1 Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES RESEARCH METHODS –Q-Explain how manufacturers could use the Internet when designing and making a new range of decorated cakesInterviewsQuestionnairesQ .What are the advantages and disadvantages of using computers for data?Nutritional informationcomputer used when researching market trends• websites of manufacturers,• internet searches,• use of cd roms,• processing questionnaires – writing,• spreadsheets – recording results,• quicker analysis of data than humans· on-line questionnaires / surveySales figures dataDisadvantages• May be expensive to set up initially / decreasing profitsNeed to decide on validity of entries on websites or otherinformation used otherwise results are worthless• Need to train staff in it use or inaccuracies will result• If information is inaccurate it can affect success of futureproducts based on research• Lack of human interaction may lead to incorrect results• Lack of compatibility between software programs• Difficulties/costly if system breaks down, need back upComputer CAD/CAM• Less human error / more reliable / quicker• Cheaper than employing extra staff to research / in long term• Greater accuracy and up to date information• Wider range of information available• More consistent• Easier to carry out analysis of statistics / results• Can be carried out when human not present, 24/7• Clearly presented results eg graphs, charts• Can make changes easily to update current data• Results can be analysed quickly, eg on Excel• Easier to import other programs and software
2 Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES Design specificationThis will be a general list of bullet points about what your design must have. A lot of the information will come from your research. Specify points such as:Target groupDietsIngredientsNutritional information e.g. high in fibreTextureCostProduct SpecificationThis is a very detailed specification and uses information gathered from research and design ideas you have tested out. You will eventually evaluate your work against the product specification. A product specification will be relevant to just one product. E.g. Meatballs and pasta.You need to know what a specification is asking for. There are two types of specification.
3 Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES SPECIFICATIONSDesign specification –possible pointsSuitable for a special occasionHave a themeHave sensory appealHave at least two layersAble to be mass producedInclude Fair trade ingredientsStored at ambient temperatureInclude a type of icing or creamSuitable as a healthy eating optionCelebrationsChristmasBirthdayAnniversaryWeddingchristeningDietary needsLow fatAllergiesHigh fibrediabeticProduct Specification – this gives exact detailsThe cake is for a birthdayIt is based on flowersThe sponge will be chocolateIt will include strawberriesIt will include butter icingIt is a whisked sponge which contains no fatQ-Write a three-point product specification for your chosen design idea.
4 Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES Basket weaveFillings Jam Fruit Cream Butter icingDecoration Fruit Cream Feather icingIngredients – Butter Icing140g butter, softened280g icing sugar1-2 tbsp milkfew drops food colouringChocolate curlsPiping techniqueChocolate leavesSwirls and starsPortion control
5 Q-Use notes and sketches to produce two different design ideas for a decorated cake DESIGN DRAWINGSCrème fraiche piped using a star nozzle7cm x 4cm x 3cmLight sponge in square shape2 layers of chocolate sponge – creamed mixtureSuitable for birthdayStrawberries sliced and arranged in petalsSketch (neatly and in colour) and annotate each idea, showing how it reflects the specifications. Show possible quality finishes that could be added to your product.
