Presentation on theme: "Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES RESEARCH METHODS –Q-Explain how manufacturers could use the Internet when designing and making a new range of."— Presentation transcript:
Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES RESEARCH METHODS –Q-Explain how manufacturers could use the Internet when designing and making a new range of decorated cakes Interviews Sales figures data E-mail Questionnaires Nutritional information Q.What are the advantages and disadvantages of using computers for data? computer used when researching market trends websites of manufacturers, internet searches, use of cd roms, processing questionnaires – writing, spreadsheets – recording results, quicker analysis of data than humans · on-line questionnaires / survey Disadvantages May be expensive to set up initially / decreasing profits Need to decide on validity of entries on websites or other information used otherwise results are worthless Need to train staff in it use or inaccuracies will result If information is inaccurate it can affect success of future products based on research Lack of human interaction may lead to incorrect results Lack of compatibility between software programs Difficulties/costly if system breaks down, need back up Computer CAD/CAM Less human error / more reliable / quicker Cheaper than employing extra staff to research / in long term Greater accuracy and up to date information Wider range of information available More consistent Easier to carry out analysis of statistics / results Can be carried out when human not present, 24/7 Clearly presented results eg graphs, charts Can make changes easily to update current data Results can be analysed quickly, eg on Excel Easier to import other programs and software
You need to know what a specification is asking for. There are two types of specification. Design specification This will be a general list of bullet points about what your design must have. A lot of the information will come from your research. Specify points such as: Target group Diets Ingredients Nutritional information e.g. high in fibre Texture Cost Product Specification This is a very detailed specification and uses information gathered from research and design ideas you have tested out. You will eventually evaluate your work against the product specification. A product specification will be relevant to just one product. E.g. Meatballs and pasta. Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES
Celebrations Christmas Birthday Anniversary Wedding christening Design specification –possible points Suitable for a special occasion Have a theme Have sensory appeal Have at least two layers Able to be mass produced Include Fair trade ingredients Stored at ambient temperature Include a type of icing or cream Suitable as a healthy eating option Product Specification – this gives exact details The cake is for a birthday It is based on flowers The sponge will be chocolate It will include strawberries It will include butter icing It is a whisked sponge which contains no fat SPECIFICATIONS Q-Write a three-point product specification for your chosen design idea. Dietary needs Low fat Allergies High fibre diabetic
Fillings Jam Fruit Cream Butter icing Decoration Fruit Cream Feather icing Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES Basket weave Swirls and stars Chocolate curls Chocolate leaves Portion control Piping technique Ingredients – Butter Icing 140g butter, softenedbutter 280g icing sugaricing sugar 1-2 tbsp milkmilk few drops food colouringfood colouring
DESIGN DRAWINGS Q-Use notes and sketches to produce two different design ideas for a decorated cake Sketch (neatly and in colour) and annotate each idea, showing how it reflects the specifications. Show possible quality finishes that could be added to your product. 2 layers of chocolate sponge – creamed mixture Crème fraiche piped using a star nozzle Strawberries sliced and arranged in petals Suitable for birthday Light sponge in square shape 7cm x 4cm x 3cm
Which of your design ideas will you choose to develop? Design Idea 1Design Idea 2 Explain how this design idea will Appeal to a range of consumers Be suitable to hold in the hand Be suitable for children Offer sensory appeal, Be suitable for vegetarians. Be suitable for consumers with special dietary needs Have a variety of flavours Make sure you refer back to the specification in the question Q-Healthy option muffins are popular products with consumers. Blueberry muffinsIngredients 200 g plain wholemeal flour ½ tsp bicarbonate of soda 2 tsp baking powder 50 g sweetener 75 g polyunsaturated margarine (melted) 100 ml low fat plain yoghurt 100 ml skimmed milk 1 egg (beaten) 200 g fresh or dried blueberries How are these ingredients suitable for consumers choosing a healthy option product? Be prepared for sub questions to be used to test your understanding of the topic
