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P&A R EPRODUCTIVE S YSTEM. I. I NTRO  A. Structures  1. testes, ovaries, and external organs A. many accessory organs involved as well:  Uterus, fallopian.

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Presentation on theme: "P&A R EPRODUCTIVE S YSTEM. I. I NTRO  A. Structures  1. testes, ovaries, and external organs A. many accessory organs involved as well:  Uterus, fallopian."— Presentation transcript:


2 I. I NTRO  A. Structures  1. testes, ovaries, and external organs A. many accessory organs involved as well:  Uterus, fallopian tubes, vas deferens, epididymus  B. Function  1. produce sex cells  2. transport sex cells  3. produce & secrete hormones which develop and maintain male and female sex characteristics

3 II. M ALE R EPRODUCTIVE O RGANS  A. Main function: to produce sperm  B. Testes  1. 2 ovoid/oval structures found within cavities called SCROTUM  2. Each teste is separated into 250 lobules A. each lobule contains SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES B. ST contain SPERMATOGENIC CELLS  Def: cells that give rise to sperm

4 C. spermatogenic cells remain inactive until adolescence when they undergo MEIOSIS  Def: process of cell division that results in ½ the amount of chromosomes than the parent cell  Parent cell = 46  Sperm cell = 23 to later combine with egg’s 23

5  C. Male Internal Accessory Organs 1. Epididymus  S: tightly coiled 6 m. long tube that connects to vas deferens  F: passageway for sperm 2. Vas Deferens  S: muscular tube 45 cm. long  Passes along testes, through abdominal cavity, end behind urinary bladder  F: passageway for sperm to urethra

6 3. Seminal Vesicle  S: Saclike structure attached to vas deferens below urinary bladder  F: secrete fluid that allows for correct pH for sperm to live and sugary substance to energize sperm 4. prostate gland  S: chestnut shaped structure surrounding anterior urethra  F: secrete fluid to help neutralize sperm-cell fluid

7 5. Semen  S: fluid conveyed through male urethra to the outside of the body via the urethra  1) made of: Sperm cells from testes Fluids from seminal vesicle Fluids from prostate gland  2) 2-6 ml are released at one time 120 million/ml sperm are released

8  D. Male External Reproductive Organs  1. scrotum A. pouch of skin that holds testes B. Why?  So testes are outside of the body to maintain the correct temperature for sperm to live and grow  Too hot inside the body  2. penis A. cylindrical organ that houses urethra B. conveys urine & semen to outside of body

9 III. H ORMONAL C ONTROL OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  A. follicle stimulating hormone – FSH  1. FSH – secreted by anterior pituitary gland  2. stimulate spermatogenic cells to produce sperm  B. Testosterone  1. secreted by testes  2. also stimulates spermatogenic cells to produce sperm  3. secretion is very low until age 13-15

10 4. Effects:  Increased body hair on chest, arm pits, face, pubic region  Enlargement of larynx  Thicker vocal cords = lower voice  Thicker skin  Increase muscular growth  Broaden shoulders  Narrow waist  Thicker bones  Sperm cells divide and become active

11 IV. F EMALE REPRODUCTIVE O RGANS  A. Main Function: to produce eggs  B. Ovaries  1. 2 ovoid structures located in shallow depression of pelvic wall  2. s: two regions: Outer cortex Inner medulla

12  3. before birth ovaries form several million PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES A. def: cells that develop into eggs by undergoing meiosis B. only 1 million remain at birth  400,000 remain at puberty  Fewer than 1,000 are released during female’s lifetime

13  4. primordial follicles develop and the OOCYTE (egg cell) inside eventually ruptures out and travels to fallopian/uterine tube Process is call OVULATION If oocyte isn’t fertilized by sperm it degenerates

14 V. F EMALE ACCESSORY ORGRANS  A. Uterine/fallopian tubes  S: 10 cm long tubes from ovary to uterus Wall is full of ciliated simple columnar epithelium  to move egg  F: secrete mucous and move cilia to pass egg along tube

15  B. uterus  1. S: inverted pear shaped Hollow Muscular Lower 1/3 called cervix 3 layered wall  Endometrium: inner layer  Myometrium: middle muscular layer  Perimetrium: outer covering  F: to hold growing fetus

16  C. Vagina  1.S: 9 cm long tube from uterus to outside  F: Conveys uterine secretions to outside Receives penis during sexual intercouse Transports child during birth

17  D. labia major  1. S: flaps of tissue seperated longitudinally by a cleft  2. F: to enclose and protect other female reproductive organs

18 VI. H ORMONAL CONTROL OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  * release at about 8 yrs old  A. F:  Develop and maintain female sexual characteristics  Maturation of egg cells  Regulate monthly menstrual cycle

19  B. FSH & Leutinizing Hormone (LH)  1. secreted by APG  2. control production of sex hormones and egg cells maturation

20  C. Estrogen & progesterone  1. estrogen A. produced by ovaries B. controls:  Enlargement of accessory organs  Development of breasts and mammary glands  Increase adipose tissue breasts, thighs, and buttocks  Increase vessels to skin

21  2. progesterone A. produced by ovaries B. controls uterus changes during menstrual cycle  D. Androgens (male hormones)  1. cause female at puberty to grow hair in arm pits and pubic region  2. the low concentrations cause females to have narrow shoulders and broad hips

22 VII. FEMALE MENSTRUAL CYCLE  A. DEF:  1. approximate 28 -32 day cycle in which regular changes happen to the uterine wall Usually begins at approx age 13 Culminates in external bleeding  B. hormone involvement  1. FSH & LH cause maturation of egg cells  2. egg cells produce estrogen and progesterone F: responsible to continuing and maintaining female reproductive system

23  C. week 1  1. increased estrogen causes endometrium to thicken  D. day 11-14  1. LH causes follicular wall to rupture and egg released = ovulation  * time when woman is most likely to get pregnant  2. follicle without the egg becomes the CORPUS LUTEUM  3. if the egg is not fertilized the CL has no function

24  E. day 24  If CL has no function, the uterine blood vessels constrict, decreases O2 to uterus  Therefore, uterine lining disintegrates as blood capillaries release blood  F. Day 28-32  1. blood flows out of vaniga  2. lasts approx 3-5 days  3. CL and egg are flushed out

25 VIII. M AMMARY G LANDS  A. located in subcutaneous tissue of breasts  B. f: secrete milk following pregnancy  C. S: composed of 15-20 lobes with ALVEOLAR DUCTS that lead to the outside

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