6 Which of your design ideas will you choose to develop? Design Idea 1 Design Idea 2Explain how this design idea willAppeal to a range of consumersBe suitable to hold in the handBe suitable for childrenOffer sensory appeal,Be suitable for vegetarians.Be suitable for consumers with special dietary needsHave a variety of flavoursMake sure you refer back to the specification in the questionQ-Healthy option muffins are popular products with consumers.Blueberry muffins Ingredients200 g plain wholemeal flour½ tsp bicarbonate of soda2 tsp baking powder50 g sweetener75 g polyunsaturated margarine (melted)100 ml low fat plain yoghurt100 ml skimmed milk1 egg (beaten)200 g fresh or dried blueberriesHow are these ingredients suitable for consumers choosing a healthy option product?Be prepared for sub questions to be used to test your understanding of the topic
7 Whisking - Fatless sponge Creamed mixtureWhisking - Fatless sponge1 egg50g Self raising flour50g margarine50g caster sugarAir is trapped by creaming the sugar and fat together(aeration)Sieving flourThis give a lighter textureIngredients:50g caster sugar50g plain flour2 eggsEggs and sugar whisked together to trap air (aerate)Why DECORATED CAKES are popular with consumersWork hours extended so no time to makeMore occasions being celebratedEasily available – Supermarkets often have a wide range available•Lack of practical skillsProgrammes such as British bake off• healthy option products available• meet different consumer budgets and needsRubbing -in (More flour than fat)Melting (High proportion of sugar ingredients)Ingredients:200g plain flour100g margarine100g caster sugar2 eggs30ml milk2teaspoons baking powderAir is trapped in the sieving the flour and by lightly (with finger tips) rubbing the fat in to the flour.Raising agents in the flour help the cake to riseIngredients:200g plain flour1 tsp baking powder50g brown sugar100g margarine150g black treacle125 ml milk2 eggs50g golden syrupFat and sugar ingredients are melted in a saucepan Texture tends to be much heavier than other cakes and wont rise much Bicarbonate of soda can be used to create a lighter textureWatch the cookies rise
8 Q-Produce a plan for making your chosen idea in the test kitchen. You may use flow charts, diagrams, notes or sketches in your answer.(Total 10 marks)Hygiene and safety checksStages of makingQuality control checks Personal hygieneKitchen hygieneFood hygieneForeign bodies checkStorage temperature checksSafety points forworkers Clear, logical scheduleSpecialist terminology techniquesNamed cooking methods/processesKey timesKey temperatures Accurate weighing of ingredientsCheck sell-by dateConsistencyVisual checksSize / portion controlShapeFinishing techniques usedAppearance/accuracy/garnishFeedback from control checksAnswer showing logical plans, clarity of instruction and detail. 9-10Logical planning with a range of different information covered. 6-8Some parts detailed, may not be logical some key areas for successful making omitted. 4-5Simplistic answer giving some relevant planning. 1-3
10 Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES FlourSugarFat/margarineEggsForms the main structure of cakesWhen creamed it helps trap air(aeration)Sets in position when baked (coagulation)Has chemicals(baking powder) to make the mixture rise(raising agent)Gives colour and flavour (caramelisation)Extends shelf lifeCan hold air bubbles which act as raising agentIncreases bulkSweetens the mixtureQ-Complete the table below to show three main ingredients used to make your chosen cake product.Give a different reason for using each ingredient.Ingredient Reason for use123Q-Name the ingredients that are most suitable for use in each of the products below.Give a detailed reason for your choices.Sugar for use in a whisked sponge cakeType of sugar (1)Reason for choice (2)Q- Describe your chosen design idea in more detail in the table below.List the main ingredients needed to make your product.Include the quantity of each ingredient needed.Give a different reason why each ingredient is used.Ingredient Quantity Reason for useQ -Describe how a quality finish could be added to your chosen design idea.
11 Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES MODIFYING PRODUCTSToSuit different occasionsMeet a different target marketMake it cheaperMake it healthierMeet a dietary needThe exam may give you situations for you to develop your cake. Answer the questionsUse vegetarian optionsUse higher fibre flours- will give a denser textureUse natural sweeteners such as dried or fresh fruitChange the type of fat from butter to polyunsaturated margarineQ-Explain how your chosen design idea could be developed for consumers who want to increase their fibre.Q-This is from a recipe for fruit slices.Ingredients:150 g wholemeal flour 100 g white flour 50 g soft brown sugar 125 g polyunsaturated margarine 200 g apricotsDescribe one way of developing the fruit slice product to improve the flavour.Describe two ways of developing the fruit slice product to improve the texture.