Ingredients: 50g caster sugar 50g plain flour 2 eggs Eggs and sugar whisked together to trap air (aerate) 1 egg 50g Self raising flour 50g margarine 50g caster sugar Air is trapped by creaming the sugar and fat together(aeration) Sieving flour This give a lighter texture Creamed mixture Whisking - Fatless sponge Rubbing -in (More flour than fat) Air is trapped in the sieving the flour and by lightly (with finger tips) rubbing the fat in to the flour. Raising agents in the flour help the cake to rise Ingredients: 200g plain flour 100g margarine 100g caster sugar 2 eggs 30ml milk 2teaspoons baking powder Melting (High proportion of sugar ingredients) Ingredients: 200g plain flour 1 tsp baking powder 50g brown sugar 100g margarine 150g black treacle 125 ml milk 2 eggs 50g golden syrup Why DECORATED CAKES are popular with consumers Work hours extended so no time to make More occasions being celebrated Easily available – Supermarkets often have a wide range available Lack of practical skills Programmes such as British bake off healthy option products available meet different consumer budgets and needs Fat and sugar ingredients are melted in a saucepan Texture tends to be much heavier than other cakes and wont rise much Bicarbonate of soda can be used to create a lighter texture http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6wpNhyreDE Watch the cookies rise
Hygiene and safety checksStages of makingQuality control checks Personal hygiene Kitchen hygiene Food hygiene Foreign bodies check Storage temperature checks Safety points for workers Clear, logical schedule Specialist terminology techniques Named cooking methods/processes Key times Key temperatures Accurate weighing of ingredients Check sell-by date Consistency Visual checks Size / portion control Shape Finishing techniques used Appearance/accuracy/garnish Feedback from control checks Q-Produce a plan for making your chosen idea in the test kitchen. You may use flow charts, diagrams, notes or sketches in your answer. (Total 10 marks) Answer showing logical plans, clarity of instruction and detail.9-10 Logical planning with a range of different information covered.6-8 Some parts detailed, may not be logical some key areas for successful making omitted.4-5 Simplistic answer giving some relevant planning.1-3
Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES FlourSugarFat/margarineEggs Forms the main structure of cakes When creamed it helps trap air(aeration) Sets in position when baked (coagulation) Has chemicals(baking powder) to make the mixture rise(raising agent) Gives colour and flavour (caramelisation) Extends shelf lifeCan hold air bubbles which act as raising agent Increases bulkSweetens the mixture Q-Name the ingredients that are most suitable for use in each of the products below. Give a detailed reason for your choices. Sugar for use in a whisked sponge cake Type of sugar (1) Reason for choice (2) Q-Complete the table below to show three main ingredients used to make your chosen cake product. Give a different reason for using each ingredient. Ingredient Reason for use 1 2 3 Q- Describe your chosen design idea in more detail in the table below. List the main ingredients needed to make your product. Include the quantity of each ingredient needed. Give a different reason why each ingredient is used. Ingredient Quantity Reason for use Q -Describe how a quality finish could be added to your chosen design idea.
The exam may give you situations for you to develop your cake. Answer the questions Use vegetarian options Use higher fibre flours- will give a denser texture Use natural sweeteners such as dried or fresh fruit Change the type of fat from butter to polyunsaturated margarine Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES MODIFYING PRODUCTS To Suit different occasions Meet a different target market Make it cheaper Make it healthier Meet a dietary need Q-This is from a recipe for fruit slices. Ingredients: 150 g wholemeal flour 100 g white flour 50 g soft brown sugar 125 g polyunsaturated margarine 200 g apricots Describe one way of developing the fruit slice product to improve the flavour. Describe two ways of developing the fruit slice product to improve the texture. Q-Explain how your chosen design idea could be developed for consumers who want to increase their fibre.
