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CONTRACEPTIVES The 411 on how to prevent STIs and pregnancy.

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Presentation on theme: "CONTRACEPTIVES The 411 on how to prevent STIs and pregnancy."— Presentation transcript:

1 CONTRACEPTIVES The 411 on how to prevent STIs and pregnancy

2 League table of popularity among the various methods of family planning 1st equalThe PillThe Pill, including the mini-Pill – 25 per cent.the mini-Pill 1st equalThe male condom – 25 per cent.male condom 3rdVasectomyVasectomy – 11 per cent. 4thFemale sterilisationFemale sterilisation – 9 per cent. 5th The coil (intra-uterine deviceor IUD)The coil (intra-uterine deviceor IUD) – 4 per cent. 6thWithdrawal methodWithdrawal method – 4 per cent. 7thVariations of the rhythm method – 3 per cent.rhythm method 8th equal The contraceptive injection ('the Jab') – 2 per cent.contraceptive injection 8th equal Mirena (intra-uterine system or IUS)Mirena (intra-uterine system or IUS) – 2 per cent. 10th equalThe skin patch (Evra) – 1 per patch 10th equalThe cap or diaphragmThe cap or diaphragm – 1 per cent. 12thThe female condom – less than 1 per cent.female condom 13thThe vaginal ring – less than 1 per cent.vaginal ring

3 The male condom  90 to 98 per cent effective in preventing pregnancy if used properly  Condoms are sheathes that trap the sperm when a man climaxes ('comes').  Wearing them greatly reduces the chances of pregnancy. They also provide some protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV.sexually transmitted infections (STIs)HIV  Both for contraceptive purposes, and for the avoidance of infection, it's important to wear the condom throughout the sexual act and not just at the end of it.

4 Birth Control (Oral contraceptive)  95-98% effective if taken at same time daily  The Pill is a tablet containing two female hormones – an estrogen and a progestogen. This is why it's often called the combined Pill.  The two hormones stop you from ovulating (producing an egg) each month. And if you don't ovulate, you won't get pregnant.  In addition, the hormones thicken the secretions round your cervix, making it more difficult for sperm to get through. Also, they make the lining of your womb thinner, so that it’s less receptive to an egg.  Occasional serious side effects

5 Vasectomy  Vasectomy is a simple and straightforward operation that stops your sperm from entering your semen (seminal fluid).  It's a permanent form of contraception, but as a rule it shouldn't interfere with your sex life because you will still have erections and produce semen. contraception  The tube that carries sperm to semen is called the vas.  Vasectomy means 'cutting out a piece of vas'.

6 Female sterilisation  'Sterilisation' means preventing the woman from becoming pregnant by means of various different operations in which her Fallopian tubes are blocked or cut through – thus making it very difficult for her eggs to reach her womb.  Please note that it's not quite impossible for those eggs to get through. There is in fact a small 'failure rate' for this operation, generally estimated at between one in 200 and one in 500.

7 Intrauterine devices (IUDs)  They sit in your womb and prevent you from getting pregnant. They do this in three main ways:  they prevent your partner's sperm from getting through your womb and into your tubes  they alter the secretions (mucus) in your cervix, creating a further barrier for sperm  they affect your womb lining – making it less likely to 'accept' an egg.  98% effective

8 Withdrawal method  Also known as «Coitus interruptus»  «Coitus interruptus» is Latin for 'interrupted intercourse'. What happens is that the man pulls his penis out of the vagina before ejaculation. Although this is an unreliable method, it's certainly better than using nothing at all.  For people who have access to sensible, modern methods of contraception, coitus interruptus is a poor alternative.

9 Rhythm Method  This form of natural family planning helps identify the phases of a woman's menstrual cycle when she is most fertile as well as those phases when she is less fertile and, therefore, less likely to fall pregnant.menstrual cycle  It is not reliable as a form of contraception when used on its own, but it can be helpful both for couples wishing to avoid pregnancy and for those actively trying to have a baby.form of contraception

10 Contraceptive Injections  These are injections that contain hormones, which stop you ovulating and have other anti-conception effects (see below). When injected into a muscle (usually in the buttock), the medication keeps you from getting pregnant for a considerable period of time.  99% effective  Some serious side effects

11 The Patch  A sticky patch you put on your skin, and it releases two hormones that stop you from getting pregnant. (replace weekly)  One of them is ethinylestradiol, which is a standard ingredient of most contraceptive Pills, and the other is a progestogen called norelgestromin. Their main effect is to stop you from ovulating.  It's beige in colour, and just under 2 inches by 2 inches (5cm by 5 cm).  The Patch can fall off (4-6% of women report)  99% effective otherwise

12 Diaphragms or Cervical Caps  Diaphragms are 'domes', made of thin, soft rubber, or silicone. They form an excellent physical 'barrier' to sperms – though you have to use a spermicide (chemical) with them as well.spermicide (chemical)  Diaphragms are a good deal bigger than cervical caps – they're about as wide as the palm of your hand.  You put the diaphragm into your vagina before sex, positioning it so that it keeps sperms from getting anywhere near your cervix.  Cervical caps are much smaller – about the size of a small egg-cup. You have to put the cervical cap directly onto your cervix, so as to stop sperm getting in.  Used properly, the diaphragm is an efficient and safe type of contraception. It has a success rate of roughly 95 per cent per year among women who've been trained to use it correctly. But if you just 'stick it in' at the last moment, without being too sure where it's going, then your success rate will be much lower.

13 Female Condom  It looks like a tiny plastic bin liner. There is a ring round the opening and another one at the closed end – which is the end that goes into the top of the vagina.  It is made of polyurethane, and not latex. So it is unlikely to provoke allergies, and should not be damaged by oil-based lubricants.  The female condom is pretty effective, as long as it is correctly inserted into the vagina – and provided the man doesn't put his penis outside it.  One trial gave a ‘success rate’ of 95 per cent over a year, but a couple who know what they’re doing and who use the device really carefully will run only a very low risk of pregnancy.

14 Vaginal Ring  Newest form of contraceptive  It's now possible to prevent pregnancies by placing a hormonal contraceptive ring inside the vagina.  This small ring releases two female- type hormones – an oestrogen and a progestogen – continuously into your bloodstream.  These are the hormones that are contained in the contraceptive Pill. So the ring is rather like a vaginal version of the Pill.contraceptive Pill

15 Abstinence  The best way to prevent pregnancy is to not have sex.  Abstaining (or refraining from) having sexual intercourse is referred to as abstinence and is encouraged in most major religions.

16 Safe sex?  All methods, minus withdrawal method effective for prevention of pregnancy  Only male and female condoms prevent the spread of STIs including HIV  None of the methods is quite 100 per cent effective, which means the only guaranteed way of preventing conception is to not have sex!  You should also remember that some methods are quite complicated to use, and no method is as safe as the figures quoted if you don't follow the instructions carefully.

17 Where can you go?  Talk to your parents.  Your GP (General Practionner aka Family Doctor) can give you lots of info on various types of contraceptive.  The school nurse: Pamela  Island Sexual Health Clinic: (on Fort St.) 

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