12 Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES Q-Complete the chart below to explain two developments that will help the product meet healthy eating guidelines.Development ideas forincreasing the fibre (NSP)content of a sandwich cakeDevelopment 1ReasonDevelopment 2Q-Analyse your design idea and suggest ways in which it can be adapted to meet the needs of consumers who need to follow a special diet due to food intolerances or allergies.
13 What is a standard component? A Standard Component is a pre-prepared item/ingredient that is used in the production of another product. They are made at a different time, and often at a different place by another company.You must be able to:Understand and define the term ‘Standard Component’Understand why standard components are used in food productionTo identify the advantaged and disadvantages of using a standard component.Q- Standard components are often used in the production of cakesWhat is meant by a standard component?Give three reasons why manufacturers may decide not touse standard components.123Q-Standard components may be used to save time in food production.Describe two other advantages of using standard components.Advantage 1.Advantage 2.
14 CAM-computer aided making Why line a cake tin?More consistent appearanceBetter shapeComes from the tin easilyEquipmentAccuracySame size each timeSame shape every timeSame standard of blendingReduced human errorCAM-computer aided makingSet time, speed,temperature,weightQ-Explain how the following equipment is used to produce a consistent product.
15 Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES Q-Describe two different control checks used to make sure your biscuits are of good quality.12Q-What are the causes of the following problems during the production of muffins?ProblemCauseA piece of metal is found in a cooked muffin.Lack of personal hygiene by workers – no jewellery, hair pinsQuality checks have not taken placeMetal from packaging not checkedMachinery faulty/Poor maintenance of machinesFaulty metal detectorFruit pieces in a cooked muffin have a dry texture.Stale fruit usedInsufficient liquidMuffin cooked too longToo high a temperature used.Excess fruit used on toppingPoor quality controlCooked muffins are an uneven size.Poor portion control
16 Modified StarchModified starch is classified as a smart food and is used by manufacturers in a variety of products.It is a starch that has been altered to perform additional functions.In pizza toppings – topping thickens when heated in the oven and will not run off the pizza.Pre-gelatinised starch is used to thicken instant desserts without heat. Cold liquid such as milk can be added and the dessert will thicken.Sauce/gravy granules – boiling water can be added to thicken without the sauce going lumpy.Modified starches are used to thicken low calorie salad dressings, as they are not affected by the acidity.Modified starch is used as a fat replacer in low-fat meals.Modified starches allow sauces to be reheated with no sineresis. * This is useful in dishes that are cooked from frozen e.g. lasagne.The noodles in ‘pot snacks’ are pre-gelatinised; so boiled water will reheat and ‘cook’ them.Modified starch is used in ‘cup-a-soups’ to improve mouth-feel, thicken the drink/soup when the boiled water is added, and blend uniformly without lumps.
17 Methods of Sensory Testing Sensory Testing in ManufactureSensory analysis is used at several stages during product developmentCompanies can compare a competitor’s productImprove products by modifying or changing the ingredientsCheck that the specification is being metMonitor quality control by checking regular samples against specificationDetect differences between products from different runs or batchesProfile the characteristics of new productsDescribe specific characteristicsDemonstrate new products to marketing teamPromote new or reformulated products to consumersSensory analysis is carried out in controlled conditionsSensory analysis is used in industry and discovers details on:Flavour and tasteTextureAppearance – Colour, shape, sizeSmell/AromaSoundsMethods of Sensory TestingProduct Profile - STAR PROFILE DIAGRAMAllows food products to be evaluated using a range of attributesEvaluate differences in similar productsGauge consumer responseAnalyse specific attributesCheck a product meets its specificationCompare