Q-Complete the chart below to explain two developments that will help the product meet healthy eating guidelines. Development ideas for increasing the fibre (NSP) content of a sandwich cake Development 1................................................. Reason................................................. Development 2................................................. Reason................................................. Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES Q-Analyse your design idea and suggest ways in which it can be adapted to meet the needs of consumers who need to follow a special diet due to food intolerances or allergies.
What is a standard component? A Standard Component is a pre-prepared item/ingredient that is used in the production of another product. They are made at a different time, and often at a different place by another company. You must be able to: Understand and define the term ‘Standard Component’ Understand why standard components are used in food production To identify the advantaged and disadvantages of using a standard component. Q- Standard components are often used in the production of cakes What is meant by a standard component? Give three reasons why manufacturers may decide not to use standard components. 1 2 3 Q-Standard components may be used to save time in food production. Describe two other advantages of using standard components. Advantage 1. Advantage 2.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/techniques/greasing_and_lining Why line a cake tin? More consistent appearance Better shape Comes from the tin easily Equipment Q-Explain how the following equipment is used to produce a consistent product. Accuracy Same size each time Same shape every time Same standard of blending Reduced human error CAM-computer aided making Set time, speed,temperature,weight
Q-Describe two different control checks used to make sure your biscuits are of good quality. 1 2 Q-What are the causes of the following problems during the production of muffins? ProblemCause A piece of metal is found in a cooked muffin. Lack of personal hygiene by workers – no jewellery, hair pins Quality checks have not taken place Metal from packaging not checked Machinery faulty/Poor maintenance of machines Faulty metal detector Fruit pieces in a cooked muffin have a dry texture. Stale fruit used Insufficient liquid Muffin cooked too long Too high a temperature used. Excess fruit used on topping Poor quality control Cooked muffins are an uneven size.Poor portion control Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES
Modified Starch Modified starch is classified as a smart food and is used by manufacturers in a variety of products. It is a starch that has been altered to perform additional functions. In pizza toppings – topping thickens when heated in the oven and will not run off the pizza. Pre-gelatinised starch is used to thicken instant desserts without heat. Cold liquid such as milk can be added and the dessert will thicken. Sauce/gravy granules – boiling water can be added to thicken without the sauce going lumpy. Modified starches are used to thicken low calorie salad dressings, as they are not affected by the acidity. Modified starch is used as a fat replacer in low-fat meals. Modified starches allow sauces to be reheated with no sineresis. * This is useful in dishes that are cooked from frozen e.g. lasagne. The noodles in ‘pot snacks’ are pre-gelatinised; so boiled water will reheat and ‘cook’ them. Modified starch is used in ‘cup-a-soups’ to improve mouth-feel, thicken the drink/soup when the boiled water is added, and blend uniformly without lumps.
