 400 yr ago in volcanic field CO 2 dissolved to heavy layer at bottom CO 2 dissolved to heavy layer at bottom Rainwater accumulated, sank, caused overturn, CO 2 displaced O 2 and suffocated 1700 people instantly Rainwater accumulated, sank, caused overturn, CO 2 displaced O 2 and suffocated 1700 people instantly Any CCS must be stabilized! Any CCS must be stabilized!

3 Enhanced Oil Recovery w/ CO 2 (Impact Technologies, LLC) Improved Mobility Control in CO 2 Enhanced Oil Recovery using SPI Gels (Impact Technologies, LLC) Improved Mobility Control in CO 2 Enhanced Oil Recovery using SPI Gels (U. Texas - Austin) Engineered Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO 2 Foams to Improve Volumetric Sweep of CO 2 EOR Processes (U. Texas - Austin) Engineered Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO 2 Foams to Improve Volumetric Sweep of CO 2 EOR Processes Novel CO 2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO 2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations (U. Texas - Austin) Novel CO 2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO 2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations (U. Texas - Austin) Novel CO 2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO 2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations Novel CO 2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO 2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO 2 Foam for CO 2 -EOR Application (NM Institute of Mining & Technology) Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO 2 Foam for CO 2 -EOR Application (NM Institute of Mining & Technology) Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO 2 Foam for CO 2 -EOR Application Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO 2 Foam for CO 2 -EOR Application Has been used for 40+ yrs Currently in 5% US oil extraction Main challenge is to “thicken” CO 2 for controlled flow & reliable long-term CCS

4 Problem: limited land storage volume Deep sea, basaltic rock? || acidification ERoEI of sequestration? e.g. Australia

5 CCS doesn’t scale! ~30% efficiency loss, so 1.3x more coal burned ~30% efficiency loss, so 1.3x more coal burned Futuregen 2 demo gets 90% of 200 MW plant, 40% efficiency hit, in 2017 (15 yrs after first planned), 175 mi to store 1 MT CO 2 /yr Futuregen 2 demo gets 90% of 200 MW plant, 40% efficiency hit, in 2017 (15 yrs after first planned), 175 mi to store 1 MT CO 2 /yr To bury 20% of world’s CO 2 emissions, need To bury 20% of world’s CO 2 emissions, need new worldwide infrastructure 1.7x volume handled now by oil industry for CO 2 absorption/compression/transport/storage new worldwide infrastructure 1.7x volume handled now by oil industry for CO 2 absorption/compression/transport/storage took decades and $60 trillion to build! took decades and $60 trillion to build! Needs billions of $ federal R&D Needs billions of $ federal R&D Would accelerate depletion so coal would last only a few decades Would accelerate depletion so coal would last only a few decades Need to monitor CO 2 cemeteries for millennia Need to monitor CO 2 cemeteries for millennia Why not “just" reduce emissions?? Why not “just" reduce emissions??

6 Greenhouse gases & peak oil IPCC “Present estimates of coal reserves are based upon methods that have not been reviewed or revised since their inception in 1974, and much of the input data were compiled in the early 1970s. Recent programs to assess reserves in limited areas using updated methods indicate that only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves are actually mineable reserves.” Natl Academy of Sciences REVISION IS NOT INCORPORATED IN IPCC scenarios!

7 Scenario report SRES (2000) references 1995 and 1998 surveys Scenario report SRES (2000) references 1995 and 1998 surveys IPCC chose to use additional recoverable reserves and they also chose 1998 (3,368Gt) instead of 1995 (680Gt) (Deffeyes’ Law) IPCC chose to use additional recoverable reserves and they also chose 1998 (3,368Gt) instead of 1995 (680Gt) (Deffeyes’ Law) Additional recoverable reserves are now 1/19 that in 1998 Additional recoverable reserves are now 1/19 that in th Assessment report notes the 2004 survey results, and includes 5,000Gt as a “possible resource” with no reference 4 th Assessment report notes the 2004 survey results, and includes 5,000Gt as a “possible resource” with no reference Where Does IPCC Get Its Coal Numbers? World Energy Council survey Proved recoverable reserves, Gt Additional recoverable reserves, Gt 19921, , , Routledge 2010

8 Carbon-Dioxide Emissions Carbon coefficients for oil, gas, & coal from IPCC 4 th Assessment Carbon coefficients for oil, gas, & coal from IPCC 4 th Assessment Projection is less than any IPCC scenario Projection is less than any IPCC scenario no tar sands, hydrates, or unconventional gas Routledge 2010

9 Problem: CO 2 lingers in atmosphere. What we’ve put in already will increase T for 10,000 yrs. Reason: CO 2 reactants vary throughout atmosphere, i.e. CO 2 destruction is dispersed. CO 2 rise boosts T for ~1000 yrs Routledge 2010

10 (wet) shale oil vs (dry) oil shale Oil/gas mix in “tight” reservoir, mobilized by fracking liquids, self- pressurized Oil/gas mix in “tight” reservoir, mobilized by fracking liquids, self- pressurized Growing contribution to US oil production Growing contribution to US oil production Will be applied worldwide Will be applied worldwide ERoEI ~ 5-6 ERoEI ~ 5-6 Kerogen (not yet oil) + 10% bitumen, electric heaters melt it out of impermeable rock Kerogen (not yet oil) + 10% bitumen, electric heaters melt it out of impermeable rock ERoEI <2? ~9% energy density of crude oil (~baked potato) “Best” Green River (CO, UT, WY), huge reserve “Best” Green River (CO, UT, WY), huge reserve Canadian “bitumen” (tar) sands Mix of sand grains, thin water layer (critical!) & bitumen Dissolves in solvents and flows when heated to ~170 o C ERoEI ~5-6 for mining, “smaller” for in-situ

11 “Critical ingredients of an eventual success are straightforward: beginning the quest immediately, progressing from small steps to grander solutions, persevering for not just years but for generations --- and always keeping in mind that our blunders may accelerate the demise of modern, high-energy civilization, while our successes may extend its lifespan for centuries, perhaps even for millennia.” beginning the quest immediately, progressing from small steps to grander solutions, persevering for not just years but for generations --- and always keeping in mind that our blunders may accelerate the demise of modern, high-energy civilization, while our successes may extend its lifespan for centuries, perhaps even for millennia.” Physicist V. Smil Physicist V. Smil


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