similarities in a range of productsShow opportunities for product developmentRanking – Decide on attribute to be ranked eg Crunchiness, allow people to evaluate samples and place them in rank orderScoring tests = RATING TEST– Samples are scored on a scale between like and dislikeHedonic tests– Test sample and grade 1=Dislike very much, 5=Like very much. Samples analysed for lowest/highest score.RatingScore Tick1 2 3 Sample Sample Sample Useful when using with childrenRanking test A variety of strawberry yoghurts.Please taste the samples and put them in the order you like the bestSample codeOrderCommentsFair testing · sensory testinglabelling of samples – symbols or random numbersHow results are to be recorded - Clear instructions to tastersCleansing palate between samples - waterContainers all the sameBlue or orange lighting
18 Why do we package food? Plastic Paperboard Glass Aluminium foil Modified Atmosphere PackagingPlasticTransparentDoesn’t breakCan be moulded into different shapesLightweightCheap to produceEasy to stackCan be heatedPaperboardEasy to fold and cutEasy to print onRecyclableCan be waxed to make it waterproofCan be stackedWhy do we package food?Protects from physical damageContains the food productPrevents contaminationPreserves the productAttracts customers to buy itEasy to transportEasier to storeInforms the customer about the productGlassCan be recycledTransparent to see the contentsHeat resistantAluminium foilEasy to mouldEasy to shapeHeat resistantComes in different thicknessesStrongEasy to stackEnvironmentally friendly packaging causes less damage to the environment. There are three types:Reusable packaging can be cleaned and re-used. For example, glass milk bottles are reused.Recyclable packaging is made of materials that can be used again, usually after processing. Recyclable materials include glass, metal, card and paper.Biodegradable packaging will easily break down in the soil or the atmosphere.Recyclable packaging should carry standard symbols that show what the product is made from and how it can be recycled
19 You need to know advantages & disadvantages Farm AssuredAnimals must have been looked after to a certain standard of welfare & safety, must be British, standards set by GovernmentOrganicOrganic foods are made according to certain production standards. The use of conventional non-organic pesticides, insecticides and herbicides is greatly restricted and avoided as a last resort. However, contrary to popular belief, certain non-organic fertilisers are still used. If livestock are involved, they must be reared without the routine use of antibiotics and without the use of growth hormones, and generally fed a healthy diet. In most countries, organic produce may not be genetically modified.Fair tradeIs an organized social movement and market-based approach that aims to help producers in developing countries earn a liveable wage. Allowing farmers to educate their children and improve their standard of living.Food MilesPeople are concerned about the environment, food miles is about the amount of C02 that is produced in the delivery of products e.g strawberries from Spain, buying locally grown means there are less food miles
20 Where bacteria are accidentally transferred Bacteria Symptoms Found in What is a hazard? In food products, a hazard is anything that can harm a customer. A hazard may be:PhysicalChemicalBiologicalHairMetalDirtPesticidesCleaning productsInsecticidesBacteriaMouldWhat is a critical control point?A control point is the step in the making process where hazards must be controlled. This step has to be carried out correctly to make sure that the hazard is removed or reduced to a safe level. The hazard may be chemical, physical or biological. Some hazards are high risk and the control points for these hazards are called critical control points as it is critical (essential) that the hazard is removed or reduced.What conditions do bacteria need to grow?Too – timeMany –moistureFlies - foodWaiting- warmthCross contaminationWhere bacteria are accidentally transferredBacteriaSymptomsFound inSalmonellaStomach pains, diarrhoea, vomitingMeat ,poultry, raw eggsCampylobacter Diarrhoea, feeling sick, feverMilk, untreated waterE.coliStomach pain, vomitingRaw meat,milkListeriaLike fluSoft cheeses,pate cook chill mealsHigh risk foodsCooked meats and poultryCooked meat products – stews, soups made with meat stockMilk & eggs, mayonnaise, moussesShellfish & sea foodHandling High Risk Foods Avoid touching by hand – prevent cross contaminationKeep raw and high risk foods apartCover food during storageKeep food out of the ‘danger zone’