Methods of Sensory Testing Sensory analysis is used at several stages during product development Sensory analysis is used at several stages during product development Companies can compare a competitor’s product Companies can compare a competitor’s product Improve products by modifying or changing the ingredients Improve products by modifying or changing the ingredients Check that the specification is being met Check that the specification is being met Monitor quality control by checking regular samples against specification Monitor quality control by checking regular samples against specification Detect differences between products from different runs or batches Detect differences between products from different runs or batches Profile the characteristics of new products Profile the characteristics of new products Describe specific characteristics Describe specific characteristics Demonstrate new products to marketing team Demonstrate new products to marketing team Promote new or reformulated products to consumers Promote new or reformulated products to consumers Sensory analysis is carried out in controlled conditions Sensory analysis is used in industry and discovers details on: Flavour and taste Flavour and taste Texture Texture Appearance – Colour, shape, size Appearance – Colour, shape, size Smell/Aroma Smell/Aroma Sounds Sounds Sensory Testing in Manufacture Hedonic tests – Test sample and grade 1=Dislike very much, 5=Like very much. Samples analysed for lowest/highest score. Scoring tests = RATING TEST– Samples are scored on a scale between like and dislike Ranking – Decide on attribute to be ranked eg Crunchiness, allow people to evaluate samples and place them in rank order Ranking test A variety of strawberry yoghurts. Please taste the samples and put them in the order you like the best Sample code Order Comments Rating Score Tick 1 2 3 Sample Sample Sample Fair testing · sensory testing labelling of samples – symbols or random numbers How results are to be recorded - Clear instructions to tasters Cleansing palate between samples - water Containers all the same Blue or orange lighting Product Profile - STAR PROFILE DIAGRAM Allows food products to be evaluated using a range of attributes Evaluate differences in similar products Evaluate differences in similar products Gauge consumer response Gauge consumer response Analyse specific attributes Analyse specific attributes Check a product meets its specification Check a product meets its specification Compare similarities in a range of products Compare similarities in a range of products Show opportunities for product development Show opportunities for product development Useful when using with children
Why do we package food? Protects from physical damage Contains the food product Prevents contamination Preserves the product Attracts customers to buy it Easy to transport Easier to store Informs the customer about the product Paperboard Easy to fold and cut Easy to print on Recyclable Can be waxed to make it waterproof Can be stacked Glass Can be recycled Transparent to see the contents Heat resistant Aluminium foil Easy to mould Easy to shape Heat resistant Comes in different thicknesses Strong Easy to stack Plastic Transparent Doesn’t break Can be moulded into different shapes Lightweight Cheap to produce Easy to stack Can be heated Environmentally friendly packaging causes less damage to the environment. There are three types: Reusable packaging can be cleaned and re-used. For example, glass milk bottles are reused. Recyclable packaging is made of materials that can be used again, usually after processing. Recyclable materials include glass, metal, card and paper. Biodegradable packaging will easily break down in the soil or the atmosphere. Recyclable packaging should carry standard symbols that show what the product is made from and how it can be recycled Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Fair trade Is an organized social movement and market- based approach that aims to help producers in developing countries earn a liveable wage. Allowing farmers to educate their children and improve their standard of living. Organic Organic foods are made according to certain production standards. The use of conventional non-organic pesticides, insecticides and herbicides is greatly restricted and avoided as a last resort. However, contrary to popular belief, certain non- organic fertilisers are still used. If livestock are involved, they must be reared without the routine use of antibiotics and without the use of growth hormones, and generally fed a healthy diet. In most countries, organic produce may not be genetically modified.pesticidesgrowth hormones genetically modified Farm Assured Animals must have been looked after to a certain standard of welfare & safety, must be British, standards set by Government Food Miles People are concerned about the environment, food miles is about the amount of C02 that is produced in the delivery of products e.g strawberries from Spain, buying locally grown means there are less food miles You need to know advantages & disadvantages
What is a hazard? In food products, a hazard is anything that can harm a customer. A hazard may be: PhysicalChemicalBiological Hair Metal Dirt Pesticides Cleaning products Insecticides Bacteria Mould High risk foods Cooked meats and poultry Cooked meat products – stews, soups made with meat stock Milk & eggs, mayonnaise, mousses Shellfish & sea food Cross contamination Where bacteria are accidentally transferred BacteriaSymptomsFound in SalmonellaStomach pains, diarrhoea, vomiting Meat,poultry, raw eggs Campylobacter Diarrhoea, feeling sick, fever Milk, untreated water E.coliStomach pain, vomiting Raw meat,milk Listeria Like fluSoft cheeses,pate cook chill meals Handling High Risk Foods Avoid touching by hand – prevent cross contamination Keep raw and high risk foods apart Cover food during storage Keep food out of the ‘danger zone’ What conditions do bacteria need to grow? Too – time Many –moisture Flies - food Waiting- warmth What is a critical control point? A control point is the step in the making process where hazards must be controlled. This step has to be carried out correctly to make sure that the hazard is removed or reduced to a safe level. The hazard may be chemical, physical or biological. Some hazards are high risk and the control points for these hazards are called critical control points as it is critical (essential) that the hazard is removed or reduced.