21 Hands washed, short nails, PERSONAL hygieneKITCHEN hygiene and safety0 – 50 CHair clean and tied backNot suffering from sicknessApron and protective clothingNo jewelleryHands washed, short nails,no nail varnishBlue Plasters65 – 720 C
22 5°C 0°C Bacteria Key Temperatures DANGER ZONE -18°C Temperature helps to extend the shelf life of a productOTHER WAYS TO PERSERVERemove liquid: drying a product e.g. Herbs. In jamming sugar absorbs liquidRemoval of Air: Modified Atmospheric Packaging (MAP) vacuum packagingAddition of a Preservative: jamming, pickling & saltingAll Bacteria Killed100°C72 for 2 mins or75°CCore temp cooked foods bacteria at a safe level65°C (also hot holding –buffet)Food Additive: a substance added to a food product to improve qualityNATURAL: salt, sugar, spices natural food colouringsARTIFCIAL : made from a range of chemicalsiPreservatives · EmulsifiersColourings · StabiliserFlavourings ·Anti-oxidantsNutritional EnhancersAdditives are tested by Food Standards Agency toensure they are safe. Once tested they are given an ‘ E’ number.Consumers are concerned about long term effects of chemicals and feel they are to blame for hyperactivity, asthma & eczema.This is driving consumers to want organ & natural foods, but these are more expensiveIn the danger zone if bacteria have food, warmth, moisture & time the will multiplyDANGERZONE5°C °C0-5 in a fridge slows down the growth of bacteria-18°C-18 to -26 in a freezer bacteria are dormant
23 Computer Aided Design Manufacture Efficient, time savingHigh quality presentation skills/quality productConsistent product/can be reproduced accuratelyRange of templates can be producedEasy to change designProfessional outputsCAD can simulate prior to making, ensuring no mistakesCost effectiveSaves manufacturer timeLess staffMore reliableAccurate data/measurementsLess human errorEasy to import information from other documentsComputer AidedDesignManufactureQ-Explain how Computer-Aided Design (CAD) could be used during the development of the cake and its packaging.Q-Explain why food manufacturers use Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) to help carry out control checks
24 Quality control checks using computers Types of control checks:• Timing• Temperatures of oven• Metal detection• Weigh of ingredients• Quality Control, e.g. shape, size• Portion control• Microbiological checksOther relevant checksWhy Computers are used: • More accurate than humans in minute measurements • Less staff needed / cost reduction in long term • Humans may be unable to carry out the check • Safety • Speed / quicker / saves time/ reliability • Ability to record results / store results • Automatic, 24 hours a day • Other relevant reasons
25 At what stages can hazards occur? Delivery and storage of raw ingredientspreparationCookingdistributionFood holding
26 QUALITY CONTROL – manufactures guarantee of quality sizeweightfinishequipmentthicknessingredientsPortion size
27 Critical Control Point CCP A control point which is used where something could be dangerousIt will involve keeping the food and the consumer safeThe control will be a time ,temperature, metal, bacteria, chemical checkQuality checkThis is to check that the product is the same every time- weight ,size, shape, cost, ingredients, decorationControl ChecksIdentify any hazards that could happenControl pointA check to prevent a hazardHazardSomething which could hurt someonePreventDo something to stop a problem – ie check sell by dateHigh riskProtein , moist, goes off easily, can be contaminated easilyHygieneBeing cleanSafetyNot coming to harmBacteriaMicrobes which can cause food poisoning – ie salmonellaChilledKept at 0 – 5 c to slow the growth of bacteriaFrozenKept at – c stops bacteria growingCross contaminationWhen bacteria are transferred from one place to another such as chopping raw meat and then cooked meat on the same chopping board