PERSONAL hygiene Blue Plasters KITCHEN hygiene and safety 0 – 5 0 C 65 – 72 0 C No jewellery Apron and protective clothing Hair clean and tied back Not suffering from sickness Hands washed, short nails, no nail varnish
5°C 0°C - 18°C 65°C (also hot holding –buffet) 72 for 2 mins or75°C DANGER ZONE Bacteria Key Temperatures 100° C Core temp cooked foods bacteria at a safe level In the danger zone if bacteria have food, warmth, moisture & time the will multiply 0-5 in a fridge slows down the growth of bacteria -18 to -26 in a freezer bacteria are dormant All Bacteria Killed Temperature helps to extend the shelf life of a product OTHER WAYS TO PERSERVE Remove liquid: drying a product e.g. Herbs. In jamming sugar absorbs liquid Removal of Air: Modified Atmospheric Packaging (MAP) vacuum packaging Addition of a Preservative: jamming, pickling & salting Food Additive: a substance added to a food product to improve quality NATURAL: salt, sugar, spices natural food colourings ARTIFCIAL : made from a range of chemicalsi Preservatives · Emulsifiers Colourings · Stabiliser Flavourings · Anti-oxidants Nutritional Enhancers Additives are tested by Food Standards Agency to ensure they are safe. Once tested they are given an ‘ E’ number. Consumers are concerned about long term effects of chemicals and feel they are to blame for hyperactivity, asthma & eczema. This is driving consumers to want organ & natural foods, but these are more expensive
Q-Explain how Computer-Aided Design (CAD) could be used during the development of the cake and its packaging. Q-Explain why food manufacturers use Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) to help carry out control checks Efficient, time saving High quality presentation skills/quality product Consistent product/can be reproduced accurately Range of templates can be produced Easy to change design Professional outputs CAD can simulate prior to making, ensuring no mistakes Cost effective Saves manufacturer time Less staff More reliable Accurate data/measurements Less human error Easy to import information from other documents Computer Aided Design Computer Aided Manufacture
Quality control checks using computers Types of control checks: Timing Temperatures of oven Metal detection Weigh of ingredients Quality Control, e.g. shape, size Portion control Microbiological checks Other relevant checks Why Computers are used: More accurate than humans in minute measurements Less staff needed / cost reduction in long term Humans may be unable to carry out the check Safety Speed / quicker / saves time/ reliability Ability to record results / store results Automatic, 24 hours a day Other relevant reasons
At what stages can hazards occur? preparation Cooking Delivery and storage of raw ingredients Food holding distribution
QUALITY CONTROL – manufactures guarantee of quality weight equipment size finish Portion size thicknessingredients
Critical Control Point CCP A control point which is used where something could be dangerous It will involve keeping the food and the consumer safe The control will be a time,temperature, metal, bacteria, chemical check Quality check This is to check that the product is the same every time- weight,size, shape, cost, ingredients, decoration Control Checks Identify any hazards that could happen Control point A check to prevent a hazard Hazard Something which could hurt someone Prevent Do something to stop a problem – ie check sell by date High risk Protein, moist, goes off easily, can be contaminated easily Hygiene Being clean Safety Not coming to harm Bacteria Microbes which can cause food poisoning – ie salmonella Chilled Kept at 0 – 5 c to slow the growth of bacteria Frozen Kept at – 18 - -26c stops bacteria growing Cross contaminationWhen bacteria are transferred from one place to another such as chopping raw meat and then cooked meat on the same chopping board
Production methods One off unique Time consuming expensive Highly skilled craftsmen Batch production Small quantities can be made Expensive to set up Same machinery can be used for slightly different products Need to train staff Continuous flow inexpensive Requires few staff Can make large quantities Less chance of contamination Machinery needs maintaining Expensive to set up Input Ingredients Equipment Energy specification Process Preparation of cake batter Batter put in tins Cake tins put on racks in oven Racks removed and cakes cooled Cakes sliced Cakes filled Assembled Wrapped and stored Output Finished cakes ready for distribution Ingredients needed for making cakes industrially Glycerine- adds moisture Salt- adds flavour Water- creates steam Preservatives – makes it last longer Emulsifiers – stops the fat from separating Cake sinks Too much sugar Too cool an oven so centre of cake doesn't rise Too short a cooking time CrackingBaked in too high a shelf in oven Too hot an oven Heavy texture Over stirring of flour Eggs and sugar not beaten enough Insufficient raising agent
1 Name of the food 2 ‘Use by’ or ‘best before’ dates 3 List of ingredients 4 Special storage instructions 5 Cooking /prep instructions 6 Weight 7 Name and address of the manufacturer 8 Instructions for use How do food manufacturers inform consumers about healthy eating guidelines Labels on packaging, which may also give dietary advice etc, Use the traffic light system and give nutritional charts Show portion size recommended on packaging. Advertisements in magazines / on television Use of websites Special claims on packaging Other relevant points accepted Most of the major supermarkets and many food manufacturers choose to display nutritional information on the front of pre-packaged food and drinks. There are two major schemes for front-of-pack labelling in place: traffic light labelling and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) labels. Some packs may use a combination of the two. 1 2 3 4 7 6 8 ‘ Best before’ dates appear mostly on foods that are stored ambient (in a cupboard) Products such as biscuits, crisps, bread will have this date. when the date runs out it doesn't mean that the food will be harmful, but it might begin to lose its flavour and texture e.g. Biscuits may be softer and less crunchy ‘Use by’ dates are generally on products that need to be stored in the fridge, to reduce the growth of bacteria, products such as meat and cream. You should not eat these products after the ‘use by’ date as you could become ill. Labelling Colour-coded nutritional information, as shown in the image above, tells you at a glance if the food has high, medium or low amounts of fat, saturated fat, sugars and salt. red means high amber means medium green means low
Carbohydrates TWO TYPES: Starch found in flour, potatoes, pasta, rice Sugar found in fruit, drinks, sweet baked products Uses of starch: Bulk ingredient: main ingredients for many products e.g. cakes, bread Thickening Agent: cornflour used to thicken through gelatinisation e.g. sauces & gravy SSss Heat starch granules in liquid Starch granules become swollen Starch granules burst The liquid thickens and gelatinizes Starch gelatinizes when heated in a liquid, producing a thickened liquid Modified Starches: This is a starch that has been altered to react differently: Modified starch used to thicken food with boiled water e.g. Cupasoup Pre-gelatinised starch used to thicken with a cold liquid e.g. Angel delight Uses of Sugar: Sweetens: improves flavour making sweeter Preserves: In jam, large quantities prevent bacteria from growing Adds colour: sugar caramelises when heated turning golden brown Aerates: when beaten with butter or egg helps to trap air Stabilises: with meringues it strengthens the foam Bulks: gives texture to food like ice-cream & cakes Types of Sugar: Granulated: general purpose used: sweetens drinks Caster: small crystals used: dissolves better in cakes Icing: Fine instantly dissolves used: for icing sugar Demerara: Large light brown crystals used: top of puddings Muscovado: Dark brown & sticky used: fruit cakes Artificial sweeteners can be used to create ‘low calorie’ products also better for teeth and makes product suitable for diabetics HOWEVER: Can leave bitter after taste Can lack bulk in recipe Reduces shelf life Faults in Sauces: Too thick= inaccurate weighing Lumpy = not continually stirred, extra flour added that was not blended in liquid first Poor colour = flour burnt on bottom of saucepan, metal spoon used to stir Bland= not enough flavouring, mild cheese used