28 Finished cakes ready for distribution Production methodsContinuous flowBatch productionSmall quantities can be madeOne offinexpensiveuniqueRequires few staffHighly skilled craftsmenSame machinery can be used for slightly different productsCan make large quantitiesTime consumingLess chance of contaminationExpensive to set upexpensiveNeed to train staffMachinery needs maintainingExpensive to set upInputIngredientsEquipmentEnergyspecificationIngredients needed for making cakes industriallyGlycerine- adds moistureSalt- adds flavourWater- creates steamPreservatives – makes it last longerEmulsifiers – stops the fat from separatingProcessPreparation of cake batterBatter put in tinsCake tins put on racks in ovenRacks removed and cakes cooledCakes slicedCakes filledAssembledWrapped and storedCake sinksToo much sugarToo cool an oven so centre of cake doesn't riseToo short a cooking timeCrackingBaked in too high a shelf in ovenToo hot an ovenHeavy textureOver stirring of flourEggs and sugar not beaten enoughInsufficient raising agentOutputFinished cakes ready for distribution
29 Labelling 1 Name of the food 2 ‘Use by’ or ‘best before’ dates 3 List of ingredients4 Special storage instructions5 Cooking /prep instructions6 Weight7 Name and address of the manufacturer8 Instructions for useLabellingHow do food manufacturers inform consumers about healthyeating guidelines• Labels on packaging, which may also give dietary advice etc,Use the traffic light system and give nutritional charts• Show portion size recommended on packaging.• Advertisements in magazines / on television• Use of websites• Special claims on packaging• Other relevant points acceptedColour-coded nutritional information, as shownin the image above, tells you at a glance if the foodhas high, medium or low amounts of fat,saturated fat, sugars and salt.red means highamber means mediumgreen means low12734Most of the major supermarkets and many food manufacturers choose to display nutritional information on the front of pre-packaged food and drinks.There are two major schemes for front-of-pack labelling in place: traffic light labelling and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) labels. Some packs may use a combination of the two.8‘Best before’ dates appear mostly on foods that are stored ambient (in a cupboard) Products such as biscuits, crisps, bread will have this date. when the date runs out it doesn't mean that the food will be harmful, but it might begin to lose its flavour and texture e.g. Biscuits may be softer and less crunchy‘Use by’ dates are generally on products that need to be stored in the fridge, to reduce the growth of bacteria, products such as meat and cream. You should not eat these products after the ‘use by’ date as you could become ill.6
30 Carbohydrates TWO TYPES: Uses of starch: Uses of Sugar: SSss Starch found in flour, potatoes, pasta, riceSugar found in fruit, drinks, sweet baked productsUses of starch:Bulk ingredient: main ingredients for many products e.g. cakes, breadThickening Agent: cornflour used to thicken through gelatinisation e.g. sauces & gravyUses of Sugar:Sweetens: improves flavour making sweeterPreserves: In jam, large quantities prevent bacteria from growingAdds colour: sugar caramelises when heated turning golden brownAerates: when beaten with butter or egg helps to trap airStabilises: with meringues it strengthens the foamBulks: gives texture to food like ice-cream & cakesSSssStarch gelatinizes when heated in a liquid, producing a thickened liquidHeat starch granules in liquidStarch granules become swollenStarch granules burstThe liquid thickens and gelatinizesTypes of Sugar:Granulated: general purpose used: sweetens drinksCaster: small crystals used: dissolves better in cakesIcing: Fine instantly dissolves used: for icing sugarDemerara: Large light brown crystals used: top of puddingsMuscovado: Dark brown & sticky used: fruit cakesFaults in Sauces:Too thick= inaccurate weighingLumpy = not continually stirred, extra flour added that wasnot blended in liquid firstPoor colour = flour burnt on bottom of saucepan, metal spoonused to stirBland= not enough flavouring, mild cheese usedArtificial sweeteners can be used to create ‘low calorie’ products also better for teeth and makes product suitable for diabeticsHOWEVER:Can leave bitter after tasteCan lack bulk in recipeReduces shelf lifeModified Starches:This is a starch that has been altered to react differently:Modified starch used to thicken food with boiled watere.g. CupasoupPre-gelatinised starch used to thicken with a cold liquide.g. Angel delight